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being generally the bare pavement which served, ing them, was scandalised by this breach of both for bed and table.'

discipline : • Is this then what you under

stand by war, and are we come here to The corps of Gamber slept in their

grow teuder and have attacks of nerves ? ranks in the main street, sitting back to What then will come of it when the grapeback with their muskets between their shot is sweeping us away by the dozen ? legs. When morning dawned it was found Come, face about. And, pride getting the necessary to evacuate the town, the stu- better of fear and pity, the waverers redents, with Gamber, gallantly bringing up turned to their ranks, braced instead of the rear. They ascertained afterwards that shaken by this catastrophe. the garrison of the tower could not have

They were condemned, in the first inheld

out many hours longer for want of water. Instead of harassing the Chouans to watch the result of a battle by which

stance, to undergo the severest of trials, in their retreat, their first step was to throw their own fate would be decided, without themselves all black and panting into the

taking part in it. The enemy made a river. This check had the usual effect of sowing Cadoudal; and it was not until they were

second attempt on the position occupied by discontent and dissension amongst the un

again repulsed in this quarter that they assuccessful party, who loudly accused their sailed that entrusted to the students. MakGeneral of incapacity--not without reason, ing light of such opponents, they rushed for his former sufferings in the cause had fairly worn him out, and he was both bodily head of the column was half over, they

at once upon the bridge; but before the and mentally effete. All their hopes were found reason to repent of their rashness. now fixed on the speedy arrival of a Follow me, my children,' exclaimed Marvessel laden with arms and ammunition gadel, and, springing forward, he shot the that had been promised, and they were foremost dead. His young lieutenant was drawing towards the coast to cover the dis- in the act of taking aim at the second, when embarkation, when their courage was put he received a bullet through the heart, and to the proof under circumstances which fell back into the arms of his brother, who might have shaken the stoutest veterans.

was mortally wounded almost at the same Separated from the enemy by a river, instant. This time, however, the nerves they were dispersed through a village and of the band were steeled, and they fought asleep, when a sudden attempt was made under the impulse of a kind of phrenzied to get at them across a bridge. Cadoudal intoxication—rushing, half blinded with was instantly on the spot with five or six smoke and choked with powder, up to the of his best men, and succeeded in check

very muzzle of their adversaries' muskets, ing the advance till the rest of the troops, and not firing till their own were stopped including the students, had got under arms, but their situation was still precarious in by the body of an enemy. When the fire

slackened and the smoke cleared away, the extreme. Gamber was at some dis

the Blues were seen retiring from the tance with his battalion, and, though Ca- bridge ; fortunately

for the students, who, doudal might succeed in making good the by the end of the skirmish, had not above defence of the bridge first attempted, there two cartridges apiece left. Expecting an was another at a short distance by which immediate renewal of the attack, they were the position might be turned. This was assigned to the students, and they had giving up all for lost, when the white caps not been two minutes upon the ground tance. It was thought at first that they

of a troop of women appeared in the diswhen the cannon-balls began to fall amongst came to take care of the wounded—but it them. By way of keeping up their spirits, a lad named Le Thiée, the bard of the par-were loaded with ; they brought cartridges

was neither lint nor food that their aprons ty, struck up a song of defiance

made upon the instant; for the manufac“Si jamais le fer d'une lance

ture of which, in default of lead, they had Me frappe au milieu des combats,

melted their tin cooking utensils.' Je chanterai

The situation of affairs was still most

critical. Two cannon were brought to There ended his song—a ball shattered his bear upon the students with effect, and unhead to pieces, and covered his comrades der cover of a sustained discharge of grapewith his blood and brains. A momentary shot the enemy's skirmishers were gradudisorder was created by this event, and, ally closing in upon them, when the videttes whilst some stood stupified with fear and were seen galloping up to the imperial horror, others hurried to raise the body. General with all the marks of confusion; An old sergeant, who had assisted in drill- I and directly afterwards the firing ceased, the wounded were hastily got together, and of Francheville, who on their first joining the Blues appeared in full retreat. The inquired whether the central committee mystery was soon solved by the appear- had provided nurses enough for such numance of old Gamber at the head of 500 bers of children. Still they were destined picked men, who, without a moment's hesi- to undergo one deep mortification. A cargo tation, pushed on to intercept and engage of arms arrived, amongst which were a a force which quadrupled his own. His quantity of light carbines of elegant manuskill was fortunately on a par with his au- facture, looking as if made on purpose for dacity; so able were his dispositions, and them. To these they instantly laid claim ; so fiery his onslaught, that in less than five but in vain did they recapitulate their serviminutes the Blues gave way on all sides. ces; in vain did they strip off their jackets The students were unable to second him to exhibit their shoulders, bruised and lacefor want of ammunition, and the chevalier rated by the large clumsy muskets they had very properly refused to expose them to been loaded with; the tempting carbines be charged in their disabled state by a re- were awarded to a newly-formed company serve of cavalry which kept hovering about of decayed gentlemen who had just emergthe ground. They consequently only ar- ed from their hiding-places. But we are rived in time to thank Gamber for his timely anticipating. This disappointment did not succour, and save the wounded from being befall them until they had fought the most plundered.

fatal of their fights, the murderous conflict

around and in the town of Aury. A spectacle entirely new for both conquerors and conquered then presented itself. Chil

The Chouans were again posted with a dren, whose hearts were choking with suppress- river in their front; but this time there ed tears, protecting veteran soldiers who had were six bridges instead of two, and by a just been killing their comrades! A grenadier strange oversight no one thought of dewith long moustachios, who appeared to suffer stroying them. General Bigarre, the impehorribly since he had been pulled about with a rial commander, came in sight in the afterview to plunder, was doubled up in a puddle of

noon ; but as his troops were fatigued by a his own blood, his eyes closed, his hands convulsed,

and his mouth open, not to cry Mercy! long march, he quartered them for the night but to blaspheme and curse. He believed that in the cloisters of a neighbouring chapel, his executioners were still there, ready to tor- where he shrewdly calculated, the Chouans ture him by new acts of violence. What was would deem it sacrilegious to annoy him by his surprise, on opening his eyes, to see his de- their shot. Gamber himself had no scrufender, whose mild and feminine physiognomy ples of the sort, and proposed to scale the hardly announced fifteen years, putting back the walls, but his opinion was overruled, and curious and ill-disposed with his carbine, and from that moment the old chief tracing around his protégé a magic circle that

for lost. none of them dared to cross! At this sight the

One of the patrols found him in old soldier burst into tears, and, stammering tears, and inquired if any misfortune had out some words which were no longer curses, befallen him.—'Not yet,' was the reply, he searched his pocket and his pouch as if look- but I weep beforehand for that which caning for a watch or purse to offer to his protector. not fail to befall us to-morrow.' “ These brigands”-he exclaimed with a tone of regret raiher than reproach—“ have left me ters, resolved to force his way into Auray

At sunrise Bigarre issued from his quarnothing-except this gourd”-he added, all radiant with joy when he found it was not empty

before night. The main body of the Chou—“after five hours' fighting you must be both ans were posted directly in his path, but hot and thirsty : come, my child, drink to my their cannon, on which they mainly relied, health: it will do you good, and me too.”' had not come up, and one division, that of

Secillon, was seized with a panic and fled, Even civil war is softened by such epi- whilst their leader tore his hair with

rage. sodes. It is melancholy to be obliged to add, that in the very next engagement this

In his despair he mingled curses with threats, gallant boy was numbered with the dead. and told Rohu to fire upon them, which he One of the youngest, named Leray, being would certainly have done himself if he had had struck by a bullet in the side, began to cry a loaded musket in his hands. With his best He had already given proofs of the highest men, determined to atone for the defection of courage, and 'this indulgence of an instinct their comrades by their bravery, he hastened to congenial to his age,' adds M. Rio, by no place himself alongside of Cadoudal, who fulfilmeans diminished our admiration.'

led that day, much more in reality than De Sol,

the duties of commander-in-chief, and was himTheir defence of the bridge made the stu- self furious at the delay of the guns, on which dents the heroes and favourites of the army, he founded his last hope of victory. He had and they heard no more sarcastic allusions just interrupted, with very little ceremony, the to their size-such as fell from the sailors fine compliments of the Marquis de la Boissière,

gave up all

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by the

to tell him to gallop as fast as he could and dren,' was his address, I insist on being
hasten the advance of the artillerymen, who your only leader to-day; promise me not
ought to have been there an hour ago, and to quit me during the action, and to execute
already our major-general (de la Boissière) was faithfully whatever I may command.' An
turning to execute this commission with all the
zeal of an aide-de-camp, when Rohu, whose unanimous acclamation of assent was the
anti-aristocratic instincts sometimes showed reply, and they proceeded to post them.
themselves under brutal forms, seeing him turn selves on a ridge commanding the road, re-
his back on the field of battle, ran and fastened solved on making the Blues pay a heavy
on the mane of his horse, swearing that he toll before passing. They opened so close
should not move a step farther, and asking if and well-aimed a fire on the foremost column
his title of marquis dispensed him from risking that it stopped short. An adjutant major
his person like the rest. There arose then so
great a tumult around the two disputants, that

was killed, the commander-in-chief receixmuch precious time was lost in explanations be- ed a wound long deemed mortal, and one of fore the intractable Rohu could be induced to his aides-de-camp was stretched beside him. let go his hold.'

But the reserve, like the main body, was

soon hemmed in by skirmishers, and so This bears a curious resemblance to an thick a storm of shot was hailed


them incident at Bothwell Brigg, described in that they were almost blinded • Old Mortality,' when Henry Morton's re- leaves and branches cut from some chestnut trograde movement to bring up fresh troops trees above their heads. Margadel, conis similarly misconstrued. The Blues in ceiving that enough bad been done for honthe mean time had moved up, and were on our, now gave the signal for retreat. The the point of charging with the bayonet, Blues followed close, but a little nearer the when they received an unexpected check town they were encountered by another from Gamber—who opened so effective a reserve posted in a cemetery, which it cost fire upon their flank, that, if the reserve and them dear to dislodge. The very gate artillery had been there to second him, the was the scene of a third heroic effort. A affair might have ended in their defeat; but gentleman of Auray, M. de Molien, at the their general, finding that he had greatly head of a few royalists, resolutely barred the advantage of numbers, kept his ground, the passage of the Blues. Repeatedly was and sent out such a multitude of skirmishers he borne to the ground, yet again and that the Chouans soon found themselves out again did he rush upon their bayonets, till flanked and outmaneuvred in their turn. A he fell senseless, and was left for dead in vigorous charge of cavalry being made at the the street. same time against the barrier in their front, The place was carried, but the reserve they at length fell into irremediable disor- kept together and formed a rallying point, der, and the road to Auray was covered to which the disconcerted Chouans soon with the fugitives. The guns arrived just as repaired in sufficient numbers to form a the flight began, and the gunners, firing one fresh army. After one more engagement, long shot by way of announcing their pre- however, in which a party of the Blues sence, gallopped off in the direction of the were seized with an unaccountable panic town, which they traversed in haste, and and rushed like madmen from the field, the forth with deposited their trust in a field of struggle grew languid at the news of Wacorn close to the main road. Such was terloo, and was finally terminated by the their hurry, that they did not even stay to second abdication of Buonaparte. unharness the horses, so that the enemy's Amongst the most pleasing passages of attention was immediately attracted, and the book are the meeting between the offithe whole artillery of the Chouans fell into cers of the two parties at a sort of recontheir hands.

ciliation festival, and the reception of the The reserve, at the head of which were students on their return. The table-talk the students, was quartered in Auray. No at the festival turned naturally on the stirorders arrived until the streets were choked ring scenes in which the guests had been with runaways, when a staff officer gave the engaged : word · Les écoliers au Champ de Martyrs,' which naturally enough struck a chill into “They had too high an opinion of one another their hearts. The Chevalier de Margadel, to avoid any subject of conversation. General who had given vent to a paroxysm of rage Rousseau spoke of his campaign against the at every freshi blunder, now thought only Chouans in a manner to excite a lively indig. of the best manner of averting the useless nation amongst certain bourgeois, to whom his sacrifice of his company. His first care seeing in us nothing but rogues and brigands.

words were repeated, and who persevered in was to put them on their guard against the He complimented de Sol on the fine bearing of impetuosity of the old sergeant : My chill our little army during the battle of Muzillac,

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and the heroism with which the students had to fetch the two champions, the youngest of defended their position. He then desired to whom was in consternation at the lot wlrich his know who cominanded a certain battalion of inferiority of age and college-rank portended. peasants, who, towards the close of the action, His joy may be imagined when he learnt that it had manæuvred on his left flank, and induced was precisely the reverse; that not only was he him to beat a retreat. The Chouan officers to to receive the cross of honour from the hands of whom this question was addressed were stand- Mademoiselle d'Olonne upon his knees, but that, ing round him, and prevented it from reaching in rising from this suppliant attitude, he would the ear of a bald and infirm peasant, who was be privileged to salute her on both cheeks. It sitting by himself in a corner of the room, his required all the Breton naïveté not to be a little head leaning on his breast, and his hands hang- startled at this noble kiss, given on the very ing between his legs, and who knew better than steps of an altar. But our imaginations were any body of whom General Rousseau was speak- pitched upon a key which made criticism iming. The General, not receiving a satisfactory possible. When the pair-friends, brothers in answer, repeated his question, which was then arms, and fellow-pupils at once-advanced to better understood, and his auditors, instead of kneel before their ladies, applauses and cries of replying to it themselves, indicated by looks and joy resounded from all sides; these redoubled at gestures the old man to whom this praise refer the most interesting part of the ceremony, and red, and who was too modest to claim it became deafening as the thunder-clap, when, “How! is it you, then, who did me that turn ?" deferring to the wish passionately expressed by exclaimed Rousseau, approaching Gamber, who, the assembly, Mademoiselle d'Olonne, herself at Muzillac as at other places, had no notion an object of enthusiasm, graciously returned the that be had played anything but a very subor- salute of her knight. As for him, he was in a dinate part. “Come, give me your hand; I state of intoxication which prevented him from swear to you that a colonel of the imperial army hearing or seeing anything, not even the steps could not have done better.")

of the altar he had to descend. He was obliged

to be held up by his comrade to prevent his Our military readers will remember the falling. Never before was head so young upset embarrassment into which the Duke of to this extant by the fumes of glory' Wellington was thrown some years ago by the bequest of a thousand pounds to the Mademoiselle d'Olonne took the veil, man who showed most bravery at Waterloo, and died many years ago, so that her knight whom His Grace was consequently requir- may record his feelings on the occasion ed to name. The royalist officer despatch- without any risk of exciting the jealousy ed to Vannes for the purpose encountered of Madame. The young hero, thus kissed the same difficulty in naming a couple of and kissing, was M. Rio himself. students to receive the cross of the legion Although we have endeavoured to comof honour; but he fixed at last on two who press this narrative, occupying nearly four had been distinguished throughont the hundred pages, within the limits of a modcampaign as much by their friendship as erate article, and although many of the inby their bravery, and they were solemnly cidental adventures which we have omitted installed on an altar raised in the centre of are full of interest, we do not think M. Rio the town. The description is thoroughly will suffer, on the whole, from being introand charmingly French :

duced to the English public in this manner;

for he is often diffuse, and sometimes phi* An expiatory mass, with a chivalrous cere. losophical. He should have set down his mony, at which the ladies were present as in facts and impressions at the time, before he the middle age, struck no one as out of keeping; had lost the fire of youth and acquired the As soon as the officiating priest had descended the steps of the altar, two elegantly dressed trick of authorship, when the Chouan women were seen ascending it, the sight of rising was still, in his eyes, the grandest of whom convinced the two friends about to be recorded struggles for liberty. He now decorated that the memory of this day could not mentally compares it with other struggles, be equally sweet for both of them. The one who, glances over the scenes of his boyhood with in her quality of wife of the first magistrate of a calm, contemplative air, rounds a parathe department, occupied the right, was a venerable matron, full of feeling and dignity; but graph with a reflection, and spreads out or her companion, who figured in this ceremony dishes up his incidents with a too obvious with reluctance and out of deference to paternal reference to effect. Still the bold, carnest, authority, was an object of ecstatic admiration chivalrous character of the original man is to all of us, less on account of her dazzling observable throughout; and there cannot beauty than of an indefinable charm diffused be a stronger proof of this than the manner over her whole person. That day the enthusi- in which all the poets who have come in asm which pierced visibly through the embar

contact with him are affected. Wordsworth, rassment her part occasioned her, appeared to animate her naturally sad and subdued look. Milnes, Landor, Mrs. Norton, Brizeux, The officer who presided at the ceremonial, no sooner have they heard his tale than they after whispering a few words into her ear, went proceed to embalm some striking passage


in verse. Mr. Wordsworth's contribution Art. IV.-Animal Chemistry; or the Ap. is entitled “The Eagle and the Dove,' in plication of Organic Chemistry to the allusion to the cognizance of the St. Esprit Elucidation of Physiology and Patholoadopted by the royalist students, and the gy. By Justus Liebig, M. D. Edited eagle of the imperialists:

from the German MS. by William GreShade of Caractacus ! if spirits love

gory, M. D., Professor of Chemistry, The cause they fought for in their earthly home,

King's College, Aberdeen. Svo. LonTo see the Eagle ruffled by the Dove

don, 1842. May soothe thy memory of the chains of Rome.

The recent progress

of Chemistry, espe. These children claim thee for their sire; the cially of Organic Chemistry, has been rapid breath

and most interesting. Throughout Europe Of thy renown from Cambrian mountains fans several distinguished men have for a good A flame within them that despises death,

many years been assiduously devoted to its And glorifies the truant youth of Vannes.

cultivation ; and we are now beginning to With thy own scorn of tyrants they advance, reap the benefit of their exertions. In a But truth divine has sanctified their rage; late article we had to notice the masterly A Silver Cross, enchas'd with flowers of France, work of Professor Liebig on 'Agricultural Their badge attests the holy fight they wage. Chemistry; and already we have, from the The shrill defiance of the young crusade

same pen, a no less remarkable volume on Their veteran foes mock as an idle noise; * Animal Chemistry. As his new theme, But unto faith and loyalty comes aid

in one point of view, concerns us all even From Heaven-gigantic force to beardless boys.' more nearly than that of agriculture, we

shall endeavour to give our readers some Mr. Milnes avails himself of the oppor- notion of the kind and degree of light which tunity to promote the pacific intentions of

our author's labours promise to throw on his friends M. Guizot and Sir Robert the obscure and difficult, but most importPeel :

ant subject of physiology.

The readers of the 'Agricultural ChemFor honest men of every blood and creed Let green La Vendée rest a sacred spot ! istry' will remember that he has there deBe all the guilt of Quiberon forgot

veloped, and, as we think, established by a In the bright memory of its martyr-deed ! very beautiful inductive argument, his theAnd let this little book be one more seed, Whence sympathies may spring, encumber'a ory of fermentation, putrefaction, and de

cay; or, to speak more generally, of chem

ical transformation or metamorphosis. In By circumstance of birth or mortal lot, But claiming virtue's universal meed!

order to the understanding of the present And as those two great languages whose sound work, it is desirable that we should state, Has echoed through the realms of modern time very briefly, the nature of that theory, on Feeding with thoughts and sentiments sublime which so many of its details are founded. Each other, and the list'ning world around, Professor Liebig, then, applies the name Meet in these pages, as on neutral ground, So may their nations' hearts in sweet accord be

of metamorphosis to those chemical actions found !

in which a given compound, by the pres

ence of a peculiar substance, is made to O France and England ! on whose lofty crests resolve itself into two or more new coniThe day-spring of the future flows so free,

pounds : as, for example, when sugar, by Save where the cloud of your hostility Setiles between, and holy right arrests;

the presence of ferment or yest, is made to Shall ye, first instruments of God's behests,

yield alcohol and carbonic acid. But blunt each other? Shall barbarians see

There are various forms of metamorphoThe two fair sisters of civility

sis. Sometimes the elements of the ferTurn a fierce wrath against each other's ment, or exciting body, do not enter into breasts?

the composition of the new compounds : No! by our common hope and being, no!

such is the case in the fermentation of suBy the expanding might and bliss of peace, By the reveal'd fatuity of war,

gar. At other times all the bodies present England and France shall not be foe to foe:

contribute to the formation of the new For how can earth her store of good increase,

products. Thirdly, in one form of metaIf what God loves to make, man's passions still morphosis, namely, that of decay, or erewill mar?'

macausis, the oxygen of the air is essential to the change: as when alcohol is converted into acetic acid, or wine into vinegar. When an inodorous gas is one of the products, the process is called fermentation; when any of the products are fetid, it is


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