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force produces mechanical effects in the animal, work, we have endeavoured to convey 10 body is altogether unknown, and is as little to the reader some notion of the rich store of be ascertained by experiment as the connection interesting matter it contains. The chembetween chemical action and the phenomena od ist, the physiologist, the medical man, and motion which we can produce with the galvanic battery. All the explanations which have been the agriculturist, will all find in this volume attempted are merely representations or descrip- many new ideas and many useful practical tions, more or less accurate, of the phenomena, remarks. It is the first specimen of what and comparisons of known phenomena with modern organic chemistry is capable of these unknown ones. In this respect we re doing for plıysiology; and we have po semble the ignorant man, to whom the motion doubt that, from its appearance, physioloof an iron piston-rod in a cylinder, in which the eye can detect no visible agent, and its connec- gy will date a new era in her advance. We tion with the turning of thousands of wheels at bave reason to know that the work, when a distance from the piston-rod, appear incom- in progress, at all events the more imporprehensible.
tant parts of it, were submitted to Müller *We know not how a certain something, in of Berlin, Tiedemann of Heidelberg, and itself invisible and imponderable, namely, heat, Wagner of Göttingen, the most distinenormous pressure on surrounding objects; we guished physiologists of Germany; and know not even how this something is produced,
without inferring that these gentlemen are when we burn wood or coal.
in any way pledged to the author's opi• So it is with the vital force, and with the nions, we may confidently state that there is phenomena presented by living bodies. The but one feeling among them as to the vast cause of these phenomena is not chemical at- importance of chemistry to physiology at traction; it is not electricity-nor magnetism : the present period : and that they are much it is a force which possesses the properties common to all causes of motion and of change in gratified to see the subject in such able
hands. the form and structure of matter; and it is a peculiar force, because it exhibits manifestations not to be found in any of the other forces.'
The remaining sections contain the
application of the principles developed in this one to the investigation of the modifi- Art. V.-Journal of a Tour in Greece and cations in waste and supply which charac the Ionian Islands. By William Mure terize the vital processes in infancy, in adult of Caldwell. 2 vols. 12 mo. Edinburgh age, and in old age; they offer to us be and London. 1842. sides a theory of health and of disease, in the most general sense; and finally an Good sense and good taste will enliven the elaborate research into the means by which most barren, and freshen the most wornthe blood in the lungs is enabled to absorb out, subject. Mr. Mure's Journal is not oxygen and to convey it to those parts only the work of a shrewd and intelligent where it is to be employed in the vital observer, and of a sound though modest transformations. These sections are pro- scholar, but withal a very pleasant book. bably the portions of the work which will He is neither too rapid nor too elaborate in attract the greatest share of attention his descriptions ; his classical illustration among physiologists, but it would be un- is apposite and copious, but without pedfair to the author to give an imperfect ac- antry; and bis glimpses of the existing state count of bis striking and original views on of things in the new Hellevic Kingdom apsuch subjects, and more we could not attempt parently just and discriminating. He is no in this already too long article. The Ap- romantic Philhellene, yet inclined to judge pendix contains a large number of the most the leaders in the war of freedom, as well recent and accurate analyses, which con as the young kingdom of Greece, with fairstitute the evidence on which the conclu- ness and candour. sions of our author are founded. Among Travels in Greece are now inevitably other things it includes extracts from a doomed, like the country itself, to this sinmost ingenious paper by Gundlach, on the gular and ill-harmonised contrast of the grey production of wax from sugar by the bee. and venerable Ancient with the glaring and Professor Liebig has throughout been unimposing Modern. The ruins were doubtmost conscientious in quoting his authori- less far more solemn and picturesque when ties, and in giving due credit to his prede- nothing was seen but an indolent and turcessors and cotemporaries.
baned Turk reclining among shattered pedWhile we have given but a very imper- iments and fallen pillars, not disturbing the fect sketch of this original and profound | grave stillness, but with the contrast of his
barbaric costume heightening as it were, | discovered cities, and the wrecks of its oftenthe classic grace of the broken statues or misnamed temples, when all the mysterious mutilated reliefs, and almost deepening, by gloom of centuries of devastation brooded showing into what hands Greece had fall over them,—when the region was as it en, the melancholy emotions of decay and were, one vast Campo Santo, a land of desolation. The associations which stirred hoary but sacred sepulchres, with scarcely within at the thought of what Greece had a sound of life, and peopled only with been-Greece, the wreck of whose religion the shadows of the mighty dcad. No appeared in those pillars of unrivalled height doubt we shall gain much in the accuracy or exquisite proportion-Greece, the sculp- of our knowledge. The German scholars, tor of those living forms, fragments of which who are encouraged by the court of Athens, strewed the ground-Greece, whose his- will explore every site,measure every buildtory was crowding on the memory with all ing, and assign every temple to its proper its stately and heroie names, whose poetry gods, (and we are the last to speak disdainwas sounding within our hearts, and whose fully of this kind of erudition); but much, we philosophy perhaps had been our favourite fear, of the romance of classic pilgrimage study-what that Greece had been was (if we may couple such words) will be lost; more forcibly displayed by what it was, the we shall be less able to realize the Greece dominion of that utterly unintellectual Bar- of older times; the imagination, the only barian, the possession of a rude iconoclastic restorer of the past, will be checked in its Mahometan. We doubt whether all this re-creative energies, and perhaps, knowing was not far more congenial to the frame of far more, we shall understand less of the mind in which he who was worthy to Greece of our youthful adoration and our gaze on the ruins of Greece contemplated maturer reverence. those memorials of the past, than now that We shall endeavour to keep Mr. Mure's they are peopled by the busy and bustling classical studies, as far as we may, apart so-called descendants of the Athenian and from his observations on the present state the Spartan, or shown by guides and con- of things in Greece. We are indebted to servators appointed for the purpose by a him for some very happy illustrations Secretary of State. As to the actual re- of ancient authors, especially of Homer. mains of ancient buildings, they likewise The first place, indeed, on which he trod were perhaps safer under the contempt the poetic region of Greece was Ithaca ; uous neglect of the Turk, his superstitious and we looked not without interest to the awe of those haunted places, or his jealousy opinions of a scholar, so sensible and well of those supposed treasure-houses of buried informed, on the great Homeric question wealth, than when they are built about by connected with the kingdom of Ulysses. modern dwellings, and enclosed perhaps We acknowledged ourselves (some years in lines of regular streets. The Turk might since) somewhat disturbed by the arguoccasionally use them as a quarry when he ments of a certain Professor Völcker, who wanted stone, or pound their fragments in- had thrown very great doubts on the to mortar; and if decay, storm, or accident Homeric geography of these Islands. *
We threw them down, he would take no pre- have since read the reply to those doubts caution to preserve them : but at least they by General Rühle von Lilienstern, which escaped the greatest danger-restoration. has in a great degree restored our peace of In fact desolation is the proper accompani- mind, and brouglit us back to the orthodox ment of ruins ; repose, silence, remoteness Homeric faith ; though we are still somefrom the haunts of men, even difficulty of what embarrassed by the disappearance of access, are required to give them their full Dulichium. This indeed was a difficulty influence over the mind. Even scenery which had puzzled Strabo and Pausanias which is hallowed by great events is dese before us, and we presume we must concrated and vulgarised by intrusive modern tent ourselves with placing it as part of, change. We have every ardent wish for or as connected with, the mainland at the the prosperity of the Græco. Bavarian king. mouth of the Achelous. But we are now dom; we hope that the subjects of King fully convinced that the ancient Ithaca need Otho, when they have thoroughly cast off not be banished, as by Völcker, to the exthe slough of their long servitude, may be treme west of the whole group of islands, come a free, enlightened,; and happy peo- but may be restored to its traditionary site ple; but, as lovers of elder Greece, and even in the island which has so long borne the as archæologists, we confess that we envy name. those who explored its wild oracular glens and fabled mountains, the sites of its dimly
Quarterly Review, vol. xliv.
This is no trivial and unimportant ques. clamours of the whole assembly; he would tion to those who feel, like ourselves, unex- have been rejected as an impudent liar, rahausted interest in all which throws light ther than as a bad poet. So, if he described on the history of the two great poems of scenes and places well known to his audiantiquity, or rather on that of poetry itself. ence, any important deviation from truth It is intimately connected with the person would have been resented as an attempt to ality of Homer, with the unity of the poetry, abuse their faith, to impose upon them by that is, its composition by one master-mind, an idle deception,; and it would have been the native place of the poet, and the parts cqually dangerous to have departed from of Greece in which the Odyssey, at least, if the received historic traditions. These, innot the Iliad, was recited in the courts of deed, might receive some poetic elevation; the heroic kings. It involves the extent of the heroes might be raised to a higher emthe Greece of the heroic ages, the limits to inence of power, valour, or dignity, and which their early federation reached, the their honoured descendants would not be boundaries of their acquaintance with too nice in their reception of this more or the circumjacent regions. Was Ithaca less delicate or ingenious flattery. The within or without these boundaries ? If the founder of a lineage might be brought down descriptions in the Odyssey are altogether from the gods, or carried up to them, withloose and inaccurate ; if the relative situa- out any remonstrance on their part against tion of Ithaca with regard to the other isl. the poetic apotheosis. But still they would ands, not according to strict geographical require adherence to the well-known outrule, but the ordinary observation of the lines of his deeds, strict accuracy in the common voyager, is entirely wrong, if the genealogical tree, and fidelity to all the localities in the island itself, as they appear more memorable transactions of their ascerin the poem, are irreconcilable with the tained ancestors' lives. In religious matpermanent form, structure, and character ters the poet would be allowed a wider of the land ; if there are no indenting bays; range. From the infinite richness of my. if the whole shore is a flat, level sand, where thological legend he might adopt what sea-nymphs could have found no rocks in would suit his purpose ; and, however wonwhich to form their grottoes; if there be no derful the fable, religious awe would for. site for the city which would answer to the bid the hearer from supposing but that it vivid description of the poet,—then Ithaca might be true. Gods mingling in the afmust be altogether excluded from the fairs of men, gods with human passions, Greece with which his hearers were fami- and not impassive to wounds from human liar: it was, if not an imaginary island, one hands, were within the range of popular bethe fame of whose existence had dimly lief, and no man would venture to take ofreached the popular ear, and which was the fence at the improbability of such stories. lawful domain, we say not of poetic inven-Such an unnatural and untimely sceptic tion, but of any vague conception which the would have been in danger, like Socrates poet might form from common rumour, or at a later period, of a charge of infidelity the floating intelligence derived from ad- and atheism. Provided the true mythic venturous voyagers.
For, it must be borne character of each deity was preserved—the in mind that Homeric poetry offers itself to attributes assigned according to the general the hearer as truth ; truth, that is within traditionary faith—provided no foreign gods the limited sphere of the hearer's knowl were introduced into the legitimate hosts edge. The Muses are the daughters of of Olympus-the field of wonder and of memory, not of invention ; the poet of those preternatural power lay open to the poet ; days is the sole historian, and, in a great de- and in one sense, therefore, Homer might gree, amenable to the laws of history. The indeed be, as he is said to have been, the poetic privilege of unreality, of avowed fic- inventor of the Grecian mythology, not as tion, is altogether of a later period, when having created a single deity, or, unless as poetry has begun to be an artificial and bearing on the direct action of his poems, conventional amusement. In everything, attributed a single act, unauthorised by tratherefore, regarding common life, the work ditionary acceptance, to any one of the acwould be subjected to the most rigid, though knowledged deities; but as having popularIntuitive, criticism. If the poet of the Iliad, ised and made common to the whole of among his warrior hearers, had represented Greece the tutelar deities of the separate a man slain outright by a blow, which they states and races, as having moulded up the had often given and received in battle with countless local traditions and national leout being much the worse for it, he would gends into something like a generalsystem; have been silenced by the contemptuous as having collected all the scattered divini
ties of the whole region into one Olym- , In estimating the amount or value of this corpus.
respondence, he will also bear in mind how unSo likewise, all beyond the geographical reasonable it were to exact from the poet of any boundaries of Grecian knowledge would familiarity with the district selected for his scene
age, although possessed of the closest personal be the realm, we say not of acknowledged of action, ihe rigid accuracy of the land-surveyor, fiction, but of imagination, which might or to deny him the privilege of his profession, mythicise any report of a wandering voya- even in his description of real objects, to depart ger, or greedily catch at any monstrous yet a little from the truth, where a slight variation stirring tale of
of site or appearance was necessary to their full
effect. To pronounce, therefore, as some have * Anthropophagi, and men whose heads done, in the face of so great a mass of general Do grow beneath their shoulders.'
evidence to the contrary, that Homer had no It is curious that the few circumstances personal knowledge of Ithaca, because the more which had reached Homer relating to the
fastidious commentator may find difficulty in Eastern and civilized part of the ultra- existing appearances, the hut of Eumæus, the
arranging on his classical atlas, consistently with Grecian world are mainly correct-the fountain of Arethusa, or the port of Phorcys, hundred gates of Thebes, the manufactures were almost as unreasonable as to deny the of Sidon; but the weslern coast of Africa, “Author of Waverley” any personal knowledge and the yet scarcely discovered Sicily,- of Scotland, because of an equal difficulty of everything indeed west of Ithaca,-is
identifying the bay of Ellangowan or the castle pled with lotus-eaters, Cyclopes, with half of Tillieudlem. divine nymphs, and dim swarms of depart- the attempts of the more orthodox school of
Equally unwarrantable, on the other side, are
Homeric interpreters to force on existing objects In which world then does Ithaca lie-in or localities a closeness of harmony with his dethe realm of Greek familiar knowledge, or scription, such as was, doubtless, as little conin the wide and undiscovered ocean? genial to his own taste as conducive to the inWhen the poet of the Odyssey described terest of his poem; and this over-subtilty, as the bays, the havens, the landing-places, displayed in the elegant but not very critical the city of this island, did he draw directly topographers, is among the chief causes that
work of Gell, the patriarch of modern Ithacan from nature, or remotely from imagination? have led some of his successors into the opposite Were bis hearers as ignorant, generally, extreme. For my own part, I confess that, while of the situation of these islands, and of their nothing can be more delightful than to recognize outline and character, as of the coasts of a strong general resemblance between the deSicily or Italy? If either the one or the scriptions of scenery contained in any poetical other had ever visited this region, the gen- which they refer, it would tend but little to en
work of deep interest, and the real localities to eral features will be found consistent with hance this pleasure could I be convinced of the truth. If they are utterly and inexplicably accuracy of all their minutest details
, even to the wrong both as to its situation and its per- back-door, kirchen-offices, and draw-well of the manent outline, the author of the Odyssey hero's dwelling.'-Vol. i., pp. 60, 61. may have been a Peloponnesian, or at least We are, perhaps, inclined to allow less bave repeated his poems at the courts of latitude to the actual fiction of which a pothe Peloponnesian kings; but the com-et, like Homer, might claim the privilege; merce with these islands must have been but we think that, especially in the more precarious and unfrequent—they must have distant and, as it were, outlying parts of his lain beyond the usual coasting adventure picture, he might content himself with apof the young navigators of the mainland. pearances, and these appearances as sur
But there can be no reasonable doubt veyed by a poetic vision, disposed to find that the modern Theaki is the Ithaca of what might suit the exigencies of the story. Homer. Let us hear the opinion of Mr. So with regard to the main difficulty, the Mure, the latest, and certainly not the least island of Asteris, where the suitors conintelligent and impartial, writer who has cealed their galley as they lay in ambush brought his personal observation to bear for Telemachus in the strait between Cefaupon this question :
lonia and Ithaca. There is, it seems, a rock * The impression which a personal visit to this called Dyscallio, but it is small and low; island can hardly fail to leave on the mind of the and, instead of having a port on each side, impartial student of Homer is, that, so great is has no harbour whatever. Now we can the general resemblance between its natural perfectly understand that Homer, however features and those of the one described in the familiar with Ithaca, may never actually Odyssey, the difficulty is, not so much to discover have sailed round Dyscallio ; and, even if in each case a bay, rock, cavern, or mountain
his answering to his description, as to decide, among
songs were recited in Ithaca, may have the many that present themselves, on the precise surmised that the Ithacans in general, one which he may happen to have had in view. though constantly in sight of the island,
might have known no more of its actual that, if his tale turned out to be false, he might conformation. It is perhaps no violent punish him by throwing him from the top of ihe liberty-(less so we think than to make neighbouring cliff. Gell's account of the exact Asteris, from A and STEP=unsteady—a correspondence of the present generation of rustic floating island, created by Homer for the dwellings to the poet's description of that of the
swineherd is probably itself a little poetical. occasion, as Mr. Mure proposes)—to con- Yet even those I saw presented, it must be aljecture that Dyscallio in the bard's days lowed, some curious points of resemblance. may have been somewhat larger and better They consist of one, or at the most two, oblong suited to his description. This is Strabo's cottages, sometimes with a "circular court opinion, who would rather have recourse contiguous, surrounded by a fence, which, alto this kind of natural change than to the though neither “lofly," " large,” nor “beautiful,”
corresponds closely in other respects to that de ignorance or the licence of poetic fiction, scribed by Homer; being a rude wall, “ built xará evolv Tŵr TówWV katù tó pevê woes. But if this with loose stones," and “crowned" with a chebe inadmissible, the hollowing out, as it vaux de frise of dead thorns," or other prickly were, of a port with two entrances, or a kind plants. The same style of fence is still very of open roadstead, the depéves vaúdo xov, uppiðvpor generally used both in Greece and Italy: in the under the lee of that small rocky island, as the vineyards in the retired parts of the interior
latter country, for example, it is common round it is described by the poet, netpicova -ob peyúan of Rome. – Vol. i., pp. 68-70. -would be no unpardonable deception of the poetic eyesight, a stretch of the fancy
We are indebted to Mr. Mure for the which would hardly be detected by the more distinct and satisfactory solution of hearer best experienced in the navigation the most important of the Homeric geograof these straits. We admit that Dyscallio phical problems as relates to Ithaca— the actually lies rather too far to the north ; but situation of the city of Ulysses. On which even this, if we consider the manner in side of the island was it to be placed ? which these small rocky islands loom upon There are strong arguments for the east the sight, when seen from different points;
and for the west. It was, in fact, quietly and perhaps allowing for the clearness of observes Mr. Mure, on both :the atmosphere, which would enable the “The ruins of the city of Ulysses are spread ambushed suitors to descry the bark of over the face of a precipitous conical hill, called Telemachus immediately that it put forth Aetó, or the eagle's cliff,” occupying the whole from the shore,-this, with but a little vol- breadth of the narrow isthmus which connects untary or involuntary ignorance in the poet, the two main sub-divisions of the island, and a little intentional or unintentional self-de- The walls stretch from N. W. to S. E.; their
which is here not more than half a mile across. ception by the fancy, would account fully form is that of an irregular triangle the apex of for the slight inexactitude, without seriously which is the acropolis, or castle of Ulysses, by impeaching either the general knowledge pre-eminence, crowning the extreme summit or or the fidelity of the historical poet. peak of the mountain, and about as bleak and
With regard to the mountains of Ithaca dreary a spot as can well be imagined for a --the Neritos and the Neios-there is little princely residence. There can, therefore, be
little doubt that this is the place to which Cicero difficulty in their identification. Even Mr. Mure's more sober judgment was struck eulogising the patriotism of the hero:-“Ut
so emphatically alludes as the city of Ithaca, in with the singular coincidence of the spot Ithacam illam, in asperrimis saxis tanquam niassigned by Sir W. Gell for the residence dulum affixam, sapientissimus vir immortalitati of the swineherd Eumæus.
anteponeret," "That wisest of men, who preOn the summit of the cliff is a small rocky
ferred his own Ithaca, perched like a bird's-nest plain, interspersed with olive-groves and strag- among the most rugged of precipices, even to gling “ kalyvia," or farm-cottages. As a site
. for the dwelling of Eumæus, the spot corresponds of Opíso Aetó, towards Cefalonia, is the best
«On each side of the isthmus is a port. That well with the Belvedere, or “ place of open which the channel shore of the island supprospect,” which Homer assigns to that establishment. The face of the cliff is also hollowed plies. The bill of Aetó is separated by two out at its summit in various places, partly by their upper extremities, from the ridge of Ste
small valleys, connected by a narrow neck at nature, partly perhaps by art, into open cavities or sheltered terraces, where we might figure southern division of the island, and identified by
fano, already noticed as the highest of the the swineherd reposing as the poet describes Gell with the ancient Neïus. Admitting the him:“Encircled by his cloven-footed flock,
accuracy of this view, nothing can be more ap
propriate than the epithet “ Under-Neras" From Boreas safe beneath the hollow rock."
(úrovíïov,) applied by Telemachus to his resiThe proposal to place the residence of Eumæus dence; for the mountain, in fact, covers Aetó to on the little plain above the precipice also real- the south and east, which consequently may be izes in a very lively manner to the apprehension said to "lie under it,” both as regards shade the spirit of Ulysses' protestation to the old man,' and shelter.