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of her conjugating and declining grammar-boy. I of these changes authors might be led to
our own sixty volumes occupying one panIf the steam-boat and the railway have nier might be balanced with the science of thus abridged space and time, and made a
the Philosophical Transactions in the other. large addition to the available length of human existence, why may not our intellectual journey be also accelerated, -our knowledge more cheaply and quickly acquired, --its records rendered more accessible and portable,-its cultivators increased Art. III.-La Petite Chovanerie; ou, in number,--and its blessings more rapidly
Histoire d'un College Breton sous L'Emand widely diffused? We shall endeavour
pire. Par A. F. Rio. Paris et Londres, to state very briefly some means by which
1812. 8vo. these objects may be effected, and the consequences to which they are likely to lead. An eminent literary man was recently We have now before us an Svo. volume,t complaining to us that the rising generation containing about 1150 pages of double seemed to know nothing of books published columns, and printed on paper so thin that more than fifteen or twenty years ago. I the thickness of the volume (though not
was not understood yesterday,' said he, beaten) is only two inches, and in so small when I talked to a budding legislator a type that the quantity of matter which it about Sir Andrew Freeport; and here is a coutains is equal to above TWELVE NUMBERS
young lady who evidently supposes Seged of this Review, supposed to be all printed Emperor of Ethiopia to be one of the in its ordinary type. Now, if the type were tawny potentates discovered by Bruce.' diminished to one-half its present size, or In this state of things it would be idle to to one-fourth, which is quite practicable, take for granted that everybody is familiar and if the margin were somewhat dimin. with the Memoirs of Madame de Larocheished, we should have an Svo. volume two jaquelein; and the utmost we can hope for inches thick equal to FIFTY NUMBERs of this M. Rio's sake is, that some half-buried Review, or TWENTY-Five volumes. Such
associations will be resuscitated in the a work would require a reading-glass, but memories of our older readers, wlien we this would not affect its utility at all for the
name his book as a not unworthy pendant to purposes of consultation, and indeed the her noble and inspiring picture of the couryoung student would have no more diffi
age, piety, disinterestedness, and unshaken culty in perusing it page after page than loyalty, of the most virtuous and truly pathe Doctor of 50 already has in getting triotic portion of her countrymen. Well through the columns of his Times by help might Sir Walter Scott say that the country of spectacles. A bookcase might thus contain a large court in which Madame de Larochejaque
of which La Vendée forms a part, and the library, and a moderate one night be packed lein was educated, could not be so corrupt in the traveller's portmanteau. Books now
as we had been taught to believe ; for hisforwarded by tardy conveyancos might be
tory, ancient and modern, might be ransent by post. A number of this Journal, sacked without finding parallels to numeupon which the postage is now half-a-rous instances of high daring, patient crown, might be sent for fourpence, and
suffering, and cheerful self-sacrifice relarge pamphlets would have the privilege corded by her. Above all Greek, above of half-ounce letters. These processes, too, all Roman praise—the finer spirit and might be aided by a stenographic repre purer motives of modern chivalry may be sentation of the terminations of many of
seen blended with the stern resolve and our long words, and even by a contraction stoical contempt of life which distinguish of the words themselves; and in the spirit the heroes of antiquity: Cato and Brutus
look like vulgar suicides ; and the dying + Biographie Portatif des Contemporains, vol. i., Bayard leaning against the tree with his
+ Biographié Portatif des Contemporains, vol. 1. cross-hilted sword held up before him as a Paris. It contains three plates with thirty portraits, ten in each plate.
crucifix, or even Sidney on the fatal field
of Zutphen, still wants the cause to raise "" Each weapon point is downward sent; him above the martyrs of La Vendée.
Each warrior io the ground is bent. A few passages from their annals will
The rebels, Argentine, repent! form a fitting introduction to our notice of
For pardon they have kneel’d.”
“Ay, but they bend to other powers, M. Rio's work.
And other pardon sue than ours: When an expedition was meditated, a
See where yon barefoot abbot stands, requisition in the following terms was for- And blesses them with lifted hands! warded to each parish :- In the holy name Upon the spot where they have kneeld, of God, and of the King, this parish is in- These men wil die or win the field." ; vited to send as many men as possible to The Vendean peasants scarcely ever such a place, on such a day and hour, and omitted saying their prayers before
engagto bring provisions with them. Not merely ing, and most of them made the sign of was the requisition obeyed with cheerful- the cross each time they fired. The ferness, but the privilege of going was eagerly vour of the religious sentiment was well contended for. When the whole force exemplified at the battle of Fontenay: was assembled, they were divided in an equally primitive manner. It was said :
Before the attack the soldiers received abso- (a chief) goes such a way; who fol. friends, we have no powder: we must také
lution. The generals then said to them, “ Now, lows him ? Those who liked ranged these cannon with clubs. We must recover themselves about him, until the column Marie-Jeanne! Let us try who runs the best!" was complete. In mancuvring they were The soldiers of M. de Lescure, who commanded not told, “To the right,' “To the left,' &c., the left wing, hesitated to follow him. He adbut 'Go towards that house ;' • That great vanced alone thirty paces before them, and then
Vive le Roi !" A battery tree,' &c. In battle, like all Frenchmen, stopping, called out they expected their leaders to set the ex- His clothes were pierced, his left spur carried
of six pieces fired upon him with case-shot. ample. Thus at the assault of Thouars:
away, and his right boot torn; but he was not * About eleven o'clock the powder of the Ven- wounded. “You see, my friends," cried he indeans beginning to fail, M. de Larochejaquelein stantly, “ the Blues do not aim well.” The went for a supply, leaving M. de Lescure alone peasants took courage, and rushed on. M. de to command. A moment after, M. de L. per- Lescure, to keep up with them, was obliged to ceived the republicans less steady, and as if be- put his horse to the full trot. At that moment, ginning to give way: he instantly seized a mus- perceiving a large crucifix, they threw themket with a bayonet, and calling to the soldiers selves on their knees before it.' M. de Baugé to follow him, descended rapidly from the height, wanted to urge them on.
“Let them pray,' and gained the middle of the bridge amidst said M. de Lescure calmly. They soon rose, showers of balls and case-shot. No peasant
and again rushed on.' dared to follow him. He returned, called, exhorted, and again giving the example, returned
Marie-Jeanne was a twelve-pounder of upon the bridge, but remained alone. Ilis
beautiful workmanship, taken by the repubclothes pierced with balls, he made a third ef- licans from the Château de Richelieu, fort. At that instant MM. de Larochejaquelein where it had been placed by the famous and Forêt arrived, and flew to his assistance: cardinal. It was captured in the first enhe had been followed by one only of the pea- gagement at Chollet by the Vendeans, who sants. All four crossed the bridge. M. de Lescure leaped the entrenchment; the peasant was
regarded it as endowed with miraculous wounded; but Henri and Forêt got over it also; power, and were wont to adorn it with flowthe men then rushed on to their assistance, and
ers and ribbons. The Highlanders of the passage was forced.'
Prince Charles Edward's army attached a
superstitious reverence to an old iron gun, Napoleon, according to the most partial which they insisted on dragging about with version of an apocryphal story, did no more them. There are numerous other points of at Lodi.
analogy, but there is one remarkable dislerAs Major Allan observed to Cornet ence. In the Vendean ranks the pride of Graham, "a man may fight never the worse birth was kept in strict subservience to the for honouring both his Bible and psalter;' sentiment of loyalty, and the peasants were nor need we refer to Cromwell's Ironsides, urged on by their own genuine impulses, or any other fanatics, for illustration of the instead of being dragged to death or exilo maxim. The nights before the battles of by their hereditary chiefs. Their first comAgincourt and Poictiers were spent in mander-in-chief, Cathelineau, was a peaprayer by the conquerors; and the striking sant, and he was put in nomination by the incident which preceded the closing of the Marquis de Lescure. So far, however, English and Scottish hosts at Bannockburn was this from being one of the consequenshould be familiar to all lovers of romance ces of the growing fashion for inequality, or poetry :
that Madame de Larochejaquelein tells us VOL. LXX:
the peasant officers often offered to with-, from calculation than from character. Durdraw from the table of the staff when she ing the greater part of the war bis right arm appeared there, saying they were not enti- was useless from a wound. In this conditled to sit at the table with a gentlewoman. tion he was attacked alone in a hollow way This shows that the prejudices of birth re- by a foot-soldier. Henri seized him by the mained, and were simply kept under by collar with his left hand, and managed his patriotic motives. The modesty of their horse so well with his legs, that the man expectations in case of success is an- could not hurt him. The
peasants came up, other proof of the pure and disinterested and wanted to kill the soldier: he would character of their loyalty. They meant not suffer it. •Return to the Republicans,' to ask that the name of La Vendée, given said he to the man, • tell them you were by chance, should be preserved, and a pro- alone with the chief of the Brigands who vince under a distinct administration be has only one hand and no weapon, and that formed of the Bocage; that the king would you could not kill him. His pithy address honour their country with a visit; that a body to his followers is well known: 'Si j'avance, of Vendeans should form part of his guard; suivez-moi : si je recule, tuez-moi: si je and that the white flag might always be tombe, vengez-moi. He was killed toseen flying on the steeple of each parish. wards the termination of the struggle (1794)
The chiefs were equally moderate. by one of two grenadiers whom he had Henri de Larochejaquelein said, “If we es- interposed to save. The words, You shall tablish the king upon the throne he will grant have your lives,' were hardly out of his lips, me a regiment of hussars.' Another of when one of them shot him through the this young nobleman's sayings is highly head. He was then only lwenty-one years characteristic: when accused of inattention and a few months old. at the councils of war, he exclaimed, : Why
The author of the Memoirs was not was I made a general? My only wish is to married to Louis de Larochejaquelein, the be a hussar, that I may have the pleasure of brother of Henri, until 1802. During the fighting. Yet he made an excellent com- most eventful period of her life she was the mander; and his dislike to councils of war wife of the Marquis de Lescure, whose appears to have been as well grounded as qualities, though less dazzling, are perhaps Lord Clive's, who says he never called but better entitled to the meed of sound, sober, one, and gained the battle (Plassy) by act- reasoning admiration than his friend's. It ing contrary to their advice. His fondness was no love of excitement, no youthful for fighting was the only drawback, for he enthusiasm, no high-wrought spirit of loyrushed to the fray as if he were summoned alty in the narrow meaning of the term, to a banquet, and gave his whole soul and that animated and urged him on, but a spirit to the charge. In an attack on the stern, uncompromising sense of duty, to Republican camp, seeing his men recoil, he which every personal consideration was as flung his hat into the entrenchment, and nought. We have already given a specicalling out, Who will go and fetch it ?' men of his intrepidity, and it is one jumped in first, and was instantly followed amongst a hundred; yet he detested fightby numbers. Red handkerchiefs, the ma- ing, and congratulated himself that, though nufacture of the country, formed a conspi- constantly in action and often engaged cuous part of his costume : he wore one hand to hand, he had never shed blood; round his head, one round his neck, and se- and the battle was hardly over before he veral round his waist as belts. At Fonte- was seen exerting all his energies to save. nay the word amongst the Blues (the Re. The true force and genuine beauty of his publicans) was 'Aim at the red handker- character came out when he was dying of chief;' and the other officers entreated him a wound from a musket-ball, which entered not to make himself a mark for their mus- his face near the eye and came out behind ketry; but obstinate as Nelson in this par- the ear. He lingered for several weeks, ticular, be refused; and, as the only means compelled to follow the movements of his of diminishing his danger, they adopted the friends, sometimes in rude litters, but red handkerchief themselves. The pictur- oftener in rough carts and carriages, whose esque costume and reckless daring of Mu- every jolt was agony. Yet, with the finger rat are said to have produced such an im- of death upon him, fevered with pain, and pression on the Cossacks during the Russian only able to lift his head at intervals, ho campaign, that they opened their ranks to insisted upon attending the council to enlet him pass, and the bravest seldom ven- force a measure which he deemed essential tured to cross swords with him. Henri de to the cause, and was as ready as ever to Larochejaquelein inspired much of the set an example to the troops. same feeling, and scized every fitting occa- To justify their treatment of the women, sion to heighten it, though probably less the Republicans declared that they were to
be found in great numbers in the Vendean, which remains still to be written. At the ranks a bad excuse, if the fact had been same time we do not wonder that historians so; but Madame de Larochejaquelein as- have hitherto meddled but little with it; serts that there were not above ten or for the authorities are utterly irreconcilatwelve regularly enrolled female comba- ble; and it is no easy matter to arrive at a tan ts. Several boys of rank did duty as just or satisfactory estimate of a character aides-de-camp or officers. The Chevalier whom one party insists on ranking with de Mondyon, a lad of fourteen, was sta- heroes, and the other on stigmatizing as a tioned near a tall officer who complained of coward or a brigand. For example, Puibeing wounded, and was about to retire saye, whom Mr. Alison terms the soul of I don't see that,' said de Mondyon: the insurrection, is described by French 'your retiring will discourage the men; writers of repute as a mere intriguer, and, if you stir a step, I will shoot you wholly destitute of honour or couragethrough the head.' The remonstrance a Breton Lovat at the best-encouraged proved effectual. The two young Maignaus by the English for the express purpose of de l'Ecorce used to go to every battle with defeating the grand object of the insurtheir governor, M. Biré.
rection, and simply converting it into "a The seat of the Chouan war was Brit- festering sore in the vitals of the country.” tany, a province rich enough already in ro- George Cadoudal, erroneously enumerated mantic associations of all sorts, as we very by Mr. Alison among the nobles, is another recently had occasion to point out.* The hero of Chouannerie, well qualified to puzwar is thus brought into immediate con- zle writers pretending to impartiality. He nection with that in La Vendée by the last has been denounced as an assassin for his and perhaps best of the general historians participation in the plot which immediately of the period :
preceded the murder of the Duke d’Eng
hien; but he himself maintained to the last • Meanwhile the severities of the Republicans that his voice had been invariably for open in prosecuting the peasants of Brittany who sheltered the fugitive Vendeans, kindled a new and war, and that his plan was to attack the terrible warfare in that extensive province, which, First Consul's guard of thirty with an under the name of the Chouan war, long con- equal number of his followers, and decide sumed the vitals and paralyzed the forces of the the quarrel by a fair fight. The very name Republic. The nobles of that district, Puisaye, of Chouan is a mystery; and the etymoloBourmont, George Cadoudal, and others, com- gists have hitherto hit on nothing better menced a guerilla warfare with murderous effect; than Chat-huant (owl,) which the insurand soon, on a space of 1200 square leagues, 30,000 men were in arms in detached parties of their practice of moving principally by two or three thousand each. Brittany, intersected by wooded ridges, abounding with hardy night. smugglers, ardently devoted to the royalist cause,
Whether these difficulties will eventually and containing a population of 2,500,000 souls, appal M. Rio may be doubted; but we afforded far greater resources for the royalist are quite sure that it will be no easy matcause than the desolated La Vendée, which neverter to find another equally qualified, by contained a third of that number of inhabitants. cast of mind, habits, education, and expePuisaye was the soul of the insurrection. Pro- rience, for supplying a complete history of scribed by the Convention, with a price set upon Chouannerie. His grandfather perished on his head, wandering from château to château, from cottage to cottage, he became acquainted the scaffold, a martyr to loyalty. His fawith the spirit of the Bretons, their inextinguish ther died of sufferings and privations in able hatred of the Convention, and conceived the the cause. He himself, as we shall prebold design of hoisting the royal standard again sently see, was induced, whilst yet a boy, amidst its secluded fastnesses. His indefatigable to engage in an armed insurrection, for the activity, energetic character, and commanding eloquence, eminently qualified this intrepid chief purpose of re-seating the hereditary line to become the leader of a party, and soon brought
of monarchs on the throne. When the all the other Breton nobles to range themselves struggle was suspended by the restoration, under his standard.'— Alison, vol. ii., p. 525. he applied to the study of history with such
effect, that within a few years he delivered General Hoche, who commanded on the a course of lectures which attracted the atrevolutionary side during a great part of tention of the leading politicians of the the struggle, called it a war of giants; and capital. The reputation thus acquired was M. Capefigue recommends it as a fit sub - not suffered to fall away; and during the ject for a noble and poetical history, Villèle ministry we find him refusing, by
turns, a censorship and the place of tutor See our article of last year on the Breton Min.) to the Duc de Bordeaux. His unwillingstrelsy.
ness to co-operate in any measure of hos tility towards the press conciliated the es- | economists, and calculators, produce such teem of Chateaubriand, who makes him men as that of faith and loyalty ? the subject of a laudatory note in one of In the work before us, which may be his pamphlets. The only species of ad- regarded as a sample of the forthcoming vancement which he could be persuaded to one, M. Rio confines himself almost excluaccept was the post of private secretary to sively to the spring of the year 1815; and M. de la Ferrouaye, Secretary of State for we think it best to follow his example, afForeign Affairs, and afterwards ambassa- ter briefly referring to the circumstances dor at Rome. When the Revolution of under which the events he commemorates July took place, this statesman retired; took place. and M. Rio devoted the next five years to After a struggle of several years the revothe composition of a work, published in lutionary gorernment was obliged to make 1836, entitled · De l'Art Chrétien,' in which terms with the Chouans, the essential conthe poetry of painting is treated with the dition being the toleration of their ancient taste, feeling, and unaffected enthusiasm priesthood. As soon as the amnesty was of a genuine connoisseur. The principal declared, these revered exiles returned in object is to distinguish the schools of art in great numbers, but they were found unewhich the spirit of Christianity forms the qual to the spiritual wants of the populapervading sentiment, from those in which tion, and steps were immediately taken to nothing more than simple force, grace, breed up a class of assistants and succestruth, or beauty, is attempted or expressed. sors. The college of Vannes, re-opened in The author's obvious preference for the 1804, was one of the seminaries most efformer has brought upon him a host of ad- fective for this purpose ; and the favourite versaries, who protest plausibly enough topics amongst the students were the opagainst a theory which would assign a pressions and insults to which their pastors, secondary rank to the finest productions of including the fathers, brothers, and other Paganism; whilst an influential party as near relations of most of them, had been confidently maintain that the highest effects exposed. Amongst the first who enrelled are only to be produced by men, like Ra- their names, after the re-opening of the colphael or Michael Angelo, whose minds are lege, were twelve Chouan chiefs, whose refined and elevated by the sublime reve- boyish studies had been suspended by the lations of Christianity. Right or wrong, struggle, and who now returned to finish the book has produced a very remarkable their education. Four of them were aleffect on the Continent.
ready known to fame, provincial fame at all The predominance of the religious feel- events; and the admiration they inspired, ing is remarkable, not merely in M. Rio's with the warlike feats they related, excited writings, but in all the leading actions of feelings by no means congenial to the seduhis life. It was this which induced him, on lous cultivation of theology. his return from Rome, to form an intimate Napoleon, whose great mistake through friendship with the celebrated Abbé La- life was never to make allowances for what mennais, in whom he saw, or thought he he called prejudices, and the best part of saw, a new and pure apostle of Catholi- mankind, principles, kept the smothered cism. We need hardly say that he has found flame alive by his intolerance. His illout his error, and no longer regards the treatment of the Pope and his famous cateAbbé as a fitting object of faith or a proper chism, in particular, went far to prepare instrument for the propagation of any form the way for a revolt: and bis Spanish war of Christianity. It will not lessen the read was regarded with the most uncomproer's interest to add that M. Rio has married mising abhorrence throughout Brittany. into an old Welsh family, and has made When the recusant Breton clergy had been considerable preparations for a comprehen- expelled from their parishes, they had been sive treatise on Welsh antiquities. We received with the warmest hospitality by hope, however, that he will not give up the their brethren in Spain, and it was conseproject of becoming the historian of the quently deemed little short of sacrilege to Chouans, for which, looking to his past life, make war against a country so eminent for he seems especially destined. It is not faith and charity. Who could answer to merely a new chapter of the romance of a Christian conscript that he would not be history that is wanted, but a just tribute to sent on some scandalous expedition like principles which are daily loosening their that of the ditch of Vincennes or the Quiformerly all-powerful, and, in our opinion, rinal hill?* Would he have the courage to beneficial hold upon mankind. Shades of mount to the assault of a Spanish town, at Bayard, Sydney, Montrose, Lochiel, Larochejaquelein! when will the age of sophists, The scene of a night outrage on the Pope.