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nate blindness, that the charm of this per- that attended me, if it was the custome for the formance consists. We should be sorry in- boys to play at ball on a Sunday ? she said, deed to mar its original beauty by comment. They play on other days as well as on Sunaries. It will vindicate itself abundantly, church; and I suppose, by my questions, the

She called her mother to show me the even in a few disjointed fragments, for woman took me for a heathen, as I found she which alone we have room—and, we think, did not know of any other mode of worship but vindicate also Dr. Smollett from many of her own : so, that she might not think the bishthe charges of violent caricature that have op's chair defiled by my sitting doun in it, I always been alleged against some of the told her I was a Christian, though the way of most happy of his Scotch portraitures. The worship in my country differed from hers. In serene scorn of Lesmahago himself does not particular, she stared when I asked what the go beyond several of the following speci- peared to me to be so many Cheshire cheeses.

things were that they kneeled upon, as they apmens of confidential chit-chat.

I asked the rents of the lands about Durham, Mrs. Calderwood appears to have been and was told by the landlord they were so dear an excellent wife and mother--her husband, he had no farm, for they let at thirty or forty a weak good-natured man, of some accom- shillings per aiker near the toun; that a cow plishment, left all liis worldly concerns to

was from four to six pounds sterling, and they her management; and though he had been gave, the best, about eight Scots pints per day. on the Continent before, and she never out

That night we lay at Northallertoun.

Next day, the 7th, we dined none, but bait. of Scotland, she is evidently commander-in- ed at different places; and betwixt Doncaster chief throughout the progress.

and Bautry a man rode about in an odd way, We do not trace ihe piety and devout whom we suspected for a highwayman. Upon temper of the Gospel Coltnesses in any part his coming near, John Ratiry pretended to make of her journal; but it will be seen that, al- a quarle with the post-boy, and let him know, though her brother Sir James had early cast

so loud as to be heard by the other, that he kept aside the hereditary attachment to the Pres- good powder and ball to keep such folks as bim

in order; upon which the fellow scampered off byterian discipline, she retained enough of

cross the common. Upon our coming to Bauiry, the old leaven to have an almost equal con we were told that a gentelman was robed there tempt for episcopalianism as for popery: It some days before, by a man whose descripis evident that she had never till she reached tion answered the one we saw.

I found in Durham passed the threshold of any place generall

, before I came here, that all the of worship in which Christian people kneel grounds lett very low, and that, about all the when they pray, and think it more decent owns, the aikers were about twenty-five shilto stand than to sit when they sing psalms. first intelligent person I met with was Rachel,

lings, and the farms not above fifteen. The The couple travel from Edinburgh to the chambermaid. Rachel could answer alLondon in their own postchaise, attended most every question I asked; and I suppose, by by John Rattray, a steady servingman, on that time, I had learned to conform my inquihorseback, with pistols in his holsters, and rys to the knowledge of the people, being, before a good broadsword at his belt. There was

this, always answered with I don't know,” to also a case of pistols in the carriage, of the simplest question I could ask; and often

stared at, as much as to say, “I wonder how which, we fancy, the lady (potwithstanding such things come into any body's head :” the the mild and elegant physiognomy repre, post-boys, who drive the same road for years, sented in her picture at Poulton) would hardly know a gentleman's house, or the name have been more likely to make fit use, had of any place less than a village. Rachel could there been any occasion for it, than the tell who lived near her, what farm her master worthy laird with the pocket Horace. The keeps, and what rent he payd, and what it protrain is not encumbered, apparently, by which was, to wash it well from the milk with

: gave me a receipt for salting buiter, anything in the nature of an Abigail; at salt and water, and a little salt, then take it least, none is mentioned, and the lady has piece by piece, like the bigness of half a pound, more talk with the inn-chambermaids, and and put it in a can, spreading every piece above so forth, than would probably have occurred another with a sprinkling of salt betwixt each.' if she had had a female follower of her own. -pp. 105, 106.

· June 8th.-From Bautry we went seventyThey start on the 3d of June, and, travelling each day twelve or fourteen hours, reach five miles, and lay at Stilton: there was a fine town on the evening of the 10th-good linen was as perfect rags as I ever saw, plain

large inn, and everything in great order, but the speed in 1756.

linen with fifiy holes in each towel. The land

lady gave me the receipt for making S:ilton June 6th.--We dined at Durhame: and I cheese (which is famous), as follows, &c.—-p. went to see the Cathedrall: it is a prodigious 107. bulky building. It was on Sunday, betwixt ser · June 9th.-From Stilton we dined at Hat. mons, and in the piazzas (cloisters) there were field, where there was a great many coaches in several boys playing at ball. I asked the girl the court-yard with company leaving London,

and every family had a coach full of abigalls, | little intelligence as the people; whereas with who held a most prodigious chatering and scold- us, there are few places that does not hang on ing at not having proper attendance given thern. the side of a hill, by which means the caitell From Hatfield we came to Barnet, the last stage sees what is above or below them, and so enfrom London, where we stopped; and whilst deavours to get at it. I was convinced of this we changed horses, I asked some questions at by some oxen a butcher was driving to market, the maid who stood at the door, which she an- very large and fat; they walked along betwixt swered, and went in, for we did not come out of the hedges very well, but no sooner were they the chaise. In a little, out comes a squinting come to a place where there was only an old smart-like black girl, and spoke to me, as I ditch and no hedge on the one hand, but they thought, in Irish, upon which I said, “ Are you scrambled over it very cleverly into a field of a Highlander ?” “No," said she; “I am Welch: rye. . . I could have little conversation with the are not you Welch ?” “No," said I;“ but I am people I saw, for though they could have underScots, and the Scots and Welch are near rela- stood me, I did not them, and never heard a more tions, and much better born than the English.” barbarous language, and unlike English as any “Oh!" said she, “the maid said you was Welch, other lingo. I suppose it is the custome in a and sent me to see you." She took me by the publick house for strangers to roar and bully, for hand, and looked so kindly that I suppose she I found when I spoke softly they had all the apthought me her relation, because I was not pearance of being deaf. I think the cathedrall English; which makes me think the English of Durham is the most ridiculous piece of exare a people one may perhaps esteem or admire, pense I ever saw-to keep up such a pagentry of but they do not draw the affection of strangers, idle fellows in a country place, where there is neither in their own country nor out of it. From nobody to see or join with them, for there was Barnet we were to come io Kensingtoun green, not place for above fifty folks besides the perwhich led us a great way round, a very lonly and formers ! wild road, and nothing like the repair one would • After we passed Durham the country was expect so near a great town. We arrived at Lady more closs and levell. We sometimes had an Trelawny's at six o'clock, to the great astonish- extensive prospect, but not the least variely, so ment of the family, who looked as little for me that one would say there was too much of it; as for the day of judgment.

no opening of a scene, no watter, no distinction * Before I say anything of the great city, you betwixt a gentleman's seat and his tenant's will ask me what I think of England in generall. house, but that he was a little more smothered In the first place, it is easy to be seen who has up with trees, so that I am perswaded, if Scotlong been in peaceable possession, and who not, land was as much inclosed it would be much for till you come to Newark-upon-Trent, the prettier to look at. I do not think any thing furthest ever the Scots went into England, the could be more beautifull that the straths of improvements are not of old standing, nor the some of our large rivers, inclosed on every side, grounds don't seem to be of great value; they where the grounds hang so that each inclosure use them mostly for breeding of cattell and might be seen above another ; and, after they sheep. . . . .: The villages to the north of had advanced so high and steep, then the green Trent are but indifferent, and the churches very hill appearing above, covered with sheep, and thin sown; and, indeed, for a long time, one the waterfalls coming doun now and then bewould think the country no religion at all, being twixt the hills. They have nothing of the hardly either christian church or heathen tem- landscape prospect, but a rich extensive woody ple to be seen. The fields on both hands were prospect, and nothing appearing above another mostly grass; and the greatest variety and plenty but a Gothic spire in severall couns, and that of fine cattell, all of various colours. I admired for many miles from each oiher. We used 10 the cattell much more than the people, for they laugh at the folks in the Highlands for countseem to have the least of what we call smart- ing their neighbours ten and iwelve miles off ; ness of any folks I ever saw, and totally void of but in England they think no more of thirty all sort of curiosity, which perhaps some may miles than we do of five. Their roads are good think a good quality. In our first day's journey indeed, and their horses and machines light; in England, I asked the post-boy to whom the and the miles about London are, I am very lands on each hand belonged ? he said, “To Sir sure, not above 1000 yards, whereas they should Carneby." I knew who he meant, and, to try be 1750: besides, the levelness of the country him, asked, “What Sir Carneby, or what other makes travelling much quicker. They are very name he had ?" but he answered, “ Just Sir carefull in driving their horses, for, on the Carneby, who lived yonder;" and that he had smallest ashent, they go quite slow, and will never inquired into the sirname of the man in tell you they are going up hill. I could not whose ground he was born. As for the inclos- learn what weight their great waggons carried, ing in England, it is of all the different methods, none of them knowing any thing about it; but, both good and bad, that can be imagined; and by the number of horses they yoke, it must be that such insufficient inclosures as some are a great deal, otherwise they carry at 100 great keep in the cattell (which are so hard with us an expence; they yoke seven and eight horses. in Scotland) is entirely owing to the levelness Some have four wheels, and others iwo; these of the grounds, so thai an English cow does not last must be very exactly ballanced, not to oversee another spot than where she feeds, and has as burthen the horse, who has the weight on his

hack, and this sort of carriage is only practica

ble where there is no dounhill road; for, if this * Of course, Sir Carnaby Haggerston. carriage was put off its ballance in comeing

dou n, it would crush the horses, or, if going up, , shoemakers, &c.; and here is a squire of a small it would lift them up in the air. It is sur-estate in the county near by, and here are Mrs. prizing how much nonsense I have heard spo- this or that, old maids, and so many widow ken by folks who would introduce English ladys, with a parsonage house, a flourishing customs into Scotland, without considering the house. All the houses built of brick, and very difference of the two countrys: I must own I slight, and even some of timber, and iwo stories saw very little new to me, but what I could high, make them have a greater appearance plainly see was calculated for the particular than there is reality for; for I shall suppose situation of the country, and could never answer you took out the squire and set him in his for generall use. It has always been my country house, and the old maids and widow opinion that the fault-finders are the folks who ladies and place them with their relations, if want judgment, and not the people whose prac- they have any, in the country or in a greater tice they quarell, for time and experience has toun, and take a stone house with a thatch roof taught every part of every country io follow the of one story high, instead of a brick one of two, method most agreeable to their soil and situa- and there are few country villages in Scotland tionthough perhaps mechanicks may not have where I will not muster out as many inhabitarrived to the utmost perfection amongst them; anis as are in any of these post touns. Then I neither has that generall benefit of made roads observed there were very few folks to be met reached them yet, which in all probability will with on the road, and many times we would have many various effects we cannot forsee. I post an hour, which is seven miles, and not see do not think the grounds in England are in gene- as many houses and people put together on the rall so rich as they have the appearance of.'- road. Then, on Sunday, we travelled from pp. 107-111.

eight o'clock, till we came to Newcastle, where

the church was just going in, so that I may say It is impossible that anything should sur we travelled fifteen miles to Newcastle, and pass the rapidity of the lady's decisions as the few people we met going to church upon to England in general from a chaise-window the road surprised me much. The same as we view of the Great North Road; but we

went all day long; it had no appearance of the may content ourselves with having marked swarms of people we always see in Scotland a few of her most charming naïvetés in going about on Sunday, even far from any con

siderable toun. italics.

Then the high price of labour

is an evidence of the scarcity of people. I went Her remarks on the population of Eng. into what we call a cottage, and there was a land in the next passage, however hastily young woman with her child, sitting; it was uttered, show a keen and quick eye, and it very clean, and laid with coarse flags on the is interesting to compare them with the floor, but built of timber stoops, and what we vast increase among us since 1756; but the call cat and clay walls. She took me into what most curious point is this good lady's cold she called her parlour, for the magnificent names contemptuous manner of describing what they give makes one beleive things very fine must have been to her a most complete no

till they see them ; this parlour was just like to

the other. I asked what her husband was? velty—the clean and decent interior of a She said, a labouring man, and got his shilling. Jabouring man's cottage. We heartily wish per day; that she did nothing but took care of our agricultural peasants in the districts she her children, and now and then wrought a little alludes to could now earn wages equivalent plain work. So I found that, except it is in the to a shilling a day in 1756, and that many and if there were as many men in the country

manufacturing countys, the women do nothing ; a poor man's wife could afford in 1842 to lead a life of what she calls doing nothing' be got for less wages than a shilling per day.

as one might suppose there would, a man could —that is to say, merely taking care of her Then the high wages at London shows the home and her children, and probably making country cannot provide it with servants. It as well as mending every article of raiment drains the country, and pone return again who used either by her children, herself, or her ever goes there as chairmen, porters, hackney husband.

coachmen, or footmen; if they come to old age,

seldom spend it in the country, but oftener in an • The people in London, who see such crouds almshouse, and often leave no posterity. Then every day, were surprised at me when I said, I the export they make of their victuall (grain) is did not think England sufficiently peopled, nor a presumption they have not inhabitants to so populous by far, in proportion to its extent consume it in the country, for, by the common and produce, as the best cultivated countys in calculation, there are seven millions and one Scotland; and I must beleive this till I see one half in England, and the ground in the kingdom fact that can contradict it, which I have not is twenty-eight millions of aikers, which is four seen yet, but many presumptions for what I aikers to each person. Take into this the im

In the first place, look from the road mense quantity of horses which are keept for no on each hand, and you see very few houses; real use all over the kingdom, and it will be touns there are, but at the distance of eight or found, I think, that England could maintain ten miles. Then, who is it that lives in them? many more people than are in it. Besides, let There are no manufactories carried on in them; every nation pick out its own native subjects they live by the travellers, and by the country who are but in the first generation, the Irish, about, that is, there are tradesmen of all kinds, the Scots, the French, &c., and I am afraid the perhaps two or three of each, smiths, wrights,' native English would appear much fewer than

27

assert.

VOL. LXX.

they imagine. On the other hand, Scotland must round it, is the extent ever they saw of it? appear to be more populous for its extent and Lord Anson, he sailed round the world, thereproduce; first, by its bearing as many evacua- fore he must rule all navall affairs; which is tions in proportion, both to the plantations, to just like a schoolmaster imagining himself quathe fleet and army, besides the numbers who lified for the greatest post in the law, because go to England; and, indeed, breeding inhabil- he understands the language in which the law ants to every country under the sun; and if, is wrote. The King, every body says, and I do instead of following the wrong policy of supply- believe it, knows more of the world, and takes ing their deficiency of grain by importing it, more concern, than any of them.'—pp. 114, 115. they would cultivaie their waste lands, it would

We need scarcely remind the reader that do more than maintain all its inhabitants in plenty.'--p. 113.

all this was written when the Duke of NewI do not think the soil near London is natu- castle was on his last legs, and the national raly rich, and neither the corns nor grass are ferment about Admiral Byng at its height. extraordinary. I thought their crops of hay all There was some family connexion bevery light, and but of an indifferent quality; tween the Calderwoods and Mr. George they call it meadow hay, but we would call it Stone Scott, sub-preceptor to the Prince of tending pretty near to bogg bay. I think the

Wales, afterwards George III.. most surprising thing is, how they are supplied with such an immense number of fine horses, and "I had frequent opportunitys of seeing George how they are all maintained on hard meat all Scott, and asked him many questions about the the year round.

Prince of Wales. He says he is a lad of very * Ås for London, every body has either heard good principles, good naiured, and extreamly of or seen it. The first sight of it did not strike honest, has no heroick strain, but loves peace, me with anything grand or magnificent. It is and has no turn for extravagance; modest, and not situated so as to show to advantage, and, has no tendency to vice, and has as yet very indeed, I think the tile roofs have still a paltry virtuous principles ; has the greatest temptation look, and so has the brick houses; for a village to gallant with the ladies, who lay themselves it does well enough, as the character of a village out in the most shamefull manner to draw him is clean and neat; but there is something more in, but to no purpose. He says, if he were not substantiall and durable in our ideas of a great what he is, they would not mind him. Prince city than what brick and tile can answer. Edward is of a more amorous complexion, but

• Many authors and correspondents take up no court is payed to him, because he has so much time and pains to little purpose in de- little chance to be king. scriptions. I never could understand anybody's Nobody thinks of going farther to air than descriptions, and I suppose nobody will under- Hyde Park, which is very pretty. But nothing stand mine; neither do I intend to say any but the greatest stupidity can suffer the same things which have ever been thought worthy to mile or two of ground every day in their lives, be put in print, so will only say London is a when, at the same time, it is no exercise nor very large and extensive city. But I had time air, for it is a gravel road, quite smothered with to see very little of it; and every street is so The trees indeed are very pretty, being like another, that, sceing part, you may easily fine timber, and fine carpet-grass, with cows suppose the whole. There are severall open- and deer going in it; but it is a small part of ings and squares which are very pretty ; but the park in which coaches are allowed to go. the noise in most of the houses in the rooms to There are always a great number of coaches, the street is intolerable. You will think it very and all other machines, except hacks, some of odd, that I was a fortnight in London, and saw them very neat and light; but the beauty of none of the royall family; but I got no cloaths them is the horses of all different kinds. The made till the day before I left it, though I gave Duke of Marlborough had a sett of peyets, very them to the making the day after I came. I prettily marked. cannot say my curiosity was great: I found, as *Any of the English folks I got acquainted I approached the Court and the grandees, they with I liked very well. They seem to be goodsunk so miserably in my oppinion, and came so natured and humane; but still there is a sort of far short of the ideas I had conceived, that I ignorance about them with regard to the rest of was loath to lose the grand ideas I had of the world, and that their conversation runs in a kings, princes, ministers of state, senators, &c., very narrow channel

. They speak with a great which I suppose I had gathered from romance relish of their publick places, and say, with a sort in my youth. We used to laugh at the English | of flutler, that they shall to Vauxhall and Rafor being so soon afraid when there was any nelagh, but do not seem to enjoy it while there." danger in state affairs, but now I do excuse [ How true!] ‘As for Vauxhall and Ranelagh them. For we at a distance think the wisdom I wrote you my oppinion of them before. The of our governours will prevent all these things; first I think but a vulgar sort of entertainment, but those who know and see our ministers and could not think myself in genteel company, every day see there is no wisdom in them, and whiles I heard a man calling, “ Take care of that they are a parcell of old, iguorant, senseles your watches and pockets.” I saw the Countbodies, who mind nothing but eating and drink- ess of Coventry ai Ranelagh. I think she is ing, and rolling about in Hyde Park, and know a pert, stinking-like busy, going about with her no more of the country, or the situation of it, face up to the sky, that she might see from unnor of the numbers, strength, and circumstances der her hat, which she bad pulled quite over of it, than they never had been in it; or how her nose that nobody might see her face. She should they, when London, and twenty miles was in dishabile and very shabby drest, but was

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painted over her very jaw-bones. I saw only, he could give up to it without having the appearthree English peers, and I think you could not ance of a recluse, and that he submitted to the mak a tolerable one out of them. : . .. I saw pagantry rather than make it his only business.' very few, either men or women, tolerably hand

The ladys pass and repass each Mrs. Calderwood on the English Cuisine other with very little appearance of being is particularly meritorious. We have room acquainted, and no company separates or goes only for one paragraph of this rich section. frorn those they came in with, or joins another, and indeed they all seem to think there is no ‘As for their victualls they make such a work great 'entertainment; but, however, they are about, I cannot enter into the taste of them, or there, and that is enough. The Duke [of Cum- rather, I think they have no taste to enter into. berland) uses to frequent Ranelagh, but was not The meat is juicy enough, but has so little taste, there that night I went. There were severall that, if you shut your eyes, you will not know Hanoverian officers, very rugged-like carles, by either taste ar smell what you are eating. stiff-backed and withered, with gray hairs tyed The lamb and veall look as if it had been behind, and the forelock cut short by the ear, í blanched in water. The smell of dinner will and there was a hussar attending them, a thick, never intimate that it is on the table. No such fat fellow, drest in furrs, and Bess's great French effluvia as beef and cabbad ge was ever found at muff upon his head, not the red feather one. London.' [ Alas! alas! ] The fish, I think,

“I went one morning to the Park, in hopes to have the same fault. As for the salmond, I did see the duke review a troop of the horse guards, not meddle with it, for it cut like cheese. Their but he was not there; but the guards were very turbet is very small by ours, but I do not think pretty. Sall Blackwood and Miss Buller were it preferable. Their soll is much smaller, and with me; they were afraid to push pear for the pot so much meat on them; they are like the croud, but I was resolved to get forward, so least ever you saw; were it not that they are pushed in. They were very surly; and one of long and narrow, I should think them common them asked me where I would be; would I flounders. Their lobsters come from Norway have my toes trode off? “Is your toes trode or Scotland.'-pp. 116-120. off?" said I. “ No,” said he. iThen give me your place, and I'll take care of

The party, after making a visit or two in they are going to fire," said he. “ Then it's Kent, proceed to Harwich, and there emtime for you to march off,” said I; “ for I can bark for Holland. stand fire. I wish your troops may do as well.” On which he sneaked off, and gave me his Saturday, 26th June.- We set out early for place. Some of them were very civill; but fear of being too late for the paquet, and breakwhat was of a peice with many other things, fasted at Colchester. We were attended at these horse guards are closs in London, seen breakfast by a drawer, whom I questioned acevery day by every body, are reviewed almost cording to custom about the town and country, every morning in the Park, where I suppose the and from whom I received much more satisfacsame folks sometimes come to see them, yet tion than common, upon which I was going to none of all near where I stood could tell me ihe declare him the smartest Englishman I had name of one officer: that, I insist upon, is pe- seen, when, unfortunately for England, he turnculiar to the English.

ed out to be a Frenchman, transplanted young.' I paid some visits, and went to see Green--p. 124. wich Hospitall, which is a ridiculous fine thing. The view is very pretty, which you see just as We had no intention to trespass on Mrs. well in a rary-show glass. No wonder the Engo Calderwood's continental chapters. Here, lish are transported with a place they can see however, is one sentence from her descripabout them in. Kensingtoun palace looks bet

tion of Rotterdam :ter within than without, and there is some very fine marbles, pictures, and mirrors in it. But I • The Dutch maid-servants do nothing on earth could not see the private apartment of the old but wash the house and the streets, and the ves. goodman, which they say is a great curiosity. hells of the house and kitchen; none of them There are a small bed with silk curtains, two wash their linen at home, they are all washed satiin quilts with no blanket, a hair matress; a in publick fields and brought in wet, so that, plain wicker basket stands on the table, with a when the maids have not them to dry and dress, silk night-gown and night-cap in it; a candle they have nothing to do but to slester and wash. with an extinguisher ; some billets of wood on They have plenty of water, and every house each side of the fire. He goes to bed alone, has a pump, and they will have a pump of rises, lights bis fire and mends it himself, and water in every story. This is one inducement nobody knows when he rises, which is very to wash, but the originall of it is the necessity, early, and is up severall hours before he calls any- as the streets would in a few days gather a fog body. He dines in a small room adjoining, in betwixt the bricks, and that in a short time which there is nothing but very common things. would certainly breed a vermine.'—p. 135. He sometimes, they say, sups with his daughters and their company, and is very merry, and sings Her description of a Dutch house brings French songs, but at present he is in very low spirits. Now, this appearance of the King's out some curious revelations concerning the manner of living would not diminish my idea of interior finishing, &c., of the time in Scot

land. a King. It rather looks as if he applyed to busi

It would appear, for instance, that ness, and knew these hours were the only ones Mrs. Calderwood viewed a door-bell as

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