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as it lay on the last occasion on which it ap- sent the instability of human affairs, and to peared before the eye, and as it was depo- convey strikingly the moral lessou of the sited in the grave. Its attitude was real proneness of human grandeur to fall. In and true—it was the altitude of a dying man ihe meanwbile the principal figure lies in in the house of prayer. If spiritual beings an easy, luxurious attitude of perfect inwere represented kneeling round his pil. difference—an attitude which for a living low, or sitting at his feet, they were angels; person to assume in the house of God and if the niches surrounding the tomb would denote a scandalous irreverence ; were filled with images, those images re- and in which to be found even in a drawpresented the relatives and friends of the ing-room would require some excuse of illdeceased gathered there to do him honour. ness. Neither ladies nor gentlemen are in But at the approach of heathen art all this the babit, wben they want repose, of laying vanishes by degrees. As in the Greek themselves along the top of a sarcophagus comedy, the personages pass first into re- wine-cooler, like the Duchess of Protector presentatives of classes—as the armed fig. Somerset in Westminster Abbey; and if ures round the tombs of Sir Francis Vere they are sick and dying, as the monument and Francis Norris in Westminster Abbey seems to imply, they do not dress them-and then lose not only their individuality selves in state habiliments, or lean deglionly, but their truth,
gently on their arms, as if in the possesNot only do the sons and daughters and sion of full health. Sir Cloudesley Shovel mourners who were originally placed in did not earn his fame by reposing himself niches on the sides of the altar-tombs pass upon velvet cushions under a canopy of into marble allegories of Fame and Time, state.' Dr. Busby would assuredly not and other heterodox if not vicious abstrac- have liked to have been found by his boys tions, who stand or sit in very mournful at- in the posture which he occupies. Dr. titudes about the monument, but a whole South, we suspect, was not in the habit of flight of little boys unclothed, and with reading in bed; nor Sir Christopher and their fingers in their eyes, perch themselves Lady Hatton of sleeping upon two inclined on every available site of cornices, pedes- planes. Nor would Bishop Hough bave tals, and pediment; and on the same' nihil liked to exhibit bimself as if just frightened velare' principle, the marble allegories them out of his sleep, with his episcopal robes selves seem to have little else to do but to thrown round him in much admired disorexhibit the admirable muscular power with der. And yet ease and repose, careless which the sculptor has contrived to invest ease and indolent repose, are the only chathem. Of the little boys, indeed, however racteristics which the artists of these mouncomfortable and dangerous the position numents have forcibly impressed upon their which they occupy, some account may be works. It is not even repose after toil. given how they reached their several places: There is no expression of manliness, of vifor most of them are furnished with wings gour, of calm, composed dignity, of deep -and, it is to be understood, are repre- thought, of that stillness and gravity which sentatives of angels; though, why angels carries to the mind of the spectator a sense should take this form of little boys, and of a superior being placed before him, and why they should lament so deeply for the which religion so imperatively requires, transition of a good man from earth to and sculpture can 50 admirably exhibit. heaven, may still be a question. But there They have neither the energy of life nor are also females (who or what they are it is the repose of death. hard even to imagine), who about this time And when it is remembered that to build have contrived to cimb up, and lay them- up these piles of marble in our cathedrals, selves across the curves of the pediment, in almost every instance some portion of wherever one exists; and there hold them the edifice has been disfigured, or window selves on, with evident distress, in this blocked up, a pillar undermined, or some painful and alarming posture, one leg rich canopy or tracery pared off; that the loosely dangling down the side, and the inscriptions, like the tombs themselves, conother coiled up to get a purchase to sup- tain little but a record of family pride ; that port themselves. This practice of taking almost all devotional feeling evaporates from repose on a sloping penthouse-roof, at a the figure ; that pagan emblems, such as most break-neck distance from the ground, inveried torches, begin to make their apappears to have been prevalent in the se- pearance; that a gaudy mixture of colourventeenth century; and we should willing-ing and gilding prevails in most; and that ly hope that there was some meaning in it, the whole erection resembles more the falike that of the pyramid on balls, to repre- çade of a house of many stories for the liv.
vo ** One part of this subject we have left un
ing, than a receptacle for the body of the life extinct, intimating that the dead man dead ;* we can scarcely lament that their died without a belief in immortality; the enormous expense soon led to the disuse mourner that cannot be consoled blasof them; and that as Grecian taste became pheming against the command 'not to sormore defecated from its mixture with the row as men without hope.' And the epiremains of Gothic, we arrive about the end taphs—but this is a subject not briefly to of the seventeenth century at the next be touched on-and our space is come to stage of our sepulchral monuments, which an end. may be called the doorway style, or two pillars supporting an architrave, and en- touched, because it has been alluded to by closing either a tablet, or sometimes still a us before, and deserves a more full examin. figure. Whether this form was borrowed ation than we can give it at present. We from the triumphal arch, or was the natural mean the character of our national monuresiduum of the former architectural sto- ments in Westminster Abbey and St. ried structure, when purified of its semi- Paul's. Private follies and extravagances Gothic excrescences, may be doubted. are of comparatively little moment ; but There is or was a monument of the kind when the government of a great and Chrisin the Jesuits' Church at Rouen, which tian natiun could find no better mode of transferred the former notion to the in- commemorating the dead than by re-erectscription :-Non est bic tumulus, sed ar- ing images of Neptune, and Mars, and cus triumphalis virtutum, cujus basis fides Fame, and Victory, mixed up with draet scientia, columnæ justitia et prudentia, goons and drummers, catapults and canornamenta timor Dei et pietas, coronamen- nons, men without clothes in a field of bat. tum charitas.' Many of these in them- tle, or English Generals in Roman togas, selves are beautiful in their proportions ; and all the trash of the poorest pedant; but their total inconsistency with the build- and when a Christian Church in a Chrisings in which they are placed, and their tian metropolis is selected as the fittest de unmeaning character, except as an elabo- pository for these outrages, without regard rate and expensive frame før very long and to the ecclesiastical or religious character therefore very bad epitaphs, render them of those whom the State thus chooses to perhaps the greatest distigurement to our honour, there must bave been something old churches. The monuments of Eliza- most unsound in the tone and manners of beth and James do possess richness, variety, the age. and intricacy, which in some degree inte We laugh at the anachronisms of King rest the eye, and blend with the grotesque. John's barons in the Antijacobin, armed ness of Gothic architecture. But the with blunderbusses and pocket-pistols, doorways have nothing of the kind. And and rushing upon the stage with Knights yet even these are ill exchanged for the Templars and Prussian grenadiers, Quinhuge slabs of pyramids sliced upon the wall, tus Curtius and Marcus Curius Dentatus, and exposing only a plain surface of varie- the Roman legion and the battering-ram, to gated marble, which, as executors became attack a convent; but is there anything more economical, and the dead less cared more ludicrous here than in the account of for, soon after usurped their places. From the actual monuments raised in the eightthese the transition is easy to the mural eenth and nineteenth centuries by the monuments of the present day; those blots British people in their metropolitan Catheupon the walls of our churches—which drals ? either affect no duty but to act as a family To use the words of the guide-book, not register of names and dates-or, if they do our own — indulge in any fight of imagination, rarely venture beyond the weeping lady hanging •General Wolfe is represented (naked) in his nver an urn and standing under a willow; last agonies, pressing his hand upon the wound the inverted torch, emblem of the light of in his breast which caused his death, and sup
ported on the hip of a grenadier, who with one There is a well-known illustration of the reli- hand gently raises the commander's falling arm, gious feeling connected with the erection of these and with the other points to the figure of Glory monstrous cdifices in the history of the Earl of Cork's descending from heaven 10 crown him with monument in St. Patrick's Cathedral, and Archbi laurel. Upon the pyramid, in relief, a Highland shop Laud's efforts to obtain its removal from its sergeant is introduced, standing with folded original position at the back of the altar to its pre- bands, and thus silently contemplating the seni site." It is one of the most striking specimens of this stage in sepulchral art; heavy, cumbrous, wreck of youth and valour.' (By Wilton, cost without unity or elegance, and still more glaring in 30001.) its deformity by the restoration of the original co
• Admiral Holmes is represented as a Roman louring and gilding.
warrior, resting his head on a cannon mounted
on its carriage. An anchor, flag-staff, and other , ant ; a sentinel stands by in an attitude of grief; naval emblems, diversify the background.' and in the background a guard is seen marching
* Admiral Watson, robed in the Roman toga, | its round.' is introduced amidst a grove of palm-trees. On Sir Thomas Picton (by Gahagan) :--Gethe one side is a personification of the goddess nius, personified in the statue of a winged youth, or genius of Calcutta prostrate; and, on the leans on the shoulder of an ancient warrior, who other, a similar emblem of Chandernagore, is designed to represent Valour, and stands in which is to be distinguished by the chains with the act of receiving a wreath of laurel from the which it appears bound.'
hands of Victory.' • Sir Charles Wager :-upon a neatly wrought · Mr. Perceval (by Westmacott) :--His effigy double pedestal sits a figure of Fame, holding a is introduced upon a mattress, with a statue of portrait of the deceased, which is supported by Power indicated by the fasces, weeping over an infant Hercules. The background is shel- him; and figures of Truth and Temperance, the tered by a pyramid, under the apex of which is one distinguished by a bridle, and the other by placed a coat of arms. The lower pedestal is a mirror, erect at his feet. Along the backoccupied by a piece of alto relievo, descriptive ground runs an animated scene in basso relievo, of the capture of the Spanish galleons.' descriptive of the lobby of the House of Commons
* Earl Stanhope, clad as an ancient warrior, at the moment of his fall.' (52501.) is introduced in a recumbent posture, clasping a "Sir John Moore :-Valour and Victory are truncheon in his right, and a scroll in his left seen lowering the general into a grave with a hand; at his feet stands an urchin leaning wreath of laurel, while the Genius of Spain against a shield. A state-tent protects his per plants the standard of conquest over his grave.' son ; on the crown of which is seated an armed Pallas, with a javelin in one hand and a scroll Chantrey, the lamented Chantrey, has, in the other: a pyramid conceals the back. we hope, exploded Neptune and Mars, ground.
and Glory, and the Goddess of Calcutta, Lord Robert Manners and Captains Blair and Bayne (by Nollekens) :-the background is and the Genius of Spain, and the rest of the
Pantheon, for ever: composed of a pyramid, before which is placed
It was Chantrey, not a röstral column, surmounted by a stalue of the Church, who first made us, of this day, Fame, who elevates a wreath of laurel for the sensible of these solecisms. He brought purpose of crowning three medallions, which us back to Nature, and we owe him much winged boy is attaching to the front of the co- for it. But there is still something to be lumn. In the foreground-Neptune, reposing done. It is still to be considered whether on a sea-horse, addresses himself to Britannia, who appears guarded by a lion.' (Cost 40001.)
a statue which tells of nothing but the Lord Rodney (by Rossi, at the cost of 6000 greatness of the departed, and the gratiguineas)-stands on a pedestal, on one side of tude of the survivors, is the most fitting which is sealed a figure, meant for a personifi- mode of commemorating the one, or of excation of History, listening to Fame, on the hibiting the other in a Christian Church. other side, who is expatiating upon the merits of It is but a barren homage. It is not the Rodney.' Major-General Bowes, by Chantrey,' [in the he could be called from the grave, and ask
homage which a good man would choose if House of the God of Peace and Love.] A scene admirably chiselled from life. Bowes was slain ed in what inanner he would wish that his in the breach at the storming of Salamanca; name should be recorded. Surely, if ihe and the actual circumstances of his death are thousands now lavished on these public mehere excellently portrayed. The shattered wall, morials were consecrated 10 some lasting the beaten enemy tumbling headlong with his work of honour to God and utility to mau, colours, the charging British, and the victorious which should at once preserve the memory general falling, on the foreground, into the arms of the dead, and encourage and direct the of a comrade, are all faithfully preserved and vividly exhibited.'
good deeds of the living; if, as Mr. Mark• Sir W. Myers:– Hercules and Minerva, or, land suggests, instead of busts and sculpas some suppose, Wisdom and Valour, meet be- ture, we raised churches, or chapels, or fore a tomb, and shake hands.'
school-houses, or founded refuges for the • Şir W. Ponsonby :-his horse is introduced poor, or dedicated only some portion or faintly sinking; while the rider, a naked figure, ornament of a s.cred building to the meis placed on the foreground, in a strained kneeling attitude, for the purpose of receiving a mory and name of those whom we wish to wreath of laurel from ihe hands of a statue of honour, we should be acting more consistVictory.
ently with that genuine benevolence which • Mr. Pilt-habited in the robes of Chancellor would delight to do goud even in the grave; of the Exchequer, and in the act of addressing and should contribute, by degrees, to a fund the House of Commons, while History, a female, which would soon be thus rendered percatching his portrait, is seated on one side, and a man naked and bound with chains, supposed And in thus duing, we should only be
manently available to the noblest uses. to represent Anarchy, is on the other.' (63001,)
• Major-General Hay (by Hopper) :- The de treading in the steps of those hy whom the ceased, habited in his regimentals, appears sink- noblest of our works of charity and piety ing into the arms of an athletic (undressed) attend- I were created and transmitted to us :
•We build churches,' says Mr. Wilberforce, What we would wish to suggest in our by calculation, as a matter of necessity; but, of modern days may best be stated in Mr. old, church-building was a delight, a luxury, a Markland's own words :passion. Then men of wealih would build some glorious fane from foundation to turret, and those whose means were less abundant
"Surely,' he says, ' by the rebuilding and rewould furnish a pillar, a transept, or a choir: storation of the old waste places of our Zion we each man felt a paternal interest in his work; should render far more honour to the dead than while he lived, he delighted to visit it, and let it be remembered that in all the works
by a continuance of our present practice. And watch its progress; when he died, his mortal remains were laid beneath the roof which he which have been recommended, panels with had raised, in the hope of His coming whose suitable inscriptions may be carefully let into the promise had called forth his bounty.'*
walls, recording the occasion when they were
raised and perfected, and the names of the inWe
e may add that the same practice dividuals to be commemorated. Thus the name seems to have prevailed both in France of a relation or friend would be identified with and England, in the erection of painted font and the altar call for restoration, there are
The shrine which holds his ashes. Should the g'ass windows, many of which appear to have contained monumental effigies of de out as most fitting memorials. Al the one the
many touching associations, which point them ceased persons. The Dean of Chichester deceased may have been baptized, and been has set an example of this kind in his own made an inheritor of that kingdom in which it cathedral, and we trust it will not be with may be humbly hoped his spirit resis in peace; out followers.
and at that altar he may, during the largest Mr. Markland shows that this practice of portion of his life, have meekly knelt, and a recontributing portions of sacred building of God's heavenly promises."
ceived with trembling joy the signs and seals was not unknown to the ancients :
• If the works here recommended for adoption Mr. Fellowes,' he says, 'in his recent tra- appear to be such as can only be accomplished vels in Asia Minor, met with several examples by a large outlay of money, and can therefore of the practice of individuals having contributed be effected solely by persons of fortune, there to the erection of portions of a building. He are modes by which ihe same objects can be atdescribes a beautiful temple of the Corinıbian lained by individuals of moderate means. In order at Labranda, “with twelve fluted co
the first place, instead of a paltry design being lumns, and four not fluted, but apparently pre
once COMPLETED, and an inferior church pared for ibis ornamental finish.” These twelve erected out of limited funds, ought not the old pillars present the great peculiarity of having a custom of building by degrees to be resoried to? panel or tablet not let in, but left uncut, projecting A plan for a large church might be laid down, above the fluting: on each tablet is an inscrip but a portion of it merely, a chancel or a trantion, showing the temple to have been a votive sept, might in the first instance be perfected; structure, e. g. “Menecrates, son of Menecrates, or the interior of a church might be finished, the chief physician of the city, gave, whilst while the completion and ornaments of the exStephanophoros, this column with ihe base and ternal walls, tower or spire, might be left to the capital; his daughter Tryphæna, herself also a care and munificence of others in future years. Stephanophoros and Gymnasiarchos, superin- In all these undertakings there might be a printending the work." "Leo, the son of Leo, ciple of expansion, both as regards the size and whilst Stephanophoros, gave the column with ornaments of a building. the base and capital, according to his promise,"
A signal example has recently been given &c., &c.
us of this laudable practice. The liberal founder The symmetry of a column must necessarily be of a church in the district of Eastover, Bridge“much disturbed,” as Mr. Fellowes states is the water, thus expressed himself in relation to ihe case, by the introduction of tablets of this de proposed fabric:-" The proposal which I now scription ; but if the precedent were adopted in make is to build the church, as far as may be, this country, inscriptions (whether as records of according to the drawing which is now laid private liberality, or as posthumous memorials) before the meeting. As accurately as it is posmight be so placed around the base of a column, sible to calculate, it will cost about 3,0001. to that the eye could not be offended by them.'
complete the church, exclusive of the spire. It
is my wish to go thus far at once, leaving the • Wilberforce on the Parochial System, p. 99. from my own resources, or by the assistance of
spire to be completed at some future time, when, Several instanres of this practice still remain in the church of St. Mary, Beverly. For example:-"the my friends, the necessary funds can be found. pillars which support the north side of the nave, are It was on this plan that the great cathedrals angels with scrolls in their hands, charged with in- were almost all erected: one bishop generally scriptions, which are repeated ai the back of the completed one portion of the building, leaving columns, recording the donors of pillars. The the whole to be finished by future generations ; Minstrells left behind them an evidence of their so that frequently two, three, or even four cenpublic spirit. They built one of the columns on the turies, elapsed between the commencement and ner:h side of the church, and placed an emblemati- the completion of the work.”' cal device on its capital with this inscription:Thys Pyllor made the Reynstyris.
We may add an instance where a beau-Oliver's Hist. of Beverly, pp. 167, 178, 351.
tiful addition has been made to a parish
church by the erection of a transept in ear- , appendages would admit its introduction with ly English, the lower part of which is ap- perfect propriety and the best effect. Grinlin propriated to a family vault, and the upper Gibbons's font in St. James's Church, Westminto stalls and seats for the family, while ster, and Sir Richard Westmacott's alto relievos slabs are placed within the tracery of the instances in point.'
on the screen of the Chapel of New College, are windows to receive the names of the persons who lie beneath. This is one of the nearest approaches which we have seen to the realization of our anthor's suggestions The church is that of Calbourne in the Isle art. VI.—Marschall Vorwärts ; oder Leof Wight; and the plan originated in the
ben, Thaten, und Character des Fürsten benevolence, good taste, and good sense of
Wahlstadt. Von Dr. Sir Richard Simeon, Bart.
Raushnick. (Marshal Forwards ; Mr. Markland has not been unmindful
Life, Actions, and Character of Prince of the objections which may be advanced.
Blücher von Wahlstadt.) Leipsig, 1836. *Should it be urged,' he says, that these plans, if generally pursued, would lead to a The unjust apportionment of present and neglect of sculpture, and that we should trans- posthumous fame to military eminence has fer the commemoration of the dead from sculp- often been the subject of grave remon. ture to architecture, a little reflection will satisfy strance on the part of the aspirants to civil us that the art of sculpture would, on the con and literary distinction. Helvelius, in his trary, be materially benefited.
The accomplished artist, instead of being doomed to tasks
work "Sur l'Esprit,' once famous, now which must often be to him of the most insipid little read, attempts the solution of this and unin:eresting character, from their not call standing riddle in human affairs :ing for any high exercise of his genius, would be left to devote himself to works more conge.
If we can in any instance imagine that we pial to his taste and feelings. Let statues, and perceive a rallying point for the general esteem busts, and relievos be multiplied, but let their of mankind—if, for example, the military be destination be changed. Let the statues and considered among all nations the first of sciences busts of literary men be placed in those Institu--ihe reason is, that the great captain is in tions with which they have been connected. nearly all countries the man of greatest utility, Let those of lawyers be placed in Courts of Just- at least up to the period of a convention for ice, or in the Halls of the Inns of Court; those general peace. This peace once confirmed, a of medical men in the Colleges, where their preference over the greatest captain in the lectures were delivered, or in the Hospitals, world would unquestionably be given to men which they have benefited by the exercise of celebrated in science, law, literature, or the their talents and philanthropy; and those of fine arts. From whence,' says Helvelius, with eminent ecclesiastics in their College Libraries an eye to the pervading theory of his fallacious or Halls. Let provision be made in the Houses treatise, “I conclude that the general interest is of Parliament now rising for the introduction of in every nation the only dispenser of its esteem! statues within their walls. How much more advantageously might those of Lord Chatham Unfortunately for the French sage, that and of Pitt, of Fox, Horner, and Canning, have which he calls esteem, which we should appeared in such a building, than crowded, al- rather term renown, is indiscrimiuately most buried, as they are, in ihe adjoining Abbey enough bestowed upon the destroyers as of Westminster! Of such men monuments are well as the saviours of nations - upon the not required on the particular spots where their ashes rest—these form the most precious de
aggressor who amuses himself with posit.
the bloody game of foreign conquest, as “ In Santa Croce's holy precincts lie
well as upon the patriot who resists him. Ashes which make it holier, dust which is
Philosophers may draw distinctions in the Even in itself an immortality.”
study, but Cæsar will share the meed with Shakspeare's gravestone, with its quaint lines, evident fact-o investigate the principle
Leonidas. To give a sounder solution of the would have drawn the same number of pilgrims on which society seems agreed to furnish to Stratford if no mural monument to his memory had existed; and when we approach the the price for the combination of moral and gravestone, simply inscribed with the name of physical qualities, essential to the compoSAMUEL Johnson, in Poet's Corner, it awakens sition of military eminence, would lead us far keener emotions than the contemplation of beyond our limits, if not beyond our depth. his colossal statue in St. Paul's. But we must So far, we fear, Helvetius is right, that till recollect that sculpture is essentially combined the millenium shall arrive it will be vain to with the plans here proposed. The churchporch, the altar-screen, and the font, may all be struggle against the pervading tendencies decorated, lavishly decorated, if desired, with in which the alleged abuse originates; and appropriate sculpture ; all these ecclesiastical | that the injured parties must still be con