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to his own fainily, seeking metaphors and many of them were, in the very height of epithets instead of precision and clearness. the session, or the utmost hurry of busiAnother cause of that impression may have ness-they appear to us models in that been, that Mr. Pitt, whenever it was possi- kind of composition. We can scarcely ble, preferred transacting business in per- praise them more highly than by saying sonal interviews rather than in writing. that they rival Lord Bolingbroke's celebrat

Of this usual course in Mr. Pitt a strong ed diplomatic correspondence, of which, as proof came under our own observation. we know from other sources, Mr. Pirt was Once, when the writer of this article was a warm admirer. They never strain at any on a visit at Lowther Castle, the venerable of those rhetorical ornaments which, when Earl, who amidst advancing years never real business is concerned, become only wearies in acts of courtesy and kindness to obstructions, but are endowed with a natuall around him, indulged his friend's curi- ral grace and dignity—a happy choice of osity with a large packet of letters address words, and a constant clearness of thought. ed by Mr. Pitt to himself, and to his kins- Although scarce ever divided into paraman Sir James. These letters had been graphs, they display neither confusion, nor most properly preserved as autographs; yet abrupt transition of subjects, but flow but, with one or two remarkable exceptions, on, as it were, in an even and continuous they were very short, aud vearly in the stream. following strain :—Dear Lowther, Pray call Of these merits, however, we shall now on me in the course of the morning.'—Dear give our readers an opportunity of judging Lowther, Let me see you at the Treasury as for themselves. Here, for example, is a soon as you can.'— Dear Lowiber, When confidential inquiry, which was addressed shall you be next in town, as I wish to speak to the Duke of Rutland as to some faults to you ??-in short, referring almost every imputed to his secretary, Mr. Orde," and subject to conversation instead of corres- which, as it seems to us, most justly compondence.

bines a zeal for the public service with a But whatever doubts may have been en- tenderness for personal feelings tertained as to Mr. Pitt's abilities for writ

Mr. Pilt to the Duke of Rutland. ing, are now, as we conceive, set at rest by a fortunate discovery in the House of Rut - Secret.] · Brighthelmstone, Oct. 28, 1785. land. It may be recollected, that the late

My dear Duke, I would not break in upon Duke was appointed by Mr. Pitt, in 1784, you in the course of your tour, if the business I Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and died as

wish to bring under your consideration was less

pressing and important than it is. You will be such, in 1787, at the early age of thirty-three. so good to understand what I have to say upon The Duchess, bis widow, survived till 1831. it as being in the most entire confidence and seNot long since, as their eldest son, the pre- crecy, as indeed the subject itself sufficiently sent Duke, was arranging her Grace's pa- implies. Various accounts have reached me pers, he unexpectedly lighted upon a long from persons connected with Ireland, too mateseries of confidential communications be. rial to the interest of your government, and, tween Downing Street and Dublin Castle. consequently, to us both, to make it possible for In this case it was manifestly impossible mediately to you, and desiring such farther in

me to delay communicating the substance imfor the Prime Minister to hold personal formation and advice as you alone can give. interviews with the Lord Lieutenant: in While all quarters agree in eulogiums, which this case, therefore, Mr. Pitt wrote, and do not surprise me, on every part of your own wrote most fully and freely. The greater conduct, and on the prudence, spirit, and firmpart of the letters are marked private,' ness of your government, the picture they give

most private,''secret'' most secret,' and of the first instrument of your administration is are evidently composed, not merely as be very different. They state that Mr. Orde bas

incurred the imputation of irresolution and titween official colleagues, but familiar friends. midity, and a suspicion even of duplicity, still The value of these documents to illustrate more prejudicial than his want of decision; and the history of the times and the character that if the management of the House of Comof Mr. Pitt could not fail to be apparent, mons, and the duties of secretary, are left in his and although there might be some ground hands, it will be impossible to answer what Duke of Rutland has in the most liberal man- imagine does not come directly to me, and I against their publication at present, the may be the consequences to Government even

in the next session. This information you may ner consented that a certain number should neither know how far it is to be depended upon, be printed for the gratification of his friends. nor have any means myself of ascertaining it,

Of the letters thus privted in the course but by stating it to you, who may be able to do of the present summer, we have had the honour to receive a copy, and we feel no Secretary of the Treasury, in 1782. In 1797 he was

* The Right Hon. Thomas Orde. He had been hesitation in saying that-written though 'created Lord Bolton, and died in 1807.

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so. I receive every such intimation with great Orde's conduct, and you will be best able 10 allowance for a thousand prejudices or secret judge whether there is any probability of its motives in which it may originate; but I sull being founded. And, above all, you will have think it too serious to be wholly disregarded. the goodness to tell me freely, whether, if (from From all I have had an opportunity of seeing, such materials as we can collect) the opinion I give Mr. Orde credit for considerable abilities here should incline to remove Mr. Orde, you and industry, and for perfect good intention. I feel in your own mind any objection, provided am, therefore, inclined to think such representa- you can pitch upon a proper person to succeed tions as I have mentioned at least greaily exag-him; and be persuaded that the knowledge of gerated. But I am sensible that his manners do your inclination in this respect will be decisive, not lead him to be direct and explicit in doing both on my opinion and my wishes. The only business, and that his temper is not decisive. other way by which I can be enabled to judge This may make him not distinct enough in his farther on this subject is by calling on Mr. Orde dealings with men or personal objects, and con- himself (as may naturally be done in the present tent, without knowing as distinctly as he ought, circumstances) to state, more precisely than he on the other hand, what he has to trust to from has hitherto done, the strength and reliance of them; and these circumstances will sometimes Government, and the prospect he has of carryhave the appearance, and generally the bad ef- ing through the public service in the House of fect, of the qualities imputed to him. It is stated Commons. By this means, one material part of particularly, that when the commercial bill was the consideration may, I think, be ascertained brought forward he had neither taken sufficient with a good deal of accuracy. pains to ascertain who were the friends of Gov. • It may seem premature to proceed already ernment, nor to collect those who were certainly to talk of the person to succeed before the so, but had trusted to vague assurances and gen. preliminary point is ascertained. In mentioning eral expectations, which produced the conse- it, however, I do not mean to anticipate your quences we saw. This I am more apt to be decision on the prudence of making the change lieve, because I think, even now, after that ses- (in which my own opinion is in no degree setsion, he is not prepared to give any clear and tled), but I wish, in order to avoid delay (whatsatisfactory statement of the support on which ever may be the final result), that the whole Government may rely. I do not mention what subject should be at once before you. I need passed on the commercial question as a thing to hardly say, that, if the change should take be lamented in the event: on the contrary, if place, any person whom you could select for the effect of more exertion in Mr. Orde had this trust would be sure to be at once acquiesced been to procure twenty or thirty more votes in in here. But from what has passed formerly I the House of Commons, it would, as events must doubt whether you have any one to name, have proved, perliaps have been a misfortune; Fitzherbert* being, from his situation, so far but occasions might arise in which the same out of the question. Only three names have want of address or vigour might be fatal. occurred to me, which I mention to you that

• Upon the whole, if there is any reasonable you may turn them in your mind. The first is ground for the suggestions I have mentioned, I W. Grenville;t I do not know that he would think you will agree with me that it would be take it, and rather suppose that he would not. very desirable to open a retreat for Orde, and to I think, too, that his near connexion with Lord endeavour to find some other person whom you Buckingham is itself perhaps a sufficient objecwould approve of to take his place. But, at tion, though in temper and disposition he is the same time, this is not a resolution to be much the reverse of his brother, and in good lightly taken, because, although the pledge for sense and habits of business very fit for such a the continuance of the same system, and the situation.

The second I have to name is main grounds of confidence, would still continue, Steele: 1 I know as little whether he would (where they have hitherto existed), in your own take it, having never hinted a syllable to him on person, yet even the change of the secretary the subject, and I could very ill spare him from must interrupt and derange for a time the ma- his present situation in the Treasury; but if no chine of government in a way which ought to other good arrangement could be found, I bebe avoided, if there is no strong necessity for lieve I should make the sacrifice, for such it hazarding it. All, therefore, that occurs to me, would be. He has exceeding good abilities, under these circumstances, is, first, what I have great clearness and discretion, the most manly now done, to state the whole to you, and to de- disposition, the best temper, and most agreeable sire the most confidential communication of manners possible, and speaks well in public. your opinions and wishes concerning it. You | The third person is Faulkner, whom I believe may, perhaps, in your situation, find it difficult you know quite as well as I do. He has the to obtain from the truest friends of Government reputation of uncommon cleverness, is very actheir real sentiments on so delicate a point; you complished, and seems a man of spirit. I have may have a difficulty in endeavouring to sound had some opportunity of seeing him in business any of them; and I know not whether there are any whose integrity and good sense you

* Alleyne Fitzherbert. He became Secretary for would trust sufficiently to communicate with them on such points; but it is possible that Ireland under the Duke of Rutland's successor, and

in 1801 was created Lord St. [lelen's. you may find opportunities of doing so without

+ William Wyndham Grenville, afterwards Lord committing yourself too far. At all events, you Grenville. can compare what I have stated with the result

The Right Hon. Thomas Steele, for many of your own experience and observation of Mr. years Secretary of the Treasury.

at the Privy Council, on occasions which tried "I am certainly very anxious to forward anyhis abilities, and have from thence been led to thing you think material for the ease and sucrate him very high. He is, however, reckoned cess of your government, and extremely into be of a bad temper; but you would not be clined to concur in showing a marked attention exposed to the inconvenience of it, and I should to its steadfast supporters; but I have no diffihope he would have sense enough to control it culty in stating fairly to you, that a variety of in public. I have now unbosomed myself of circunıstances have unavoidably led me to reeverything, and need not repeat, that, as I have commend a larger addition to the British Peerwritien without a shadow of reserve, all I have age than I like, or than I think quite creditable, said is for yourself only. Have the goodness to and that I am on that account very desirous not return me an answer as speedily as you can, to increase it now farther than is absolutely neafter revolving all this in your mind, as the cessary.' season of the year requires that, one way or other, the business should be soon decided. It is remarkable that the large multipli

*I have many other things to write to you cation of honours wbich has been charged upon, but this letter is too long already. I cannot conclude without telling you the pride and against Mr. Pitt's administration, took satisfaction I take in the credit and honour which, place at a subsequent period. We may under all the difficulties and disappointments of therefore conclude that in advising or acthe time, has resulted to yourself, and which ceding to it, Mr. Pitt consulted rather the will, I trust, be increased and confirmed in every growing difficulties of the times than the hour of your government.

natural dictates of his judgment. • Believe me ever,

We may remark, also—not merely as to • My dear Duke, • Most faithfully and affectionately yours,

the point of patronage or promotion, but · W. Pitt.

as to every other subject treated in these *P.S. -I must just add (though foreign from pages—how pure appears the mind, how the subject of this letter) ihat the situation of lofty the view of the Great Minister. There our finances here proves flourishing beyond is never the least approach-not even on almost what could be expected. We are in the congenial soil of Ireland-to a job. possession, from the existing taxes, of a surplus While he shows every anxiety to gratify of about 800,0001. for sinking fund already, and his colleagues, or to serve his friends, all It is advancing fast to a clear million. 'I should have stated, that, if the change the stamp of the noblest public spirit.

his determinations, all his expressions, bear should take place, every management would be had for Orde's feelings, and it might be made

Among the few persons for whose emto appear an act of choice in him.'

ployment Mr. Pitt himself expresses a wish

in these pages, it is interesting to trace the No

copy of the Duke's reply to this let- name of one who has since attained such ter is preserved among his papers, but it high renown in the public service, and who appears to have entirely acquitted Mr. Orde

still survives in a green and honoured old from blame, since Mr. Pitt, in his next com

age-the then Earl of Mornington, the munication (Nov. 13, 1785) thus rejoins :

present Marquess Wellesley. In a letter

of August 9th, 1784 (Lord Mornington be"I am, be assured, infinitely happy at finding ing then but twenty-four years of age) Mr. the suggestions I had thought myself obliged


says : to communicate to you, to so great a degree contradicted. Every idea of Mr. Orde's retire

• The immediate object I have in writing at ment will be totally laid aside in my mind.'

this moment is to state to you some circum. stances relative to Lord Mornington, and to beg

you to let me know how far the ideas I bare It may easily be supposed that—the conceived on the subject correspond with yours. scene being laid at Dublin--there is no I find he considers himself as entitled, from aslack applications for place and promo surances he received both from you and me tion. These the Lord Lieutenant, as was (either personally or through Lord Temple), his duty, transmits to the Prime Minister. before you went to Ireland, to expect the earIn one communication (June 16, 1784) he that country which its circumstances would ad

liest mark of the favour of government in observes: • You are so unused to receive mit of. He expresses a full disposition to have letters which contain no application, that made every allowance for the exigencies of a if it were for form's sake only I must re new government, at so critical a time, but I commend'—and then follows the name of think he seems to imagine that there was an a friend.' Foremost among such as these appearance of his pretensions being posiponed, come demands for Irish Marquisates, or either without sufficient grounds, or without English Baronies, from noblemen of large supposed he had a claim to. He seems at the

their being so confidentially stated to him as he parliamentary interest at Dublin. such requests Mr. Pitt states a strong ob- and credit of your government, and a strong

same time to feel a real zeal for the interests jection (July 19, 1786):

sense of the marks of your personal friendship

But to

I am very anxious, for all our sakes, that there In short, it involves a great political settlement should be no misapprehension on the subject, worthy of the decision of your clear and incomboth

from a high opinion of him, and from feeling parable judgment.' (as I am sure you will) a great desire that anything like an engagement, or even a reasonable The letter of Mr. Pitt in reply is perexpectation, should not be disappointed.'

haps the most remarkable of this whole col. And on the 15th of August following the vember 7th, 1786.

lection. It is dated Burton Pynsent, No. Duke of Rutland thus replies : • I can have no hesitation of saying that Lord

• I have thought very much since I received Mornington shall have the first oflice which may land, on the subjects suggested in that and your

your letter respecting the general state of Irefall worthy of his acceptance. His merits are official letters to Lord Sydney. The question very great, which I am sure I am one of the which arises is a nice and difficult one. 'On the first men to allow. .. Lord Morning. lon, as I have always siated to him, stands first one hand, the discontent seems general and rootfor whatever may offer. I have his interesi ed, and both that circumstance and most of the much at heart, as well from private regard as

accounts I hear seem to indicate that there is from a conviction of his powers to render the some real grievance at bottom, which must be public essential service.'

removed before any durable tranquillity can be secured. On the other hand, it is certainly a

delicate thing to meddle with the Church ÉsOne of the most important and most dif- tablishment in the present situation of Ireland; ficult subjects which engaged the Duke's and anything like concession to the dangerous atteution was that of Irish tithes, on which spirit which has shown itself is not without obwe find him (September 13th, 1786) refer jection. But on the whole, being persuaded

ibat Government ought not to be afraid of into Mr. Pitt for direction :

curring the imputation of weakness, by yielding

in reasonable points, and can never make its • The question of the tithes, with the commo- stand effectually till it gets upon the right tions of the Whiteboys, will, I am apprehensive, ground, I think the great object ought to be, to form business for a very tedious session. A ascertain fairly the true causes of complaint, to parliamentary investigation into the causes of hold out a sincere disposition to give jusi redress, their complaints will certainly take place, and and a firm determination to do no more, taking is indeed become necessary. It is of the utmost care in the interval to hold up vigorously the consequence to prevent this question from fall. execution of the law as it stands (till altered by ing into the hands of opposition, who would Parliament), and to punish severely (if the employ it to the most mischievous purposes, and means can be found) any tumultuous attempt to who might raise a storm which it would not be violate it. easy to direct. This business is of extreme de 'I certainly think the institution of tithe, eslicacy and complication. We have the most pecially if vigorously enforced, is a great obsta. rooted prejudices to contend with. The episco- cle to the improvement and prosperity of any pal pari of the clergy consider any settlement as country. Many circumstances in practice have à direct attack on their most ancient rights, and made it less so here; but even here it is felt; as a commencement of the ruin of their estab- and there are a variety of causes to make it sit lishment; whereas many individual clergymen, much heavier on Ireland. I believe, too, that it who foresee no prospect of receiving any pro- is as much for the real interest of the Church as perty at all under the present system, are ex- for that of the land to adopt, if practicable, some tremely desirous of a fair adjustment. The other mode of provision. If from any cause the Established Church, with legions of Papists on Church falls into general odium, Government one side and a violent Presbytery on the other, will be more likely to risk its own interests than must be supported, however, decidedly, as the to save those of the Church by any efforts in its principles that combinations are to compel favour. If, therefore, those who are at the head measures must be exterminated out of ihe of the clergy will look at it soberly and dispas. country and from the public mind; at the same sionately, they will see how incumbent it is uptime the country must not be permitted to con

on them, in every point of view, to propose some tinue in a siate little less than war, when a temperate accommodation; and even the apsubstantial grievance is alleged to be the cause. pearance of concession, which might be awkThe majority of the laity, who are at all times ward in Government, could not be unbecoming ready to oppose tithes, are likewise strong advo. ifit originated with them. The thing to be aim. cates for some settlement. On the whole it ed at, therefore, seems, as far as I can judge of forms a most involved and difficult question ; on it, to find out a way of removing the grievances all hands it is agreed that it ought to be investi- arising out of a tithe, or, perhaps, to substitute gated: but then it is problematical whether some new provision in lieu of it; to have such any effectual remedy can be applied without a plan cautiously digested (which may require endangering the Establishment, which must be much time), and, above all, to make the Church guarded; and next, whether any arrangement itself the quarter to bring forward wbalever is could be suggested which the Church (who proposed. How far this is practicable must demust be consulted) would agree to, adequate to pend upon many circumstances, of which you the nature and extent of the evil complained of. I can form a nearer and better judgment, particu.

larly on the temper of the leading men among "Mr. Pitt to the Duke of Rutland. the clergy. I apprehend you may have a good · [Private.] Putney Heath, Oct. 7, 1781. deal of difficulty with the Archbishop of Cash * My dear Duke.--I have been intending every el ;* the Primatet is, I imagine, a man to listen day for some time past to trouble you with a to temperate advice: but it is surely desirable leiter; though in many respects I cannot write that you should have as speedily as possible a so fully as the important subjects in question refull communication with both of them; and if quire, 'till I receive materials of information you feel the subject in the same light that I do, which I expect from the result of Mr. Orde's inthat, while you state to them the full determina- quiries, and from the various questions I have tion of Government to give them all just and persecuted him with. I am in hopes now that honourable support, you should impress them your situation is such as to allow a little more seriously with the apprehension of their risking respite from the incessant calls of the day, and everything if they do not in time abandon to furnish leisure for going forward in the great ground that is ultimately untenable.

and complicated questions we have to settle be• To suggest the precise plan of commutation fore the meeting of Parliament. I have desulwhich might be adopted is more than I am torily, at different times, stated in my letters to equal to, and is premature; but in general I have him the ideas floating in my mind, as the subnever seen any good reason why a fair valuation jects in question carried me to them; and I have should not be made of the present amount not troubled you with any repetition of them, of every living, and a rent in corn to that because I knew you would be acquainted with amount to be raised by a pound rate on the them as far as they were worth it, and they cerseveral tenements in the parish, nearly according tainly were neither distinct nor digested enough to the proportion in which they now contribute to deserve being written twice. I feel, however, to tithe. When I say a rent in corn, I do not notwithstanding the difficulty of deciding upon actually mean paid in corn, but a rent in money many of the delicate considerations which preregulated by the average value from time to sent themselves in the arduous business you time of whatever number of bushels is at present have in your hands, that a plan must be conequal to the fair value of the living. This would certed on all the points, and as far as possible effectually prevent the Church from suffering adapted to all the contingencies that may hapby the fluctuations in the value of money, and it pen, before the meeting of Parliament. The is a mode which was adopted in all college commercial points of discussion, though numerleases, in consequence, I believe, of an act of ous and comprehensive, may certainly be ascerParliament in the time of Queen Elizabeth. I tained and reduced to clear principles by diligent need not say that I throw out these ideas in investigation. The internal question of Parliapersonal confidence to yourself; and I shall wish meniary reform, though simpler, is perhaps much to know what you think of thern, and more difficult and hazardous; and the line of whether you can make anything of your pre- future permanent connexion between the two lates, before any measure is officially suggested. countries must be the resull of both the precedIt seems material that there should be the ut- ing questions, and of such arrangements as must most secrecy till our line is decided upon, and it accompany a settlement of them. I am revols, must be decided upon completely before Parlia- ing these in every shape in my mind; and ment meets.

when I have had the information which I hope • Yours faithfully and sincerely,

to receive in Mr. Orde’s next packets, I trust I • W. Pitt.'

shall be able to send you the best result of my judgment, which I shall wish to submit to your

private consideration, in order to learn confi. We have been greatly struck at observ- dentially the extent of your ideas on the whole ing how closely the proposal thus hastily plan to be pursued, before it is formally brought thrown out resembles the plan on which under the consideration of the Cabinei here. I the English Tithe Commutation Act was

own to you the line io which my mind at prerecently framed. What deep heart-burn- sent inclines (open to whatever new observaings—what violent collisions—might have

tions or arguments may be suggested to me) is, been spared had Mr. Pitt's enlightened tion of commercial advantages, if we can receive

to give Ireland an almost unlimited communicapolicy prevailed fifty years before !

in return some security that her strength and Other questions of paramount importance riches will be our benefit

, and that she will conthat are discussed between the Duke and tribule from time to time in their increasing the Minister refer to the celebrated com- proportions to the common erigencies of the emmercial propositions. We may trace in pire; and--having, by holding out this, removthese letters their gradual growth and de- led, I trust, every temptation to Ireland to consi

der her interest as separate from England-to velopment in the mind of Mr. Pitt. He be ready, while we discountenance wild and un. states his first impressions as follows :

constitutional attempts, which strike at the root of all authority, to give real efficacy and popu

larity to Government by acceding (if such a line * Dr. Charles Agar, afterwards translated to the

can be found) to a prudent and temperate re. Archbishopric of Dublin. In 1795 he was created form of Parliament, which may guard against Lord Somerton, and in 1806 Earl of Normanton.

or radically cure real defects and mischiefs, may * Dr. Richard Robinson: Archbishop of Armagh. show a sufficient regard to the interests and even He had been, in 1777, crcated Lord Rokeby.

prejudices of individuals who are concerned, and

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