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the fallacious test of averages, the duties and virulence was not directed against the actually received in these eightecn weeks are Government—its neglect of, and even its nearly a fourth part of the duties received coutempt for, the comforts and happiness in the whole of the last fourteen years. So of the people? In the recent disturb. that we are,

for the present at least, enjoy- ances we have hardly traced a word or a ing the three greatest advantages that any thought of this tendency. In vain did the state of the corn-market can produce, real instigators of the mischief endeavour advantages hitherto supposed to be incom- to give it a political and seditious characpatible, namely,

ter--in vain did the Chartists brawl for the 1. A great supply of food for the people, rights of man, and the Anti-Corn-Law without

League preach a cheap-bread crusade 2.—any serious injury to the farmer; and against property: the masses, retaimug, 3 — with a vast addition to the revenue. even in their excitement, a degree of saga

These results are for so short a period city and good sense that is really very surand so unexpectedly favourable to our prising, rejected all such provocations, and view, that we do not venture to rely upon confined their irregularities to the siugle their continuance in the same satisfactory point on which they had originally turned degree, but they are very encouraging, and out, the amount of wages. We deeply they at least negative some of the sinister regret that these poor people should have anticipations which the enemies of the new been driven or deluded into those violent corn-law foreboded.

and criminal excesses, of which the most We do not pretend to say that times and serious portion of the injury must fall upon circumstances may not hereafter affect it, themselves; but we must repeat our satisas they have done its predecessors ; but we faction at such unexampled forbearance do

say that it seems io offer the best com- from political offences, which we can atıribination and adjustment of all interests that bute to nothing but the force of public our position admits, and the fairest promise opinion created by the previously anof permanent protection to the farmer, and nounced measures of the Government-permanent plenty to the people :-we in measures that, hy a combination of foresist on the expression permanent in both sight and good fortune, ,were--may we cases—for we are convinced that exorbi. venture to say ?-providentially calculated tant protection would soon be swept away, to meet the emergency. Sir Robert Peel leaving the farmer to hopeless ruin, while had stated in a few plain but potent words the abolition of all protection would give the principle of his policy :- I will tax the people a temporary glut, to be griev- the rich, and spare the poor-I will enously expiated by early and frequent vicis. deavour to cheapen the price of food to the situdes of scarcity and starvation.

whole population, and to assist especially Concurring, as we did, from their first the working classes by placing more plenannouncement, in the general and, we tifully within their reach the materials of might say, abstract policy of Sir Robert industry, and, of course, the sources of Peel's measures, we confess that recent comfort and content.' We are as thoroughly events have stamped them with a character convinced as we can be of any moral proof more immediate and practical utility blem that these disturbances were created than we had anticipated. The-extensive by those on whose own heads the explosion insurrections which have recently taken will ultimately recoil-the anti-corn-law place in the manufacturing districts, so leaguers; and that the deep-laid schemes alarming in their aspect, but hitherto so of these greedy incendiaries bave been easily repressed-can any one venture to hitherto defeated solely by the common say to what more lamentable extent and sense of the people themselves, awakened excesses they might have suddenly pro- by their knowledge of and their confidence ceeded if the sympathising and paternal in the wise and benevolent policy of their feelings of the Government towards the Government. manufacturing classes had not been ex We know not how long these salutary impressed so early in the session in those pressions may last. We are well aware powerful addresses of Sir Robert Peel-ihat such scenos as have afflicted the North not more powerful- not perhaps so power- must entail on the working classes addiful-in ivfluencing the legislature, as in tional misery and consequent liability to conciliating the feelings, encouraging the further disturbance. The sacrifices that hopes, and fortifying the patience of a these misguided people have been comdeeply distressed working population ? pelled to make, the dissipation of their litWas there ever before a popular commotion ile funds from the Savings Banks, and the in England, of which the chief violence permanent ill feeling and struggle now

established between them and their em- | Court of Chancery. These bills were all ployers, will all tend to keep alive social passed, not without some, though noiseless, discontent and to create political disaffec. difficulty from individual interests; and tion; and we confess we look forward we believe they will be found very valuable. with no inconsiderable alarm to the further The County Courts Bill was reluctantly consequences of these anti-corn intrigues. postponed to another session. We do not We have, we fear, only scotched the snake, greatly regret it. The bill is certainly of not killed it: we expect that great uneasi- great importance, and something of the ness will survive, and cannot but fear the kind is much needed; but much difference possibility of a long and gloomy crisis of as to its details existed even amongst the distress and disquiet; but, for the present, friends of the measure, and we believe that we have only to repeat our belief that the the delay may be turned to good account. measures of the Government have mainly But the most important legal measure of conduced to diminish, though they could the session was undoubtedly the Cessio not wholly avert, a serious and imminent Bonorum bill introduced by Lord Brougham, danger.

and passed, with the assistance of the ChanWe cannot doubt that the great Conser- cellor and the Duke of Wellington in the vative party will see in this remarkable Lords, and the support of the Solicitorcircumstance additional grounds of confi. General and the Ministry in the House of dence in their leaders, and of self-gratulation Commons. This bill abolishes virtually the on the prudence and the patriotism with practice of imprisonment for debt,—a serious which they resisted every effort, insidious experiment, we admit, but one which in or avowed, to disunite them. There were the present state both of the law and of many matters on which an honest difference public opinion we think it is both safe and of opinion must have existed, and may expedient to try. even still survive ; but we think we may We should also have wished to have noassert that experience, short as it has been, ticed Lord Palmerston's clever—but rather has gone far towards removing the most unlucky-speech at the close of the sesserious doubts that were originally enter- sion, and Sir Robert Peel's still more clever tained of the policy of the ministerial and overwhelming reply; and we should measures, and that some gentlemen, who have been particularly glad to have made may have given a hesitating assent to this some observations on the improved aspect or ibat individual detail, are now satisfied of our foreigu relations. But this is beyond that their confidence was not misplaced, our present scope. Upon the wholeand that the well-regulated vigour and con- whether we look abroad or at home—to ciliatory energy of the Goverument have diplomatic or financial affairs--to public probably saved us from an awful convul. credit or public opinion—to social ameliorasion. It cannot, at least, be doubted that tions or legal reforms—it cannot be denied they_have already alleviated the pressure that the present Cabinet has, under all its of distress, and have opened a prospect of disadvantages, done more of real and usepeace abroad and prosperity at home, in ful business in one session than its bewilwhich at the beginning of the late session dered predecessors had even attempted in the most sanguine amongst us hardly ven- the six or seven years of their paralysed tured to indulge.

existence which they drawled and dragged We had intended to have added to this review of Sir Robert Peel's financial and economical policy an exposition of various Letting I dare not wait upon I would administrative and legal improvements in

Like the poor cat in the adage ! troduced by the members or friends of his administration, and which, though some The country was wearied and ashamed of have been postponed, and some rendered snch a contemptible phantom of a ministry less perfect, have exhibited a striking con. -and, whatever question there may be ag trast to the poco curante and far niente to this or that measure of the present Cabiapathy of his predecessors. We should net, there is a universal satisfaction throughhave particularly wished to notice some out the country-and we believe throughmeasures of legal reform—the best and out the friendly nations of Europe-that most necessary of all reform-introduced by England, after a long and disgraceful inLord Lyndhurst, for expediting and cheap- terregnum, has at last an administration ening proceedings in Lunacy, in Bank- that can do its business, and a Government ruptcy, and in the general practice of the I that ventures to govern.

out

INDEX TO VOL. LXX.

A.

C.
ÆschylUS, 173. See Orestea.

Calderwood, Mrs., of the Coltness family-journa
Agricultural Association, the, 288.

of her tour in England and Flanders in 1756,
Alison, Mr., rashness of his opinions upon military 205; progress from Edinburgh to London, 205-

matters, 256 ; character of his account of the 208; George III. when Prince of Wales, 208;
Belgian campaign of 1815, ib. ; inaccuracies, her descriptions of places of public resort in Lon-
257-259; his charge against the Duke of Welling don, 208, 209; opinions on English cuisine, 209;
ton of having been surprised, 259; reasons for Rotterdam, ib.
the allies not taking the initiative, 261, 262 ; Cessio Bonorum Act, 291.
Mr. Alison's theory of a surprise, founded on Charlotte, Queen, 154. See D'Arblay.
Fouché's testimony, 262, 263.

Chouan war, the, 43. See Rio.
Animal Chemistry, 54. See Liebig.

Clausewitz, General, review of the Belgian cam-
Arch, the, in the ancient Grecian buildings, 77. paign of 1815, 264.
Ashley, Lord, speech in the House of Commons on Clock, electro-magnetic, of Professor Wheatstone,

moving for leave to bring in a Bill for the regu 31.
lation of young persons in Mines and Collieries, Coffee, its active principle the same as that of tea,
87 ; character of the speech, 107; extract, ib.

67.
Athens, effect of the introduction of modern build Colliers and Collieries, 87; general ignorance as
ings among the ancient structures, 79.

to their state, ib.; measures to be adopted for

their amelioration, 87, 88; appearance of the
B.

country when a new colliery is established, 88;

entrance to mines, 88, 89; temperature and ac-
Bateman, James, the orchidaceæ of Mexico and commodations, 89; coal-viewers, under-viewers,
Guatemala, 108.

over-men, 90; trappers, ib. ; drivers, putters, 91;
Bauer, F., illustrations of the genera and species of hewers, ib. ; earnings of miners, 92; collier
orchidaceous plants, 108.

villages, ib. ; general characteristics of colliers,
Berberries, the best underwood covert for game, 92, 93; amusements, 93; food, 93, 94; clothing
127.

and external appearance, 94; mental acquire-
Bile, the, 62. See Liebig.

ments, 94, 95; physical effects of the employ-
Blood, the, action and functions of, 57, 58. See ment, 96 ; apprentices, 96, 97; employment of
Liebig.

women, 97-99; women or children not employed
Blücher, Marshall, 244. See Raushnick.

in Irish mines, 99; reasons advanced for letting
Bowes, Major General, his monument described, young children descend into the mines, ib. ; con-
242.

stant dangers to which colliers are exposed, 100;
Bread, relative prices of, in London and Paris, 287. explosions, 100, 101; recklessness of persons
Breton Students, the, 40. See Rio.

employed in mining operations, 101; irruption of
Buccleugh, Duke of, reformations in his collieries, a river into a mine, 101, 102; danger of accidents
98.

in descending and ascending, 102; evils (in re-
Buonaparte, Napoleon, cause of his name being ference to fatal accidents in mines) of the want

handed down to posterity, 245; at Waterloo, 254, of coroners in Scotland to investigate the causes
255; refutation of the assertion that he had out of sudden deaths, 103; general effect of mining
manæuvred the Duke of Wellington, 259, 260; labour on the human frame, 104; good that may
his position and strength at the opening of the be done by proprietors who seriously turn their
campaign of 1815, 260.

thoughts to the condition of their miners, 105 ;
Burney, Miss, 134. See D'Arblay.

colliers and miners that have subsequently risen
Byron's · Don Juan,' 215.

to fame in other spheres of life, 106.

Coltness Collections, the, 195; progress of dubs in cording the progress of arts, ib. ; terrestrial phy-

England and Scotland for printing historical and sics, 32; names of contributors in natural his-
other records, 195, 196; contents of the Coltness tory and its connecting branches, 32, 33; in bo-
collections, 196; genealogy of the Coltness fami tany, geology, mineralogy, agriculture, horti-
ly, 196, 197; history of the founder of the house, culture, physical geography, and meteorology,33;
197; of his eldest son, 201; sketches of two of on the philosophy of the mind, 33, 34; on chi-
the younger branches of that generation, 203; of valry, drama, romance, beauty, music, painting,
the political economist, and of the late General poetry, rhetoric, hieroglyphics, 34; history and
Sir James Stuart, 204; journal of a tour in Eng. biography, ib. ; on political economy, 36; ana-
land and Flanders, by a female member of the tomy, physiology, and medicine, ib.; theology,
family, 205; extracts, 205-210.

37; difficulties in the editing and production of
Combinations of workmen, causes of their rare oc the work, 38, 39; its maps, engravings, and
currence in France, 19.

woodcuts, 39.
Commissioners for inquiring into the condition of Evergreens, exportation of, from England to foreign

children employed in mines &c., Report of, 87. countries, 130.

See Colliers.
Copper-ore, effects of the high protective duties

F.
upon it, 282, 283.

Flower-garden, the, 108; royal personages, philoso-
Coroners, effects of the want of them in Scotland,

phers, poets, and men of taste, who have made
103.
Corn, 283. See Peel.

gardening a favourite pursuit—the love of flow.
Crabbe's Works described, 215.

ers traceable from remote antiquity, 108, 109;

the Italian style of garden, 110; the French,
Crime, causes of its less frequent occurrence in the

110, 111; gardens of Versailles, 111; the Eng.
country than in towns, 19.

lish, or natural style, 111, 112; Dutch, 112;

English gardeners of the eighteenth century,
D.

112, 113, Price's threefold division of the do-
Daguerreotype, the, 30.

- main, 114; progress of horticulture in the pres-
D'Arblay, Madame (formerly Miss Burney), Diary ent century, 114, 115; division of labour in the

and Letters of, 134; nature of the book, and real horticultural and floricultural worlds, 115; no-
object in introducing the names which appear in menclature, 115, 116; orchidaceæ, 117; ferns,
it, 134, 135; extravagant egotism in all its pages, 118; plants in closely-glazed cases brought from
135; character of the elaborate dialogues intro the East Indies to England, and vice versa, ib.;
duced, 135, 136; specimens, 136-138; Miss Bur curiosities of gardening, 119, 120; of garden or-
ney's assumed modesty and humility, 138; decep naments, 120; gardening taste at the present
tions as to her age and the circumstances under day, 123; leading features in a perfect garden,
which she wrote. Evelina,' 139, 140; consequenc 126 ; peonies, hollyhocks, ib.; berberries, 127;
es of these deceptions, 140; pomp and prolixity the herb-garden, 128; mazes, ib.; bowling-
with which the most trilling circumstances are greens-iron-tracery work, ib.; Evelyn's hedge
narrated, 141; appointed second keeper of the at Deptford, 129; associations connected with
robes to Queen Charlotte, 143; amount of her gardening, 129, 130; no country so suited for the
literary knowledge, 144 ; début as a reader to pleasures of the garden as England, 130; export-
the Queen, 144, 145; consequences of her strug ation of evergreens to foreign markets, ib.;
gles between her place and her pride, 145; nature characteristics of native British plants, 131 ; of
of her duties, 145, 146; her grand grievance, the English cottages, ib.; consolations of gardening,
dinner and tea-table, 146, 147; impropriety of con 132.
duct to the equerries, 147, 148; the adventure of the Fossil Fuel, History of, 87 ; extract from, 106, 107.
coach-glass, 148; the adventure with the French Fregier, H. A., • Des Classes dangereuses de la
reader to the Queen, 149-151; pleasing portions Population dans les Grandes Villes, et des Moy-
of the work, 152; instances of ihe Queen's kind ens de les rendre meilleures,' 1 ; character of
ness, ib. ; her Majesty's good sense and judgment, the work, ib.; its great principle, 2; number of
153; private conduct of the Royal Family, 153, operatives in Paris, according to M. Fregier's
154; her Majesty's understanding, 154; her do calculation, ib.; proportions of all classes ad-
mestic character, ib. ; character of George III., dicted to idleness and intemperance, 3; divisions
154, 155; his Majesty's good nature, 155; de of the dangerous classes, 3, 4; characters of the
meanour when Margaret Nicholson attempted to Parisian operatives, 4; importance of the influ-
assassinate him, 155, 156 ; the King at Oxford ence of masters and parents upon the female op-
shortly after this event, 156, 157; making an of eratives, 5; divisions of the latter class, 6; the
fering as Sovereign of the Garter, 157.

chiffonniers, 6, 7; copying-clerks, 7, 8; conse-

quences to the students of the facilities to vice,
E.

8, 9; the shopmen, 9; quarter of the city,' 9,

10; gamblers, 10; divisions of prostitution, ib.;
Elections, general, in England, described, 212. inscription, 11; clandestine prostitution, 12, 13;
Electricity, voltaic, its recent contributions to the means adopted by the 'femmes de maison' to ob-
fine and useful arts, 30, 31.

tain recruits, 13; questionable benefit resulting
• Encyclopædia Britannica,' seventh edition, 25; from legalization, 14; vagabonds, 15; smugglers,

history of encyclopædias, ib. ; the two methods 15, 16; le vol à l'Américaine, 15, 16; shop-
of constructing them, 25, 26; first and second lifters, 16; bonjouriers, 16, 17; voleurs au bon-
editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica,' 26 ; jour-chevaliers grimpans, 17; warfare between
the third, ib. ; fourth, fifth, and sixth, 27; objects the police and pick pockets, ib. ; 'exploiter les
proposed in issuing the seventh, ib.; preliminary positions sociales,'17, 18; the London and Paris
dissertations by Dugald Stewart, Playfair, Mack-
intosh, and Leslie, ib.; causes of the prominence

scoundrel compared, 18; preservatives from vice,
of mathematical and physical articles in all ency-

18, 19; influence of the press, 19; state of reli-

gion in France, 20; education, ib. ; residences of
clopædias, 29; names of contributors in these
branches, 30; value of an encyclopædia in re-

the poor-illicit cohabitation in Paris, 21: erils
of the present state of the French drama, 22;

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