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complished prince. Napoleon used to say | Artificial heat and cold, by the due applithat he should know his father's garden in cation of steam and manure, sun and shade, Corsica blindfold by the smell of the earth; hot and cold water, and even ice--mattings, and the hanging gardens of Babylon are flues in every variety of pit, frame, consersaid to have been raised by the Median vative wall, conservatory, greenhouse, hotqueen of Nebuchadnezzar on the flat and house, and stove, seem to have realized naked plains of her adopted country, to every degree of temperature from Kamremind her of the hills and woods of her skatka to Sincapore. But apart from artichildhood:
ficial means, the natural mildness of our Why should we speak of the plane-trees sky is most favourable to plants brought of Plato—Shakspeare's mulberry-tree- from countries of either extreme of temperPope's willow-Byron's elm? Why de-ature; and, as their habits are better known scribe Cicero at his Tusculum-Evelyn at and attended to, ňot a year passes without Wooton-Pitt at Ham Common-Walpole acclimatizing many beretofore deemed too at Houghton-Grenville at Dropmore? tender for the open air. Gardeners are Why dwell on Bacon's little tufts of thyme,' reasonably cautious id not exposing at once or Fox's geraniums? There is a spirit in a newly-introduced exotic; and thus we the garden as well as in the wood, and 'the know that when Parkinson wrote, in 1629, lilies of the field supply food for the ima- the larch, and the laurel—then called bay. gination as well as materials for sermons. cherry-were still protected in winter. We Talke of perfect happiness or pleasure,' are now daily adding to the list of our hardy says old Gerarde to the 'courteous and plants; hydrangeas,the tree-peony, fuchsias, well-willing reader,' from his house in salvias, altromærias, and Cape-bulbs, are Holborn, within the suburbs of London'- now found, with little or no protection, 10 .and what place was so fit for that as the stand our mid-England winters. garden-place wherein Adam was set to be Then we alone have in perfection the the herbalist ? Whither did the poets hunt three main elements of gardening, flowers for their sincere delights but into the gar- apart, in our lawns, our gravel, and our dens of Alcinous, of Adonis, and the orch- evergreens. It is the greatest stretch of ards of the Hesperides? Where did they foreign luxury to emulate these. The lawns dream that heaven should be but in the at Paris, to say nothing of Naples, are regupleasant garden of Elysium? Whither doe larly irrigated to keep up even the semblance all men walke for their honest recreation of English verdure; and at the gardens of but thither where the earth hath most bene- Versailles, and Caserta, near Naples, the ficially painted her face with flourishing walks have been supplied from the Kencolours? And what season of the yeare sington gravel-pits. It is not probably genemore longed for than the spring, whose rally known that among our exportations gentle breath enticeth forth the kindly are every year a large quantity of evergreens sweets, and makes them yield their fragrant for the markets of France and Germany, smells ?!
and that there are some nurserymen almost And what country,we may add, so suited, wholly engaged in this branch of trade. and climate so attempered, to yield the full This may seem the more remarkable to enjoyment of the pleasures and blessings of those who fancy that, from the superiority a garden, as our own ? Everybody knows of foreign climates, any English tree would the remark of Charles 11., first promulgated bear a continental winter; but the bare apby Sir W. Temple, that there were more pearance of the French gardens, mostly days in the year in which one could enjoy composed as they are of deciduous trees, oneself in the open air in England than in would soon convince them of the contrary. any other portion of the known world.' It is not the severity or length of our DeThis, which contains so complete an answer cember nights that generally destroys our to the weather-grumblers of our island, more tender exotic plants, but it is the late bears also along with it a most encouraging frosts of April and May,—those nipping truth to those who love to live in gardens.' frosts,' which, coming on after the plant has There is no country that offers the like ad- enjoyed warmth enough to set the sap in vantages to hørticulture. Perhaps there is action, freeze its life-blood to the heart's not one plant in the wide world wholly in- core, and cause it to wither and die. The capable of being cultivated in England late winter of 1837-8 proved this fact disThe mosses and lichens dragged from under tinctly, which had hardly been sufficiently the snows of Iceland, and the tenderest remarked before. That year, which cut creepers of the tropical jungles, are alike down even our cypresses, and china-roses, subject to the art of the British gardener. 'and from which our gorse-fields have hardly
yet recovered, while it injured nearly the passing whiff of a hawthorn bush, a cloevery plant and tree on south walls and in ver or bean field, or a gorse-common. sheltered borders, and in all forward situa With such hedgerow flowers within his tions, spared the tenderest kinds on north reach, and in so favourable a climate, it is walls and exposed places; and in Scotland not to be wondered that the garden of the the destruction was hardly felt at all. It English cottager has been remarked among was the backwardness of their growing our national distinctions. These may be state that saved these plants; and the know- said to form the foreground of that peculiar ledge of this fact has already been brought English scenery, which is filled up by our to bear in several recent experiments. The hedge-rows and our parks. The ingenious double yellow rose, for instance, one of the authoress of. Leila in England '* makes the most delicate of its class, is now flowered little new-landed girl exclaim for the want with great success in a northern exposition of fountain-trees' and 'green parrots.' It has led men also to study the hyberna- This is true to nature—but not less so the tion of plants--perhaps the most important real enthusiasm of Miss Sedgwick, on her research in which horticulturists have of first arriving in England, at the cottagelate engaged; and it has been ascertained gardens of the Isle of Wight. Again and that this state of winter-rest is a most im- again she fixes upon them as the most pleasportant element in their constitution; but ing and striking feature in a land where no doubt it will also be found that—as the everything was new to her. Long may dormouse, ihe sloth, the snake, the mole, they so continue ! It is a trait of which &c., undergo a greater or less degree of England may well be proud; for it speakstorpidity, and some require it not at all would we could trace it everywhere!—of so in plants, the length and degree will va- peace, and of the leisure, and comfort, and ry much in different species, and according contentedness of those who shall never to their state of artificial cultivation. As a cease from the land.' general rule, young gardeners must take We would make gardens in general a heed not prematurely to force the juices test of national prosperity and happiness. into action in spring, nor to keep them too As long as the British nobleman continues lively in winter, unless they are well pre- to take an interest in his avenues and hotpared with good and sufficient protection houses—his lady in her conservatories and till all the frosts are over. The practical parterres—the squire overlooks his laboureffect of these observations will be, that ers' allotments—the 'squiresses and squirimany plants which have hitherto only been nas' betake themselves and their flowers cultivated by those who have had flues and to the neighbouring horticultural show-the greenhouses at their command, will now be citizen sets up his cucumber-frame in his grown in as great or greater perfection by back-yard—his dame her lilacs and almondthose who can afford them a dry, though not trees in the front court--the mechanic breeds a warm shelter. One instance may serve his prize-competing auriculas—the cotas an example : the scarlet geranium, one tager rears his sun-flowers and Sweet-Wilof the greatest treasures of our parterres, liams before his door—and even the collier if taken up from the ground in autumn, af- sports his 'posy jacket'-as long, in a word, ter the wood is thoroughly ripened, and as this common interest pervades every hung up in a dry room, without any soil at- class of society, so long shall we cling to the taching to it, will be found ready, ihe next hope that our country is destined to outlive spring, to start in a new life of vigour and all her difficulties and dangers. Not bebeauty.
cause, like the Peris, we fight with flowers, One characteristic of our native plants and build amaranth bowers, and bind our we must mention, that if we miss in them enemies in links of roses--but because all something of the gorgeousness and lustre this implies mutual interest and intercourse of more tropical flowers, we are more than of every rank, and dependence of one class compensated by the delicacy and variety of upon another--because it promotes an intheir perfume; and just as our woods, vo- terchange of kindnesses and favours--becal with the nightingale, the blackbird, and cause it speaks of proprietors dwelling on the thrush, can well spare the gaudy feath- their hereditary acres, and the poorest laers of the macaw, so can we resign the bourer having an interest in the soil ; beoncidiums, the cactuses, and the ipomæas cause it gives a local attachment, and healthy of the Tropics, for the delicious fragrance
* This is a pleasing continuation of her "Leila, of our wild banks of violets, our lilies-of
or the Island.' All Miss Tytler's books for children the valley, and our woodbine, or even for are worthy of being generally known.
exercise and innocent recreation, and ex • Yes! in the poor man's garden grow, cites a love of the country and love of our Far more than herbs and flowers; own country, and a spirit of emulation, de Kind thoughts, contentment, peace of mind, void of bitterness ; because it tells of wealth
And joy for weary hours.' wisely spent, and competence widely dif
Gardening not only affords common fused, of taste cultivated, and science practi- ground for the high and low, but like cally applied; because, unlike Napoleon's Christianity itself, it offers peculiar blessgreat lie, it does bring “ peace to the cottage,' ings and privileges to the poor man, which while it blesses the palace, and every
very possession of wealth denies. The tuous home between those wild extremes; because it bespeaks the appreciation of whai Spitalfields weaver may derive more plea
sure from his green box of smoked auricuis natural, and simple, and men to set the divine law of excellence Chatsworth, or Stowe. or Alton, from their
las,' than the lordly possessors of Sion, or above the low human standard of utility; hundreds of decorated acres; because not and because, above all, in the most lovely only personal superintendence, but actual and bountiful of God's works, it leads them work is necessary for the true enjoyment up to Him that made them, not in a mere of a garden. We must know our flowers, dumb, inactive admiration of His wonder
as well as buy them. Our great-grandful designs, but to bless Him that He has
mothers, who, before they were greatgiven them pleasures beyond their actual
grandmothers—flirted on the sunoy terra, necessities; the means of a cheerful coun
ces, or strolled along the arched and shaded tenance, as well as of a strong heart.
alleys' of our old manor-houses, Still more-because if ours be not too rude a step to venture within such hallowed had their own little garden, where they knew ground—it speaks of a Christian people every flower, because ihey were few; and every employed in an occupation, which, above pame because they were simple. Their roseall others, is the parable that conveys the bushes and gilliflower
vers were dear to them, deepest truths to them--which daily reads because themselves had pruned, and watered, them silent lessons, if their hearts would and watched them-had marked from day to hear, of the vanity of earthly pomp, of the ing blossoms-and had cherished each choicest
day their opening buds, and removed their fadbeauty of heavenly simplicity, and purity, specimen for the posy to be worn at the christenand lowliness of mind, of contentment and ing of the squire's heir, or on my lord's birthunquestioning faith-which sets before day.' them, in the thorns and thistles, a remembrance of their fallen state-in the cedar, In a like strain the wise and good author and the olive, and the palmn-tree, the prom
of Human Life' beautifully saysise of a better country—which hourly recalls to their mind tbe Agony and the Bu
“I would not have my garden too extended;
not because flowers are not the most delicious rial of Him who made a garden the scene things, speaking to the sentiments as well as to of both, and who bade us mark and consider the senses, but on account of the intrinsic and such things, how they bud, and how they superior value of moderation. When interests grow,' giving us in the vine a type of His are divided, they are not so strong. Three Church, and in the fig-tree of His Coming acres of flowers and a regiment of gardeners
Again, we would ask those who think bring no more pleasure than a sufficiency. Bethat national amelioration is to be achieved sides which, in the smaller possession, there is
more room for the mental pleasure to step in by dose
dose of Reform or Red-tapery, and refine all that which is sensual. We be
upon where should we now have been without come acquainted, as it were, and even form our savings-banks, our allotment system, friendships, with individual flowers. We beand our cottage gardens ? And lest we stow more care upon their bringing up and proshould be thought to have been led away
gress. They seem sensible of our favour, from flowers to the more general subject, absolutely to enjoy it, and make pleasing returns we will add that when we see a plot set by their beauty, health, and sweetness. In this apart for a rosebush, and a gilliflower, and look at en masse, do not identify themselves in a carnation, it is enough for us : if the jas- the same manner as even a very small border; mine and the honeysuckle embower the and hence, if the cottager's mind is properly porch without, we may be sure that there attuned, the little cottage-garden may give him is a potato and a cabbage and an onion for more real delight than belongs to the owner of the pot within: if there be not plenty there, that give me a garden well kept, however
All this is so entirely nature, at least there is no want; if not happiness, small, two or three spreading trees, and a mind the nearest approach to it in this world— at ease, and I defy the world.' content.
Nor do we find anything contravening ! he was most proud of his garden, said also, this, in Cowley's wish that he might have with more nalure and truth, that he 'pitied * a small house and large garden, few the man who had completed everything in friends, and many books.' Doubtless he his garden. To pull down and destroy is coveted neither the Bodleian nor Chats- quite as natural to man as to build up and worth, and intended his garden to be improve, and this love of alteration may large' only in comparison with his other help 10 account for the many changes of possessions.
style in gardening that have taken place. It is this unlimited expenditure and un- The course of the seasons, the introduction limited interest which a garden requires, of new flowers, the growth of trees, will combined with the innocence of the amuse- always of themselves give the gardener ment, that renders it so great a blessing - enough to do; and if the flower-garden is more even than to the cottager himself-to perfect, and there is a nook of the country clergyman. We must leave to at hand, instead of extending his parterres, the novelist to sketch the happy party which cannot be kept too neat, he had betwhich every summer's evening finds busied ter devote it to an arboretum for choice on many an English vicarage-lawn, with trees and shrubs; or take up with some their trowels and watering-pots, and all the one extensive class—as for a thornery or a paraphernalia of amateur gardeners; though pinery; or make it a wilderness-like mixwe may ask the utilitarian, if he would ture of all kinds. Such ground will not deign to scan so simple a group, from the require mowing more than twice or thrice superintending vicar to the water-carrying in the year, and will afford much pleasure, schoolboy, where he would better find de- without much labour and expense. If there veloped the greatest happiness of the is a little damp nook or dell, with rock-work greatest number,' than among those very and water at command, let it by all means objects and that very occupation where be made a fernery, for which Mr. Newman's utility is not only banished, but condemn- book will supply plenty of materials. ed.
But we are straying too far from our imWe would have our clergy know that mediate subject of flower-gardens and flowthere is no readier way to a parishioner's ers, and with a few more remarks upon the heart-next to visiting his house, which, latter, we must bring this dissertation to a done in health and in sickness, is the key-close : otherwise we should have something stone of our blessed parochial system--than to say of the unique beauties of Redleaf, to visit his garden, suggesting and super- and the splendid Italian garden lately deintending improvements, distributing seeds, signed at Trentham by the genius of Mr. and slips, and flowers, and lending or giving Barry; something more, too, of the gorgeous such gardening books as would be useful new importations which every day is now for his limited domain. And many a poor bringing, some for the first time, into blosscholar, in some obscure curacy, out of the som. We are even promised new varieties way of railroads and book-clubs,
of orchideous plants from Mr. Rollisson's • In life's stillest shade reclining,
experiments in raising seedlings for the In desolation unrepiping,
first time in this country. Without a hope on earth to find,
To produce new seedling varieties of A mirror in an answering mind,' one's own, by hybridizing and other myshas made the moral and intellectual wilder- teries of the priests of Flora, is indeed the ness in which he is cast bloom for him in highest pleasure and the deepest esotericism his trees, and herbs, and flowers; and if of the art. The impregnating them is to unable, from the narrowness of his means venture within the very secrets of creation, and situation,
and the naming them carries us back to one • To raise the terrace or to sink the grot,' of the highest privileges of our first parents. has found his body refreshed and his spirits The offspring becomes our own ipyov; which, lightened, in growing the salad to give a
according to Aristotle, claims the highest relish to his simple meal, and the flower to degree of our love. We should feel that, bedeck his threadbare button-hole,--ena
in leaving them, we were leaving friends, bled by these recreations to bear up against and address them in the words of Eve, those little every-day annoyances which,
• O flowers, though hardly important enough to tax our My early visitation and my last faith or our philosophy, make up in an ill- At even, which I had bred up with tender hand,
From the first opening bud, and gare ye names, regulated or unemployed mind the chief Who now shall rear ye to the sun, or rank ills of life.
Your tribes, and water from the ambrosial fount?' Pope, who professed that of all his works
Par. Lost, xi.
We cannot but admire the practice of the Art. VIII.—Diary und Letters of Madame Church of Rome, which calls in the aid off D'Arblay, Author of Erelina,' • Ceria floral decorations on her high festivals. If lia,' dr. Edited by her Niece. Vols. I., we did not feel convinced that it was the II., III. London. 1842. most bounden duty of the Church of Eng. land, at the present moment, to give no When we reviewed, ten years ago, that unnecessary offence by restorations in in- strange display of egotism which Madame different matters, we should be inclined to D'Arblay was pleased to call . Memoirs of advocate, notwithstanding the denunciations her Father,' we expressed a wish that she of some of the early Fathers, some slight would exception in the case of our own favourites. We shall not easily forget the effect of al: condense and simplify into a couple of interestlong avenue of orange-trees in the Cathe-ing (and interesting ihey would be) volumes her dral of St. Gudule at Brussels, calling to oun story and her contemporaneous notes and mind as it did the expression of the psalm- which she moved fro
bona fide recollections of that brilliant society in
1777 to 1793. We lay ist- Those that be planted in the house some stress on the words bona fide—not as of the Lord shall flourish in the courts of imputing to Madame D'Arblay the slightest inour God.' The white lily is held through-tention to deceive, but because we think that we out Spain and Italy the emblem of the see in almost every page abundant proof that Virgin's purity, and frequently decorates the habit of novel-ucriting has led her to colour, her shrines; and many other flowers, dedi- and, as she may suppose, embellish, her aneccated to some saint, are used in profusion lails which, however, we venture to assure her,
dotes with sonorous epithets and factitious deon the day of his celebration. The oak-leaf not only biunt their effect, but discredit their and the palm-branch have with us their loyal authority.'-Quart. Rev., vol xlix., p. 125. and religious anniversary, and the holly still gladdens the hearts of all good Churchmen
We were not then in the secret of Maat Christmas-a custom which the Puritans dame D'Arblay's having from her earliest never succeeded in effacing from the most youth kept the diary now presented to us ; cant-ridden parish in the kingdom. Latler- but we guessed, from many passages in the ly, flowers have been much used among us · Memoirs of Dr. Burney,' that she was in in festivals, and processions, and gala-days possession of copious contemporaneous of all kinds--the dahlia furnishing, in its materials for her own, and we candidly symmetry and variety of colouring, an ex- forewarned her of the kind of errors into cellent material for those who, perhaps, in which she was likely to fall in preparing their young days sowed their own initials her notes for publication. Our conjectures in mustard-and-cress, to inscribe in their are now too fully verified; the interest is maturer years their sovereign's name in indeed much less than we anticipated, but flowers. Flowering plants and shrubs are in all the rest--the diffuseness--the pompat the same time becoming more faslıiona. osity-the prolixity-the false colouringble in our London ball-rooms. No dread the factitious details--and, above all, the of .voxious exhalations' deters mammas personal affectation and vanity of the aufrom decorating their halls and staircases thor, this book exceeds our worst apprehenwith flowers of every hue and fragrance, sions. nor their daughters from braving the head.
At first sight the Diary seems a minute aches and pale cheeks, which are said to record of all that she saw, did, or heard, arise from such innocent and beautiful and we find the pages crowded with names
We would go one step further, and teeming with matters of the greatest and replace all artificial flowers by natural apparent interest—with details of the soones, on the dinner-table and in the hair. cial habits and familiar conversation of the Some of the more amaranthine flowers, as most fashionable, most intellectual, and, in the camellia and the hoya, which can bear every sense, most illustrious personages of the heat of crowded rooms, or those of re- the last age. No book that we ever opened, gular shapes, as the dahlia and others, not even Boswell's “Johnson,' promised at would, we are sure, with a little contrivance the first glance more of all that species of in adjusting and preserving them, soon entertainment and information which meeclipse the most artistical wreaths of Natier moir-writing can convey, and the position or Forster, and we will venture to promise and respectability of the author, with her a good partner for a waltz and for life to supposed power of delineating character, all the first fair débutante who will take courage tended to heighten our expectation ; but to adopt the natural Power in her (sunny never, we regret to .say, has there been a Jocks.
more vexatious disappointment. We have