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trication from the difficulties which he ad- China we still have ;-and we think we mits and even exaggerates. The only hint may venture to say that the sum proposed that tends that way is his statement that the to be levied by the Income Tax will not deficit was altogether occasioned by the much, if at all, exceed the expenses, past, voluntary reduction of productive taxes' (p. present, and future, of these wars, every 16). Does this imply that the best mode one of which has been inflicted on us as of reducing the deficiency would be the well as on the objects of our hostility, by re-imposition of the repealed taxes ?-a the impolicy, the injustice, and the incapaproposition which, extravagant as it ap- city of the late ministry. pears, Sir Robert Peel had, as we have But we do not, as we have already said, seen, patiently examined, and proved both rest the defence of the Income Tax on any by reasoning and experience to be inade- such narrow and, as it were, technical exquate and impracticable.
The country accepted it as Sir But Sir Richard Vyvyan is here again Robert Peel offered it, as a great resource lamentably misinformed on the fundamental in a great emergency, as effecting, and as facts of his case —the deficit was not alto- being the only measure capable of effecting, gether occasioned by the voluntary reduc- the combined purpose of liquidating our fition of productive taxes. It is true that nancial difficulties and contributing to comthere had been a successive and, as we have mercial relief. The re-enactment of repealalways thought, an improvident reduction ed taxation was out of the question-the of taxation, but we can hardly call il 'volun- utter failure of the per centage on the custary' on the part of the late ministers, for toms and the excise proved that those duties they were, in fact, bullied into it by a coer- on articles of consumption had reached cion which they had not the honest courage their limit, and that any further pressure to resist. Nor was that reduction, even if could only produce further retrogradation ; it could be called roluntary,' altogether the but, on the other hand, Mr. Baring's per cause of the deficiency-the reductions centage on the assessed taxes had exhibited would not of themselves have had such fatal the phenomenon not merely of realising the results, but they were unhappily concomi- estimated amount, but of a substantial intant with sudden and rapidly increasing ex crease of the revenue itself. Now the aspenditure abroad and at home. The neg- sessed taxes are very analogous to an lect of the Whig ministry to equalise the income tax—they are in fact the represenrevenue and expenditure was indefensible; tative—though in some respects an inadebut it does not justify Sir Richard's mis- quate and partial one-of income. Sir statement of the fact, nor his forgetting Robert Peel therefore concluded, most that Mr. Baring did, in 1840, make an effort judiciously we think, that he had in the to meet the deficiency by the additional per advance of the assessed taxes a practical centage on the excise, customs, and assess- argument in favour of a tax upon income; ed taxes, and other sources, to the total —and by exempting incomes under 1501. amount of 2,200,0001., which, though inade- per annum from the operation of the tax, quate to the object, exceeded the recent re- he spared the classes which are, at the moductions, to which alone Sir Richard is ment, most in need of relief, and affected pleased to attribute the deficiency. We the easier and richer orders in the direct the rather insist on this mis-statement be- proportion of their means. cause it is connected with that other very Even the objectionable character of the important mistake—that the Income Tax tax affords on this occasion some recomis ' a WAR-TAX, which it is the determined mendation to its adoption. We are called will of the nation at large should not be upon to meet a difficulty which, though levied during peace.' We know not where sharp, may, we trust, be short. The impoSir Richard has found the record of this sition of taxes on general objects, whether determination of the nation at large that the of production or consumption, cannot fail Income Tax should not be levied during to disturb in some degree commercial inpeace; not certainly in any expression of terests—and after they have been, as it popular feeling during the progress of the were, amalgamated with the system, the measure through parliament. We admit, remission of them has a similar effect; it is, however, that, with Lord Brougham, we therefore, highly impolitic to lay on permastrongly incline to that opinion; but Lord nent taxes for a temporary emergencyBrougham did not forget, as Sir Richard but an Income Tax stands alone-its influVyvyan has done all along, that we have ence on trade and the markets is so circuitbeen waging four distant and very expen- ous and so slight as to be almost impercep
War in Canada and war in Sy- tible, particularly at so small a per centage ria we have had-war in India and war in 'as 7d. in the pound. It, therefore, can be
imposed in 1842, and may be remitted of machinery for a temporary purpose. On either at the end of three or five years, the whole, therefore, we are not surprised wheu its special purpose shall have been at, and do most cordially join in, the genefulfilled, without any derangement of other ral concurrence-we had almost said satisinterests—without affecting stock in hand faction-with which the Income Tax has -orders-bargains-buildings — specula- been received. tions--or any of the variety of circumstan With regard to the modifications of the ces with which taxes on commodities are Tariff there is little to be added to Sir necessarily blended. The unpopular na Robert Peel's masterly exposition in the ture of the tax, also, suits it peculiarly for House of Commons of both its principles a temporary purpose, for the country, pa- and details, which all who will read anytient as it has been of its imposition as an thing on the subject must have already urgency, will be very watchful to see that read. A short summary, however, of the -agreeably to Lord Brougham's Resolu- general object, and a few words on some tions and the Duke of Wellington's decla- articles that have been prominently critiration-it be not continued one hour longer cised, will not, we trust, be considered suthan shall be absolutely necessary. perfluous. The first and natural object of We have already ventured to express our
à tariff is to raise a custom revenue; but humble admiration of the disinterested pa- there has been engrafted on it, in England triotism of the members of both Houses of as in most other countries, the different and Parliament, who have accepted cheerfully almost opposite design of encouraging parand almost unanimously a burden which ticular articles-either of home manufacpresses in a peculiar degree on them- ture or the produce of some favoured counselves and the classes to which they be try-by laying-even at the sacrifice of long, but from which the lower orders are revenue-prohibitory rates of duty on simiproportionably relieved. But even upon lar articles imported from other quarters. the wealthier classes the sacrifice will not, The extent to which the English Tariff we are satisfied, be in fact so great as the has been applied to the object of protection, nominal amount of the tax they may pay. Sir independently of revenue, is curiously shown Robert Peel stated, in the outset, his hope in the report of the Import Duties Commit—and he repeated, in his brilliant recapitu- tee, 1840. It there appears that, of the lation at the close of the session, that his total Customs revenue of 22,962,6101., seven hope was increased to confidence—that to articles alone, out of 1150 articles compersons of moderate fortunes, who spend a prised in the Tariff, produce no less a sum large proportion of their incomes in the ne- than 19,148,6291., viz. :cessaries of life, the Income Tax, 31. 16s. 4d. on every 1001., would be fully compen- Sugar
£4,827,018 sated by the decreased price of commodi- Tea
3,658,800 ties influenced by the improvement of the Tobacco . 3,495,656 tariff-- we say influenced rather than produc- Rum, &c. 2,615,443 ed, because we believe that the indirect Wine
1,849,709 effect of the tariff will be still more benefi- | Timber
1,603,194 cial than any direct lowering of prices. Corn
1,098,779 There is another circumstance which de
£19,148,629 serves a passing word. We stated in our And that ten others produce article of October, 1839, on the Pen 2,552,3011. viz. :ny Post, that the postage duties were Coffee .
£779,114 substantially an Income Tax-and so in Cotton Wool 416,257 the vast majority of cases they were : Silk
247,362 1,600,0001. of that revenue has been aban- Butter
213,077 doned; and, much as we disapproved that Currants.
189,291 excessive reduction, and fully as all our pro Tallow
182,000 phecies and anticipations about it have Seeds
145,323 been realised, we concur with Sir Robert Sheep's Wool. 139,770 Peel that the system should not be at pre Raisins
131,589 sent altered—but as this was 1,600,0001. Cheese
105,518 remitted to the income of the country, it may
£2,552,301 be considered as a set-off pro tanto against the new Income Tax. And, finally, the
£21,700,930 Income Tax has the great and peculiar merit of being collected at a moderate ex- So that serenteen articles out of 1150 propense, and requiring no permanent creation I duced the enormous proportion of 21,700
9301. out of a total of 22,962,6101.; and of of local or temporary pressure, and may, by the remaining 1133 articles, we believe we precautionary measures, divert or alleviate may safely say that above 1000 would not its effect; but, above all, they may and are repay
the expenses of collection. The ad- therefore bound to take care that no meajustment of these duties, and particularly sures of theirs shall increase the natural difof the large protective class of them, has ficulties, and add to providential vicissitudes always been a very complicated and diffi- the irregularities and partialities of human cult affair; every foreign power and every legislation. domestic interest availing itself of every These are the principles on which we natural, accidental, or even occasional in- rest our humble support of Sir Robert fluence, to obtain an advantage over their Peel's measures-his maintenance of such competitors. It is, therefore, not surpris- a protection to the cultivation of coru as ing that tariffs so frequently altered and may ensure, as far as human means can, a modified, pro re natâ, and to satisfy this or certain and regular supply-and the dithat importunity, should be frequently erro- minishing, as far as circumstances permit, neous in policy and principle, and incon- of duties on all articles of food or comfort sistent and anomalous in their operation. not requiring so high a degree of protection
It is a remarkable coincidence that just -and on raw materials, the plenty and 130 years ago, after the treaty of Utrecht, cheapness of which may develope additional the Tory ministry proposed a tariff for the industry, and thereby enlarge ihe means of reduction of duties, which was opposed and subsistence for the great masses of the ultimately defeated by the Whigs upon ex- people. actly the same kind of objections which The new Tariff, in pursuance of these have been fortunately so ineffectually— principles—which were powerfully exmade against the present arrangement.' It pressed and elucidated by Sir Robert Peel was on that occasion that Addison wrote-- and Mr. Gladstone in the House of Comwith less, we think, than his usual good mons-attempts for the first time, we besense and pleasantry, but with considera- lieve, a classification of the several articles ble party success
ss—his · Trial of Count it includes, and a systematic apportionment Tariff.' It is, also, curious that the main and application of the various duties wbich object of that tariff—the balancing our com- it imposes. mercial favours between France and Por Having stated that the protecting duties tugal-should be at this hour, as it was in favour of various branches of home prothen, the subject of separate and conflicting duce were laid on from time to time, and negotiations with these countries.
under temporary and local influences, we These negotiations and the prohibitory need hardly say that the old tariff had little duties recently imposed by France on a regard to consistency or system, and indi. great and growing branch of our manufac-vidual interests had obtained individual protures have necessarily prevented any recon- tection, often delusive to themselves, and struction of the scale of wine duties; and always in some degree injurious to their considerations connected with the slave. fellow-subjects : let us take, for instance, trade have had the same effect on the sugar the question of the metallic ores, of which duties ;-to both of which important sub- Sir Richard Vyvyan has made his stalkingjects Sir Robert Peel has stated that he horse. Copper-ore is what we may call a directs an anxious attention ;—but he did natural monopoly of the Cornish peninsula not therefore postpone those measures of the only other considerable supply being, relief which were within his power. The we believe, from the distant mines of Cuba, first duty of a statesman is, to provide, as or those, still more distant, of Chili. Would far as human means allow, for the cheap not one suppose that the mere freight round and regular subsistence of the people. Pro- | half the globe of an article of which the vidence has indeed reserved to its own available part is not, on an average, onemysterious councils the chief share in the fifth of its weight or bulk, would be a sufsolution of this problem. The main ele- ficient protection to the Cornish miner, who ments of the demand and the supply of food has his smelting-house at the pit's mouth? man cannot command—nor on any very The mining interests of Cornwall, however, large scale regulate—the growth of popula- did not think so; and in the days in which tion and the produce of harvests, though the it-with the private interests of the Crown result of human means, are practically be- representing the Duke of Cornwall at its yond human control. Governments can do head -- was one of the most powerful intebut little towards increasing the one or rests in Parliament-a prohibitory duty was checking the other; but Governments may laid on copper-ore. This did not at first estimate the probable occurrence and extent I sight seem very important as a domestic
question, because Cornwall already sup; / cheapness may create. Sure we are that, plied more than enough for home use, and for one individual whose immediate income we did not seem to need importation from it may curtail, it will open or enlarge the Cuba or Chili. But see how it worked. sources of profitable industry to a hundred To the natural monopoly, this fiscal mono- of his neighbours. We therefore should poly being superadded, the mine proprie- hardly on principle have complained if the tors were enabled to put their own prices protecting duty had been wholly repealed on the article, and to enter (as it is said to 1 —but, as we have formerly and recently happen sometimes among the Coal proprie- said, a violent recurrence io principles is tors) into a combination not to sell for home almost as impolitic, and in general more imconsumption under a certain price-though mediately injurious, than the departure obliged of course to send their surplus from them. The long and complicated abroad for what it would fetch, where it discussions—in which Sir Richard Vyvyan had to meet the competition of foreign ores declined to take any part-were employed, smelted in England ; for ores were allowed as we before stated, in adjusting between to be imported and smelted under bond and four or five important classes some comthen exported. By these means the foreigner mon and equitable measure of protection, obtained the article cheaper than ourselves the Government being in fact little more —for instance, we are informed that a short than an umpire between them. Sir Robert time ago the French Government bought Peel seems to us, in this case of the ores, copper-sheathing for its navy at 121. the lon as throughout the whole tariff, to have cheaper than the British Government was taken a most judicious practical courseobliged to pay at the same moment for the he has not abrogated existing protection, same article, drawn from our own mines, but moderated it to the degree that promises and smelted in our own furnaces. Could a considerable alleviation to the consumer, it be a wholesome or rational system which without materially disturbing the condition made an article manufactured in Cornwall of the producer. dearer at Plymouth than at Toulon? But Much alarm was felt, or at least exthis is not all. The prohibitory duties cut pressed on the part of the agricultural inoff the shipping interest from an obvious terest, on the diminution of the duties on source of profit, while they increased the the importation of cattle and other articles expenses of naval outfit, and they also de- of animal food. We have already alluded prived all the manufactures of the country to that absurd panic—but we wish to say a of the additional outlet which the unre- few words on the subject to show that even stricted exchange of their copper-ores might in this case the principle of reduction is as have created in Cuba and Chili.
just, as the application of it promises to be England possesses facilities for the universally beneficial. Our first observation smelting of ores beyond any other country is, that while the duties on salt meats were in the world—the prohibition of import de protective, those on cattle and fresh meat, prived pro tanto our home consumption of which would most affect our own people, this natural advantage. Consider also how were absolutely prohibitory, and they were much this prohibition must cramp that great imposed in former times when our population portion of our internal industry that makes was, as compared with the present day, any use of copper-how much more, of all scanty and well fed. Surely the mere that are employed in it as a distinct manu- growth of our population would of itself facture; and how it must check the appli- have justified the repeal of a prohibitory cation of copper to new and experimental duty on meat. And here, in reference to purposes. Iron has been made, chiefly this point, as well as to the Corn Laws, it from its cheapness, to supply the place of cannot be unimportant to exhibit the growth wood and stone-in fences, in houses, in or- of our population in the five decennial penamental architecture, in furniture, in roads, riods of which we have any exact enumerain carriages, and in ships-nay, we have tion. The population of Great Britain iron substitutes for wool and horse-hair in was in cushions and mattresses! We believe copper to be capable of a-less general indeed, 1801, 10,472,048 Decennial Increase. but still very extensive application to pur
1811, 11,969,364 .. 1,497,316
1821, 14,073,331 2,103,976 poses for which it is at present rarely or
1831, 16,260,381 2,187,050 sparingly applied ; and we doubt whether
1841, 18,656,414 ... 2,396,033 the Cornish proprietors themselves will not find, on the long run, their own profits We are under no apprehension-quite increased by the extended use of the article the contrary—that meat will become too both at home and abroad which greater I cheap; and we are satisfied that meat and
many other articles of agricultural origin In short, we are of opinion that the measmight become much cheaper than we fear | ures have been so cautiously selected, so the tariff will render them, without doing carefully balanced, so juditiously combined, any real injury to the agricultural interests. that no sudden shock or injury will be felt It has been tauntingly asked-how it is pos- by any one of the various interests consibl that the general consumer can be be- cerned. Those who hope as well as those nefited without injuring the individual pro- who fear some very immediate and remarkducer? In the article of meat, as well as able consequences, will be, we think, of some others of analogous character, equally disappointed. The improvement there is one preliminary answer-prices will be general, but it will be gradual and had risen, and were still rising so high that, progressive; the pressure on a few individif the tariff should only have the effect of ual interests will be found to be slight in keeping them where they are, or even of itself, and so distributed and compensated lowering them in some reasonable degree, as to be, we trust, hardly perceptible. The the consumer will be benefited without most early and probable result that we look any sensible change in the actual condition to is, that, by the gradual operation of the of the producer. But there is that still Tariff and the blessing of God in a promismore important reason to which we being harvest, the prices of provisions may be fore alluded, and which is of general appli- reasonably lowered, and a feeling of comcation, affecting the income tax, corn duties, fort and a spirit of enterprise and industry and the whole tariff-namely, that the pro- revived throughout our manufacturing popducers—of the neglect of whose special ulation, without any sensible injury to the interests we hear so much-form also the agricultural interests. A bal harvest main body of the CONSUMERS, to whom Sir would, of course, have raised agricultural Robert Peel is reproached with being prices; yet no farmer wishes for a bad barloo partial.
vest; and though plenty may lower bis Take, for instance, the case of the land- prices, it must increase his profits; and forowner--whether he farms himself or by tunate it is, that, at the moment when some the hands of a farmer, the result will be reduction in the value of farming produce nearly the same—he is a seller of corn, of may be expected from the season, the opecattle, of wool, but he is a buyer (generally ration of the Tariff will effect a concomispeaking) of bread, of meat, and of clothes. if tant diminution in other articles of conhe loses something by selling cheaper, does sumption, by which the farmer in common he not gain something, at least, by buying with every other class must be benefited. cheaper in their manufactured shape these This leads us to offer a few words on the articles of his own growth? To the class new scale of corn-duties. We beg our of farmers who are wholly agricultural, and readers to recollect that the strongest advodeal little in cattle or wool, the cheapness of cates of the agricultural interests do not meat and clothes will be an unmixed ad- dream, at this day, of a fixed protection. It vantage. So he, who does not rear but is notorious and avowed, that the enemies fattens cattle, will be proportionably bene- of all protection propose a fixed duty only fited the cheaper he can buy the lean beast. because it would be wholly illusory, and All this, however, might, we admit, be an would lead directly to the removal of all inadequate compensation ; but if, in ad- protection. Hence the opposition of the dition, spirits, coffee (by and bye, we Anti-Corn-Law League to the sliding-scale hope, wine and sugar), furniture, and the the best, nay, we will add, the only whole apparel of himself, his family, and practicable safeguard that agriculture can servants, are all reduced in cost, is there rely on; hence also the arts by which it not reason to infer that he must receive a was endeavoured to raise popular prejudice very considerable compensation, a compen- against the principle of a sliding-scale, by sation which in many, probably in most exaggerating some inconveniences and cases, will exceed the nominal loss of in- anomalies with which the details of the old come, while there will be a real increase scale were chargeable, such as the mode of of comfort and enjoyment ? And let us taking the averages, and some sudden and go a step further; a farm cannot be tilled arbitrary transitions in the rates of duty. for nothing :-labour, buildings, repairs, These objections, though not of the imporimplements, seeds, must all be paid for. If tance attached to them for party purposes, the diminished prices of provisions keep wa not unfounded; and it therefore was labour cheap, if the diminution of duties not only justice but good policy in the on timber, iron, copper, leather, seeds, friends of agricultural protection to amend make buildings, repairs, implements, and those details, and thus take away from their general culture cheaper--will there not be adversaries one class of their pretences. a further and very considerable benefit ? But the main question was, what should be