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since the days of Hesiod,* and the want of is the want, or rather the partial distribucattle to work the ground—in other words, tion, of water. The catabothra, or emissaof capital. Mr. Gropius, the Austrian ries, among the most curious and gigantic Consul, once said to Mr. Strong, that if the works of ancient Greece, and to which Bavarian government would send into some attention was paid by the Turks, are Greece a couple of thousand of oxen, it now completely choked up, and vast plains would benefit the country more than twice of the most fertile land are become stagas many bayonets. Greece,' says Mr. nant marshes, or the beds of shallow lakes. Strong, could easily find room for five If land should rise in demand, the gove nmillions of inhabitants, and furnish food ment, by a wise, even if costly, expendifor them all.' Mr. Strong, indeed, looks ture, on the cleansing out and restoring forward to fill up this want of cultivators these vast drains, would no doubt amply in proportion to the productive capabilities repay themselves in the end for such an of the country, not merely by the regular outlay. We quote Mr. Strong's observaincrease of the native Greek population, tions on this emissary of the Lake Copais, but by extensive immigration.
as well on its own account, as for the pas
sage which follows relating to the general • The tide of emigration, from the over-peopled change in the watercourses of the country states of Northern Europe, has for many years since the flourishing days of Greece. flowed towards America ; latterly, it has taken a turn in the direction of Australia, but, by and
• That Lake Copaïs might be drained, there by, it may alter its course, and set in towards the shores of Greece, which offers many induce would be to furnish the pecuniary means.
can be no reasonable doubt; the only difficulty ments to colonists. In the first place, the fine- Crates of Chalcis, an eminent hydraulic engineer ness and salubrity of its climate render a house in the time of Alexander the Great, perforated almost superfluous for nine months of the year, and the settlers, on their arrival in the spring, sufficient size to admit of the passage of the
an artificial channel through the mountains, of might, without any hardship, live in tents till they had finished their agricultural la- which were thus carried off into the sea, the
waters, though increased by the winter rains, bours for the season, and then be able to mouth of this artificial channel being opposite construct their habitations, for which there the island of Eubea. The length of the conduit is abundance of materials, before the commencement of the periodical rains. Secondly, they it in case of its becoming obstructed, upwards of
was about an English mile; and in order to clean would not have to encounter such difficulties as meet them in North America, of clearing the tions from the surface of the mountain through
forty vertical shafts were sunk at different staground by incalculable labour, felling tree by which it passed, so as to permit of easy access tree, and then digging out the roots; but on the first day of their arrival in Greece, by setting
to the part where the stoppage existed. fire to the shrubs and bushes, they could clear choked up, but the vertical shafts sti
• This magnificent work is now completely
exist and as much land as they require, and commence the whole might be cleared out, and thus drain ploughing the next morning. The only beasts the extensive plain of Copais. The inundations of prey they would find would be the harmless are very gradual. The water begins to rise in jackals, which, at the utmost, might make a the winter, after the fall of the first rains, not midnight attempt on their poultry. Lastly, with the boisterous impetuosity of an Alpine they would find every facility afforded them by mountain torrent, tearing up trees and destroythe government. All religions are freely tolerated;t and foreign colonists, coming to Greece ing houses, but so gently as to be almost imperwith the intention of purchasing land and esta- which is annually submerged, appears again
ceptible; and an ancient Hellenic causeway, blishing themselves in the kingdom, enjoy the privilege of importing free of duty, &c. &c. &c. periodically without any visible damage or al
teration, though one half the year under water. Strong, p. 164
But the clearing out of the subterraneous wa
er-courses though the most efficacious and radical, (Here follows a schedule.)
are not the only means to be adopted; for as the A third great impediment, however, to water which covers the greatest part of the the more successful cultivation of Greece country is only about a couple of feet deep, a
solid wall of not more than three feet in height * We may here refer to the new Dictionary of would protect many thousands of acres from Antiquities' already noticed, for a series of articles inundation, the waters of which are now only on the agricultural operations and implements of the carried off and exhaled in the summer, when it Greeks and Romans, executed with remarkable is too late to cultivate the land. care, and illustrated by most curious engravings. There is no doubt that in Greece the appear
+ The Greek Church has declared itself independance of the country has changed most materially ent of the Patriarch of Constantinople. The old during the last twenty or thirty centuries; and love of controversy has already revived : we have though the positions of mountains and rivers reseen several theological publications, of small com
main the same, even their aspect must have pass indeed, printed at Athens in ancient Greek, on the whole not discreditable in style: one on the undergone a complete change. "Herodotus says question of Mixed Marriages,' which has already that the Athenians hunted bears in the forests begun to agitate the community.
on Mount Lycabettus, where now there is
scarcely a shrub to be found a foot high. From navy, and church establishment of Greece other writers we know that Hymettus, Pen- we must content ourselves with a general telicon, and Parnassus were covered with forests reference to Mr. Strong's book-not withto their summits. They now present the ap- out rendering our thanks for the informapearance of skeletons of mountains, bare rocks
tion afforded us. without any vegatation, or only producing a few stunted trees, whose roots seek in vain for When, indeed, we throw off the archæonourishment among the soilless crevices. The logist—when we consider Greece, not trees which formerly covered these mountains merely as a sacred treasure-house of the having died away by degrees, the soil kept to- monuments and of the lofty reminiscences gether by their roots, and increased by the de- of antiquity, but look upon it as taking its composition of their leaves, has, in the course of time, been washed down by the heavy period- place, however humble, in the great federaical rains into the valleys, the level of which tion of European nations—we think that, has, no doubt, considerably risen, as is abundant- as a Christian power, in its peculiar posily proved by many antique ruins having been tion, it may become of greater political imdiscovered in digging the foundations of modern portance than many may be at present dishouses. In the plain of Olympia the pedes- posed to allow. In this small kingdom a tals of the columns of the Temple of Jupiter, great man might, we think, at least lay the which have lately been discovered, are nearly foundation of great things. If, by a wise twenty feet below the present surface of the ground.
and paternal administration, he could at • That the rivers have shared the same fate is the same time people the deserted fields, also easily proved. The Cephissus, for instance, and cultivate them to their height; if, while has dwindled down to a little stream, not suffi- thus fully developing the national resources, cient for irrigating the gardens in the plain of he could create a national spirit; if, conAttica ; and yet, at one time, it was so deep as fining her military expenditure to the deto form a barrier to the progress of Xerxes and fence of the country, Greece were to aspire his whole army, who, not being able to cross it, gradually to become what nature seems to is now quite dry, though the buttresses of the have destined her for, in her limited waters, magnificent bridge which connected the Athenian and what she was in the palmy days of side of the river with the Stadium still exist, Athens, a maritime power, she might grashowing that the span of the arch was fifty feet; dually grow in consideration. And when and, judging by appearances, the depth of water the time comes, as come it apparently must, must have been at least twelve or fourteen feet. sooner or later-when changes take place, At Sparta are still to be seen the iron rings.in- in at least the European dominions of Maserted in the stones forming the quays of the Eurotas, formerly used for the purpose of mak
hometanism-when the waning Crescent ing fast the galleys. The water in that river may be compelled to retire to its native now does not reach to the knee in any part ; and Asia-it might be convenient to have a the Inachus, which was formerly navigable up small, indeed, but flourishing and well-govto Argos, is a dry torrent-bed except during the erned Christian state, whose frontiers rainy season.'—Strong, pp.167,-169.
might be advanced without danger to the
balance of Europe; and which, strong, not Artesian wells are proposed to remedy in her own strength, but in that of the this defect, but the Greeks, according to great powers of Europe, who might find it Mr. Strong, are ignorant even of the com- their interest to put her forward, might remon pump
ceive accession of territory, of which no All such improvements, of course, must one could be jealous; and obtain by comdepend on the finances of the country. mon consent a part of those spoils which We find, however, from the abstract of in- might otherwise give rise to interminable come and expenditure, that there was in wars. 1840—for the first time indeed—but still, But if Greece is to arrive at this glorious if we may trust the figures, in that year, destiny, its sceptre must be wielded with a the last of which we have the financial firm and vigorous hand; and wbether it is statement, there was a surplus of 819,770 now, or is likely to be, so wielded, is a quesdollars. The revenue shows a regular and tion on which we must, at present at least, progressive increase, the expenditure ap- decline to enter. The scattered intellipears to diminish. This, with the large gence which reaches us seems by no means and gradually available fund which the altogether of propitious omen; yet some state possesses in the property of the soil, highly intelligent countrymen of our own might offer, under prudent yet wisely spe- have of late, after deliberate examination, culative management, resources propor- established their families in the capital of tionately more hopeful than those of most King Otho. European kingdoms.
For the rest of the details of the army,
Art. VI.-1. Report of the Commissioners pacities for enjoyment shall be satisfied.
for Inquiring into the Condition of Child- To man alone he has entrusted the perilous ren employed in Mines, fc., with two Ap- duty of guarding his own happiness. Lapendices of Evidence. Presented to both bour for sustenance is his lot, in common Houses of Parliament by Command of with all flesh; variety in the kind, and inHer Majesty. 3 vols. Folio, pp. 2022. tensity in the degree of labour, is a necesLondon, 1812.
sary inheritance, on which the very exist2. History of Fossil Fuel, the Coal-trade ence of the social and moral system hinges.
and Colliers, fr. London. Svo. 1811. But whether or not he shall vindicate, in Second Edition.
the midst of this, his noble nature and des3. Specch of Lord Ashley in the House of tinies, depends greatly upon himself, and
Commons on the 7th June, 1842, on mov- also in no small degree on the society in ing for leave to bring in a Bill to make which his lot is cast. Regulations respecting the Age and Sex Here, by three ponderous folios, we have of Children and Young Persons employed disclosed to us—in our own land, and within Mines and Collieries. London. 8vo. in our own ken-modes of existence,
thoughts, feelings, actions, sufferings, virtues,
and vices, which are as strange and as new On this our fair Earth, with its canopy of as the wildest dreams of fiction. The earth air and cincture of waters, the prying mind seems now for the first time to have heaved of man observes a host of animated forms, from its entrails another race, to astonish which, with every apparent capacity for and to move us to reflection and to symliberty and power of change, seem each in pathy. its kind to be tethered to its own region by Here we find tens of thousands of our invisible influences of such potency that to countrymen living apart from the rest of transgress them is to die. A certain zone the world--intermarrying—having habits, is allotted to each of the four-footed races- manners, and almost a language, peculiar to a certain and altitude to the bird themselves—the circumstances surrounding and a certain stratum of waters to the finny their existence stamping, and moulding tribe; the surface and the caverns of the mind and body with gigantic power. The ocean have each their inhabitants, ever em- common accidents of daily life are literally braced by the same common element, yet multiplied to this race of men a hundredever remaining strangers to each other. fold ; while they are subject to others which Something of the same complexity and have no parallel on earth. It is not, then, a economy is visible in the ordering of that matter for wonder that their minds should great moral universe, which is made visible borrow from the rocks and caverns they inhere through the agency of men-who, habit something of the hardness of the one whatever may be the capacity of the indi- and something of the awful' power of darkvidual for intellectual advancement, has his ness' of the other; and that their hearts and brotherhood with his humbler companions emotions should exhibit the fierceness of of earth; and, like them, is chained to those the elements amidst which they dwell
. regions where he can alone procure the It is mainly to Lord Ashley, who has conditions of physical existence. Practi- headed this great movement for the moral cally, we always find, and have ever found, improvement of the working classes, that large sections of our race exhibiting grades we are indebted for these volumes, issued and differences of action and suffering; so apparently for the purpose of letting the that we are compelled to acknowledge that public know the true condition of the minthat which is to sustain and perfect the so- ing population, and so forcing, by the weight cial fabric, considered as a whole, is not of opinion and individual co-operation, soone in form and shape—not found in one ciety at large to attempt an amelioration. spot—but scattered over the earth-ac- The legislature of past years has undoubtquired by a variety of efforts under varying edly been to blame in taking no cognizance circumstances, but everywhere, and under of such a state of things as is now exhibited. all its varieties, taxing all the faculties of But are they blameless who employ these mind and body in the individual, that the men, and reap the benefit of labours which great destinies of the race may be fulfilled. have induced a premature old age in their
Here, however, the parallel between service ? Have they, with so much in their the physical world and the social ceases. power, fulfilled their duties—have they The author of both has ordained, in the considered how to strengthen the connecformer, that so long as each tribe of ani- tion of the master and the hireling by other mals plays its appointed part, so essential ties than those of gain ? Has our Church, to the great organism of nature, all its ca-clerical and lay, been diligent in civilizing
these rough natures? Have proprietors, | The simple test of each man's condition is enriched by the development of minerals, whether he has all that is requisite for the enabled the Church to increase her func- due discharge of his duties in the sphere in tionaries in proportion to the growth of which his lot is cast. "Are his moral and new populations ? These are questions physical energies duly fostered and directwhich must be asked, and answered, before ed ? or are they abused and clouded by the the burden of change is laid on a few, which insatiable avarice of those who employ him, should be borne by many. We feel that crushed by their power, or converted from this benefit must be conferred by all ; and a service of freedom to slavery ?! Let us the power of the state must be propped by take this criterion, and judge. the self-denial of the owner- and the mild, The moment that a new colliery is to be untiring energies of the Church must be won (i. e. established), the face of the counaided by the kindly influences of neighbour- try is changed-numerous ugly cottages hood—before it can be hoped that such a spring up like a crop of mushrooms—long race as the miners can be brought to aban- rows of waggons, laden with ill-assorted don their rooted rejudices and brutal in- furniture, are seen approaching, and with dulgences. Living in the midst of dangers them the pitmen and their families. This -and on that account supplied with higher is the signal for the departure of the gentry, wages, and with much leisure to spend unless they are content to remain amidst them—they unite in their characters all the offscouring of a peculiar, a mischievthat could flow from sources' which render ous, and unlettered race,' (p. 519, App. 1.) man at once reckless and self-indulgent,a to see their district assume a funereal colour hideous combination, when unleavened by - black with dense volumes of rolling religion and the daily influences of society smoke,' and echoing with the clatter of end- little likely to be removed by Acts of less strings of coal-waggons. Parliament alone, and never if Acts of Par- Thus, morally and physically insulated, liament find none but official hands to aid in the collier becomes gregarious and clanenforcing them.
nish, and is rarely seen by any save those It is essential, before we attempt a rapid who traffic with him. A stranger, to obtain sketch of the lives of the hewers of coal, that a view, must go for the express purpose, the reader should establish in his own mind and at some hour either before they descend some standard by which to test their actual or when they emerge from the pit, when condition ; for a very unjust estimate will he cannot fail to be struck with the gaunt be found if he forgets to divide what is from and sinewy form, the black grisly aspect, what is not essential to their lot. Each and and peculiar costume of this singular race, every profession and calling has its dangers, who stalk across the fields, clothed in a which are peculiar to it, and to a certain short jacket and trousers of flannel, with a degree inseparable from it; and hence the candle stuck in the hat, and a pipe in the comparison must not be made between one mouth. class and another, so much as between what A more intimate knowledge of his pecueach class is, and what it ought to be. liarities is a difficult task, requiring much
There are many states more deadly than tact and a circuitous approach. ‘A promithat of the miner, and very many where the nent feature of his character,' says a comamount of poverty and suffering is at least missioner, “is deep-rooted suspicion of his equal, if not greater. The army, in the employer-his master (he thinks) can have discharge of its ennobling duties at home no desire to benefit him:' a trait which has and abroad exhibits a greater mortality. arisen from the practice of the proprietor Many sections of our artisans and manu- rarely being the worker of the mine; facturers are in these respects fully as while the lessee has little interest in comdeeply smitten--luxury and pampering send mon with the men beyond the bond by as many to the workhouse as privation and which he is to obtain the most return of want. In the economy of the universe, life labour for the least expenditure. The lessee seems of infinitely small account, as com- contracts with the butty' or viewer, to pared with duties discharged : these have bring up the coal; and he and his dogno direct reference to time, but to that du- gy ** hire the gang of pitmen, furnish them ration of which time is but a fragment; with tools, pay their wages and superinthese are as compatible with fewness of tend their work. years as with length of days-and the The entrance to most mines is by means award is pronounced to be not more for him who has toiled the whole day in the
* This is the sobriquet given to the foreman by moral vineyard, than for them who had the other by similar appellations, than by their proper
a race who are individually better known to each opportunity of labouring but one hour. 'names.
of a well or shaft, varying in diameter from commodations, and we request the reader seven to fifteen feet, the sides of which to bear this constantly in mind. Where ought to be, and generally are, lined with the seam of coal is large, as in Staffordwood, iron, or brickwork, for a certain ex- shire, the underground works are such as tent. They are of amazing depths in the to afford every facility of movement and region of the Tyne-and comparatively posture, while, in the West Riding of Yorkshallow in Staffordshire and Yorkshire. shire, one of the sub-commissioners deThe shaft of Monkwearmouth Colliery scribes his exploration of some of the paswould contain the Monument eight times sages in words betokening a very lively piled on itself. Up and down this shaft reminiscence of his journey: Ihad to the men are daily sent by means of ma- creep on my hands and knees the whole chinery; each journey averaging from two distance, the height being barely 20 inches, to three minutes in the profound mine just and then I went still lower on my breast, mentioned ; while in shallower shafts, of and crawled like a turtle to get up to the 600 feet, about a hundred men can be let headings.' In others, Mr, Scriven was down in one hour. The sensations in a hurried,' i. e. pushed, by a miner, on a flat similar attempt by a stranger are described board mounted on four wheels, or in a corve as awful. The motion as the skip' (or (i. e. basket) with his head hanging out basket of four) descends, is not in itself over the back, and his legs over the front, disagreeable—the light diminishing grad. in momentary anticipation of being scalped ually until there is total darkness : when by the roof, or of meeting with a broken arrived at the bottom, all that could be head from a pendant rock.' These passeen of the heavens up the shaft seemed to sages are of great length; for' at the Booth be of the size of a sugar-basin' (p. 8)—and Pit (he says) I walked, rode, and crept this in a comparatively shallow mine. 1800 yards to one of the nearest faces.' And now a new world is opened :—there (App. II. p. 62.). In many pits the drainare roads branching out for miles in every age is bad, so that the men work in water direction, some straight, broad, and even, — which in some is brackish—and in the others undulating and steep, others narrow, Monkwearmouth Colliery produces boils propped by huge pillars; the whole illu on the skin of freshmen.
There is, or minated, and exhibiting black, big-boned ought to be, a most careful system of ventifigures, half-naked, working amid the clat- lation, otherwise the whole community are ter of carriages, the incessant movements in imminent peril; and this is effected by of horses, the rapid pace of hurriers, the means of another shaft placed within a roar of furnaces, and the groaning and short distance of the first, and connected plunging of steam-engines. Perhaps in with it by a passage, in shallow mines; or no community is there such an amount of by dividing the longer shaft of the deeper restless and violent muscular activity—and ones into two or three perpendicular segit is literally incessant; for though the ments, and keeping up a large fire in one, main body of workers ascend daily, still so that the rarefied air in this sucks up
the the economy of the mine requires constant colder air which descends the others, and superintendence on the spot. The com- is made by means of doors to go into every munity consists of men and boys—and, in part of the mine before it makes its exit. some, of women-horses, and asses. Rats Thus the noxious gases—carbonic acid, or and mice find their way in the provender; choke-damp'—and the carburetted hydroand cats are brought down to keep these in gen or wild-fire-fire-damp,'' sulphur'check. The cricket is chirping every are diluted and carried off. The generawhere; the midge, and sundry varieties of tion of these gases is, in the northern mines, insects, are found. The chief, if not the incessant and rapid, so that one ventilating sole, of the vegetable tribes, are fungi, door neglected for five minutes is sufficient such as mushrooms, which multiply near to cause an explosion. (App. I., p. 125.) the manure.
Such is the habitation for twelve hours of The temperature of these regions is al- each day--therefore, for half the years of ways warm, and in many mines oppres- his life-of the miner. Everything is adsively hot, so that, even when there is no verse to him. His own ignorance and vice particular exertion, abundant perspiration —too often the avarice of his employerHows from the body: this accounts for the the light—which in winter is darkness to nudity of the miner; who, however, in him from Sunday to Sunday-earth, air, well-ventilated mines, is very sensible of fire, and water combine, and are ready to the changes in the atmosphere above- burst the chains which art has forged for ground. There is great variety in the ac- them, and overwhelm him in the twinkling