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• The Duke of Rutland to Mr. Pitt. me to-day by your letter and Mr. Orde's of the
event of Friday. I had hoped that neither pre*Dublin Castle, August 13, 1785.
judice nor party could on such an occasion have • MY DEAR PITT,
made so many proselytes against the true inte"I am most extremely concerned to inform rests of the country; but the die seems in a you, that after a tedious debate, which continued great measure to be cast, at least for the pretill past nine in the morning, the House came to
sent. Whatever it leads to, we have the satisa division, when the numbers for admitting the faction of having proposed a system which, I bill were 127 to 108. You may well imagine believe, will not be discredited even by its failthat so small a majority as nineteen on so strong ure; and we must wait times and seasons for a question as the admission of the bill affords carrying it into effect. I think you judge most no great hopes as to the ultimate fate of the wisely in making it your plan to give the inter,
It will be an effort of our united val of a long adjournment as soon as the bill strength to get the bill printed, that at least it has been read and printed. With so doubưsula may remain as a monument of the liberality of majority, and with so much industry to raise a Great Britain, and of my desire to promote a spirit of opposition without doors, this is not system which promises such essential advantage the moment for pressing farther. It will reto the empire. All my influence must likewise main to be seen whether, by showing a firm and be exerted on Monday to defeat a motion from unalterable decision to abide by the system in Mr. Flood, to the purpose of declaring.“ the four its present shape, and by exerting every effort propositions, as passed in the Parliament of both to instruct and influence the country at Great Britain, as destructive of the liberties and large into a just opinion of the advantages held constitution of Ireland.” Such a declaration is out to them, a favourable change may be proof a nature too hostile to be endured for a mo- duced in the general current of opinion before ment. The speech of Mr. Grattan was, I un- the time comes for resuming the consideration derstand, a display of the most beautiful elo- of the bill. I am not at all sanguine in my exquence perhaps ever heard, but it was seditious pectations of your division on the intended moand inflammatory to a degree hardly credible. tion on Monday last. Though an Opposition The theory and positions laid down both in his frequently loses its advantage by attempting to speech and that of Mr. Flood amounted to push it too far, yet, on such a question, and nothing less than war with England. This was with the encouragement of so much success, I distinctly told him in so many words by Mr. rather conclude that absurdity and faction will Pole.* The Attorney-General | supported me have gained a second triumph; but I am very in the most honourable and manly manner, and far from thinking it impossible that reflection has committed himself without reserve. Our and discussion may operate a great change beonly line left is to force, if possible, the bill to fore the time when your Parliament will probe read, and then to adjourn, that men may bably meet after the adjournment. I very much have time to return to their senses. It grieves wish you may at least have been just able to me to think that a system which held out so ward off Flood's motion, lest its standing on the much advantage to the empire, and which was journals should be an obstacle to farther proso fair between the two countries, should meet ceedings at a happier moment. It is still ala fate so contrary to its deserts ; and I may say most incomprehensible to me who can have Ireland will have reason to repent her folly if been the deserters who reduced our force so low, she persists in a conduct so dangerous, so de- and I wait with great impatience for a more structive of her true interest, and repugnant to particular account. every principle of connexion between herself
• All I have to say, in the mean time, is very and Great Britain. I have only to add, that I short : let us meet what has happened, or whaistill do not absolutely despond; but, be the ever may happen, with the coolness and deterevent what it may, no alteration shall take place mination of persons who may be defeated, but in my determination : I will never think of cannot be disgraced, and who know that those quitting my station while I can render an iota who obstruct them are greater sufferers than of strength to your government, or to the great themselves. You have only to preserve the cause in which we are embarked. I will write same spirit and temper you have shown through. more fully after Monday. I was up all last
out in the remainder of this difficult scene. night, and am quite worn out.
Your own credit and fame will be safe, as well • Believe me to be ever yours, as that of your friends. I wish I could say the
same of the country you have been labouring to
serve. Our cause is on too firm a rock bere to We will add Mr. Pitt's reply :
be materially shaken, even for a time, by this
disappointment; and when the experience of • Mr. Pitt to the Duke of Rutland. this fact has produced a little more wisdom in Putney Heath, Aug. 17, 1785.
Ireland, I believe the time will yet come when My dear Duke, -I confess myself not a lit. countries, and for the advantage of both. It
we shall see all our views realized in both tle disappointed and hurt in the account brought may be sooner or later, as accident, or perhaps
(for some time) malice, may direct; but it will Now Lord Maryborough.
be right at last. We must spare no human + The Attorney-General for Ireland was then the exertion to bring forward the moment as early Right Hon. John Fitzgibbon, afterwards Lord as possible; but we must be prepared also to Chancellor and Earl of Clare.
wait for it on one unisorm and resolute ground,
be it ever so late. It will be no small consola- We cannot leave the subject of Ireland tion to you, in the doubtful state of this one im. without doing justice to the character and portant object, that every other part of the pub conduct of the Duke of Rutland.* Throughsic scene affords the most encouraging and animating prospect; and you have, above all,
correspondence he appears to very the satisfaction of knowing that your govern- great advantage, combining a frank and ment has made a more vigorous effort (what- cordial spirit, and a delicate sense of honour, ever be its ultimate success) than I believe with good judgment, prudence, and vigilant any other period of Irish history will produce, attention w his duties. In reference io the since the present train of government has been very subject which we touched upon just established. I write this as the first result of now—the Irish Union-a prediction which my feelings, and I write it to yourself alone.
he makes on the 16th of June, 1784, indi• Believe me ever, • Your most affectionate and faithful friend,
cates surely no common degree of foresight • W. Pitt.' and sagacity. He is speaking of the Irish
volunteers :In the extracts we have given relative to • The volunteer corps were reviewed in the the commercial propositions, there is one Phænix Park about a fortnight since. Their passage which at first sight may have ex. numbers were much diminished from the former cited the reader's surprise—where Mr. Pitt year, in spite of all exertions made use of to so emphatically declares his resolution to alarm and irritate; so that I am in hopes this exclude the Catholics from any share in the self-appointed army may fall to the ground withrepresentation or the government.' Strong would prove a most fortunate circumstance. If expressions from the same minister who, in some such event should not have effect, the pe1801, resigned office on finding his Royal riod cannot be far distant when they must be Master refuse to concede the Roman Ca- spoken to in a peremptory and decisive manner. tholic claims! The words of the letter may, For the existence of a government is very precawe say, have excited surprise at first sight rious while an armed force, independent of and
- but at first sight only; for on examination unconnected with the state for the purpose of awit will be found that the principles of Mr. ing the legislature into all its wild and visionary
schemes, is permitted to endure. The northern Pitt, on both occasions, were perfectly uni- newspapers take notice of an intention in sonie form and constant. He held, that so long of the corps to address the French king; and as Ireland was a separate kingdom, with a which they recommend as a very proper and parliament of its own, so long the Roman spirited measure. No meeting for such a laudaCatholics, forming a majority of the popu- ble purpose has yet taken place. I can scarcely lation, could not, with safety to the Esta- believe it, though the madness of some of these
armed legislators might go to anything. Were blished Church and Constitution, be admitted to a share-since their share would then that, without an union, Ireland will not be con
I to indulge a distant speculation, I should say be a large preponderance—in the repre- nected with Great Britain in twenty years sentation ; but that if the two nations were longer.' blended and mixed together by a legislative Irish subjects are not the only ones treated union, then the Roman Catholics, becoming in this correspondence-there are also freonly a minority of the population of the whole empire, might without danger be ad quent and interesting touches of English
politics. We will give from Mr. Pitt's letmitted to equal privileges. Such are the principles laid down by Mr. Pitt himself in ters three extracts referring to these at three the letter to the King, which is dated Janu- and the Duke of Rutland were battling to
very different periods. The first when he ary 31, 1801, and which, in 1827, was first gether in opposition, but with the prospect made public by Lord Kenyon. We have of power close before them; the second no thoughts of here inflicting upon our when Mr. Pitt, in power, bad yet to struggle readers any renewed discussion on the mo
against an adverse and exasperated majormentous question of the Roman Catholic ity of the House of Commons; the third claims; we are at present only concerned when Mr. Pitt, after appealing to the peoin showing that, whether Mr. Pitt's views ple, again met the House of Commons, and upon this question be considered wise or found himself as strong in parliamentary as unwise, salutary or pernicious, they were in popular support, exactly the same in 1786 as in 1801, and The first is dated November 22, 1783:were alike pursued with lofty firmness. For their sake he was equally ready in the * We may be pardoned for recalling to our readers first year to hazard popularity, and in the the amiable impression of His Grace's private life latter
and manners derived from thc Memoirs of his veyear to sacrifice power.
nerated prolégé, Mr. Crabbe, who, on Mr. Burke's
recommendation, became domestic chaplain at BelSee Quart. Rev. vol. xxxvi. Annual Register, voir Castle in 1782, and owed all his subsequent 1827, vol. ii., p. 472.
preferments to the kindness of the House of Ratland.
Correspondence between Mr. Pitt and the Duke of Rutland.
“We are in the midst of contest, and, I think, position argued everything weakly, and had the approaching to a crisis. The bill which Fox has appearance of a vanquished party, which apbrought in relative to India will be, one way or peared still more in the division, when the other, decisive for or against the coalition.' It numbers were 282 to 114. We can have little is, I really think, the boldest and most unconsti- doubt that the progress of the session will furtutional measure ever attempted, transferring at nish throughout a happy contrast to the last. one stroke, in spite of all charters and compacts, We have indeed nothing to contend with but the immense patronage and influence of the East the heat of the weather and the delicacy of some to Charles Fox, in or out of ofhce. I think it of the subjects which must be brought forwill with difficulty, if at all, find its way through ward.' our House, and can never succeed in yours. Ministry trùst all on this one die, and will proba
We close this volume with the earnest bly fail. They have hurried on the bill so fast hope that it may not be the only one of its that we are to have the second reading on Thurs- class to come before us. Every succeeding day next, Nov. 27th. I think we shall be strong day, as it bears us further from the era of on that day, but much stronger in the subse-Pitt and Fox, removes more and more of quent stages. If you have any member within the few who yet lingered amongst us, the fifty or a hundred miles of you, who cares for the constitution or the country, pray send him to
contemporaries and friends of those illusthe House of Commons as quick as you can. I trious men. Only last year we saw depart trust you see that this bill will not easily reach the sole surviving cabinet colleague of Pitt the House of Lords; but I must tell you that in his first administration ; only last month Ministry flatter themselves with carrying it the devoted widow of Fox. But Time through before Christmas.'
should not all destroy; and while, on the
one hand, it breaks the remaining links of The second is of March 23, 1784:
living affection, so, on the other hand, it
should cast aside the ties of official reserve • The interesting circumstances of the present moment, though they are a double reason for -it should unlock the most secret scrutoire my writing to you, hardly leave me the time to -it should draw forth the most hoarded do it. Per tot discrimina rerum, we are at papers. The words 'private' and 'most length arrived within sight of a dissolution. private' on the cover need be no longer The bill to continue the powers of regulating spells to restrain us. We may now, withthe intercourse with America to the 20th of out any breach of public duty-without any June will pass the House of Lords to-day. wound to personal feelings-explore the That, and the Mutiny Bill, will receive the Royal Assent to-morrow, and the King will
hidden thoughts, the inward workings of then make a short speech and dissolve the Par- those two great minds which stood arrayed liament. Our calculations for the new elections against each other during twenty-three are very favourable, and the spirit of the people stormy and eventful years. We may trace seems still progressive in our favour. The new them in their boyhood, and inquire whether Parliament may meet about the 15th or 16th of it was in part through careful training, or May, and I hope we may so employ the interval all by their endowments at birth, that each as to have all the necessary, business rapidly of them inherited his father's gifts of genius brought on, and make the session a short one.'
—that rarest of all gifts to inherit from a The 24th of the following May is the date parent-as if, according to the fine thought of our third extract :
of Dante, the Great Giver had willed to
show that it proceeds from himself alone: • I cannot let the messenger go without con
* Rade volte risurge per li rami gratulating you on the prospect confirmed to us
L'umana probitade, e questo vuole by the opening of the session. Our first battle
Quei che la da, perche da lui si chiami.'* was previous to the address, on the subject of the return for Westminster. The enemy chose We may, perhaps, by the journal of some to put themselves on bad ground, by moving secretary or some trusted friend, pursue that two Members ought to have been returned, them in their country retirement, and their without first hearing the High-Bailiff to explain familiar conversation. the reasons of his conduct. We beat them on the side of Pitt along the avenue that he
walk by this by 283 to 136. The High-Bailiff is to attend to-day, and it will depend upon the circum- planted at Holwood, or sit with Fox bestances stated whether he will be ordered to neath the wide-spreading cedar at St. Anne's. proceed in the scrutiny, or immediately to make We may see the blotted notes from whence a double return, which will bring the question grew the elaborate oration still perused before a committee. In either case I have no with delight; we may trace in some hasty doubt of Fox being thrown out, though in either sketch the germ of some great enactment there may be great delay, inconvenience, and
We expense, and the choice of the alternative is del- | by which we continue to be ruled. icate. We afterwards proceeded to the address, may follow the rival statesmen in their far in which nothing was objected to but the thanking the King expressly for the dissolution. Op.
• Purgat., lib. vii., verse 121.
divergent paths through life, until their final they will hardly fail to give honour due to resting-place, under the same stately roof, that scholar who set the first example in and within a few paces of each other : and remodelling our public education, and gave thus, while such stores of information as the a stimulus which is now acting on almost present volume supplies come gradually to all the public schools in the country.* light, both Pitt and Fox will no doubt be- On the other hand, John Wordsworth come far better known to the present gene- has sunk in the prime of life, exhausted by ration than they could be to the great mass his labours ere iheir fruits had been given of those amongst whom their own life was to the public. Non res, sed spes erat :' cast.
but how well-rounded and sure a hope, all who know Cambridge can say. We will not add anything of our own to the following sketch from the hand of his brother, the distinguished master of Harrow School.
(After the details of his childhood and boyART. II.-1. Αισχύλου Χοηφόροι. The Choë- hood, from his birth in 1805, the account
phoræ of Æschylus, with Notes critical, proceeds :) explanatory, and philological. By the • He became a Scholar of Trinity College in Rev. T. W. Peile, M. A., &c. London. 1826, and a Fellow in 1830. He usually resided 1840.
there till 1833, when he made a tour in France, 2. Bibliotheca Græca, curantibus F. Jacobs Switzerland, and Italy. He spent a considerable et V. C. F. Rost. Æschyli Tragedi- of the Medicean MS. of Aschylus; having, be
time at Florence in making an accurate collation arum, Vol. I. Orestea : Sectio 2, Choëpho-fore his departure from England, contributed to
Edidit Dr. R. H. Klausen. Gothæ the Philological Museum a series of critical obet Erfordiæ. 1835.
servations on an edition of that poet. On his 3. Disserlations on the Eumenides of Æs- return from the continent, in 1834, he was ap
chylus ; with the Greek Text and Critical pointed a classical lecturer in his own college; Remarks. From the German of C, O. and the lectures which he then delivered will be Mueller. Cambridge. 1835.
long remembered by those who heard them, for 4. Æschyli Tragedia. Recensuit et illus- the remarkable erudition which they displayed. travit Joannes Minckwitz. Vol. I. Eu-es, and he seemed unable to satisfy himself in
He spared no labour in his philological researchmenides. Lipsiæ. 1838.
them before he had exhausted the subject on 5. Die Æschylische Trilogie Prometheus, u. which he was engaged. To the pursuit of these
8. w., nebst Winken ueber die Trilogie des studies he brought great vigilance of observaEschylus ueberhaupt. Von F. G. tion, singular acuteness of discrimination, a Welcker. Darmstadt, 1924.
sound judgment, a tenacious memory, and un6. Nachtrag zur Trilogie, u. 8. W. Von F.
wearied industry. He employed these faculties G. Welcker. Frankfurt a M. 1826.
in his intellectual inquiries, and he recorded in his papers the results of his investigations with
scrupulous and elaborate accuracy. .. We cannot resume the subject of Æschylus He proposed to publish not only the correspondand his Trilogies without adverting to the ence, but also some of the inedited works of losses which this branch of scholarship has Dr. Bentley, especially his Homer. He was sustained since the publication of our 128th employed at the same time in compiling a Number. Most of those whom we then Classical Dictionary, which, if an opinion may alluded to have been already swept from amassed for that work, as well as from the por
be formed from the materials which he had the world. Bishop Butler of Lichfield has tion which he had already executed, and from gone to his rest, after such severe and pro- the plan which he had drawn out of the whole, tracted sufferings as would have paralysed would have proved a very useful and honourable a less energetic mind. He has gone, full of monument of his indefatigable labour and comlabours and of honours, though not of years. prehensive learning. But the work which, as a And yet it is to be feared that he is gone vion of Æschylus. During a period of several
scholar, he most desired to execute, was an ediwith much of his merit unappreciated. If, however, it be reasonable to suppose that years he had directed his attention to that obthe education of the higher classes, and inject; and if his life had been prolonged to the
time (Dec. 1841), some of the results of particular of the clergy, is at least as im- his industry would now, in all probability, have portant as that of the poor,—and if the been before the world. For at his death, his silent but most practical reformation which has been at work in our public schools for • It falls to our lot to speak of him only as the many years past ever attracts the notice head of an important school: for his higher praise which it deserves,—then the time will we must refer to his worthy pupil, chaplain, and come when men will feel an interest in Bishopric of Souls, a truly precious manual for the observations on the works of that tragedian had | Naeke too is gone. Dissen's death was reached such a state of maturity, that one of mentioned before. But it is useless to exthe plays illustrated by him will, it is hoped, ere tend the melancholy catalogue : the above long appear, to be followed at short intervals by
friend, the Rev. R. W. Evans, in the preface to his tracing the steps of the improvement; and young clergyman.
names are the most connected with our others in succession. He was well conversant with the principal productions of modern litera- present subject. ture, especially with the works of the English
Hermann, however, still survives, standpoets, and was a warm and judicious lover of ing out like some antediluvian peak among the fine arts, particularly of painting and en- the débris of the deluge; and two years graving. These intellectual endowments were ago a jubilee was held at Leipzig to celebased upon moral qualities of a graver kind. brate the fiftieth year of his doctorate, which Serious in aspect, tall in person, thoughtful in demeanour, gentle and unobtrusive in manners, that of our own distinguished countryman,
seems pretty nearly to have coincided with he bore in his appearance an air of earnestness. He was one of those who love much rather Dr. Routh, president of Magdalen College. than many. He wished and strove for the ad. Many and various were the compliments vancement of others rather than his own; he which Germany racked its brains to pay to judged no one with severity but himself. He old Godfrey." Since that time he dips was devotedly attached to the academic institu- his pen in a splendid silver inkstand, the tions to which he belonged, and entertained a offering of the printers whose presses be dutiful and reverent affection for the Church of has kept at work for more than half a England, of which he was a minister, and whose service, had his life been spared, he century. He smokes (eternally of course) would have adorned by his learning and his from a pipe of the same material. He humility. He died at Trinity Lodge on the snnffs from a gold box, the present of his 31st day of December, 1839.'*
sovereign; and as for congratulatory ad
dresses, odes, idyls, &c., they were of From abroad the news of Klausen's course far beyond 'all reading or reckoning. death reached this country some time ago. It seemed as though the literature of uniOf his Agamemnon we formerly spoke ; and versal Germany had vied in furnishing him we were waiting rather impatiently for the with a collection of polyglot pipe-lighters. continuation of his edition. Meanwhile, he The most gratifying of the presents was had removed from Bonn to Griefswald, an doubtless the King of Saxony's handsome university in the extreme north of Germany, donation to enable his son to travel ; and chiefly distinguished for the richness of its the most honourable of the addresses was endowments. And he had published two that which emanated from the German phicomely octavos on Æneas and the Penates, lologers, the incorporated accidence, syntax, -characters for whom we have the highest and prosody of Germany, assembled (as it respect : yet even while we believed that were in one volume) after the manner of a the loss of time was not irretrievable, we British Association. Ritter F. Jacobs (if grudged that he had digressed from what we remember right) held the pen in the we thought so much more important. name of all these wise men of Gotha ; and
Karl Otfried Mueller of Goettingen, among the choicest flowers of classical though in more mature years, yet still pre- compliment dexterously insinuated a harmmaturely, has also fallen a victim to his less yet pointed allusion to the edition of literary zeal. He had gone to Greece, to Æschylus, which has been in the paulo post complete the researches necessary for the futurum since the last century, by quoting series of his great historical designs; and unus qui nobis cunctando restitues rem.' the ardour with which he applied himself to We hope that Hermann will remember the examination of the inscriptions at that other qualities besides cunctatio go to Delphi under the scorching heat of a mid- the making of a Fabius, lest impatient summer sun, produced apoplexy and im- scholars cap Jacobs' quotation with · Dimediate death; and he sleeps in his own lator, spe longus,' &c. beloved Athens, inter silvas Academi.t
It is a practical question of considerable * Preface to ' Bentley's Correspondence," (Lond. importance to all professors, editors, and 1841) pp. xvi. xix.
+ This admirable scholar was born at Brigg in of the long (yet incomplete) list of his works, given Silesia, 1797, where his father, we believe, was the in the Revue Analytique of 'M. E. Miller (to which pastor. His first schoolmaster was Lotheisen; and we are indebted for the above information) the most in 1813 he went to Breslau to study under Heindorf important are:-1. The Dorians, 1824: translated and Schneider. From thence he removed in 1815 to by Messrs. Tufnell and Lewis, in 2 vols. 8vo. 2. Berlin, where he placed himself under Boeckh and Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen MythoButtmann; and in 1817 was appointed to the Mag-logie. 1825. 3. Die Etrusker, 1828. 4. Archaeolodalenum at Breslau. In 1819 he was raised, on the gie der Kunst, 1830. 5. Aeschyli Eumenides, 1833 recommendation of Boeckh and Heeren, to the chair (translated). 6. History of Greek Literature, written of archæology at Goettingen, where he continued, for, and publishing by the Society for the Diffusion except for short intervals, until the end of his life. of Useful Knowledge, 1840, &c.