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gerous class.'

criminals. The lodging-houses in which or an unexpected plunder has put them in funds. this vile population dwells, are intermixed Followed unceasingly by the dread of being diswith numerous eating-houses, and brandy covered and arrested by the police, they hasten and smoking shops of the most obscene violent excitement. Play is at once the business

to the gaming-table to drown their fears in its description.

of their lives and their most cherished pleasure;

debauchery and gluttony follow as subordinates. • The most striking characteristic of the This cruel passion accompanies and domineers lodging-houses is an excess of uncleanliness, over them even in the prison, and leads to ex. which renders them so many centres of infection. cesses which approach insanity. There are It is only the most select which have beds; the instances of prisoners, who, after having lost in greater part contain merely truckle bedsteads, one instant the produce of an entire week's disgustingly, dirty. The rooms open into pas- labour, have not feared to glut their passion by sages which have neither light nor air; the staking in advance the bread which is to supleaden sinks and latrines on each floor exhale a port them for the next month, or even for a suffocating stench ; their leakage extends from longer period ; nor are there wanting beings so the garret to the ground floor, and renders the remorseless as to lie in wait during the distribustairs, which are covered with a humid mud, tion of the food, and snatch from their debtors almost impassable. The court-yard of these the bread which is necessary to their very exhouses is only a few feet square; and the win- istence. dows of the densely-crowded rooms look into • The medical attendants in the Central this; but many of the smaller chambers have House of Mont Saint-Michel remarked a convict no other opening than the door which leads to who played with so unconquerable an ardour, the stairs. The windows are covered with oiled that when he was in the infirmary, and in the paper instead of glass; and in many houses the extremity of disease, he abandoned to the chance whole of the inmates sleep on heaps of rags, of the die the broth or wine absolutely necescollected in the streets, and kept in one of the sary to restore his strength. This man, in the lower rooms, to be given out to the lodgers as end, died of actual inanition.' they enter. I enlarge upon these details, because the very harshness of the picture will The medical attendants,' we presume, throw a strong light on the habits of the dan

were placed there for some other purpose * Gamblers'—for it is with this class of crimi- than merely to ‘remark the ardour of such pals that our author commences—are, from a patient ! the very nature of their pursuits, subject to such We believe there is no portion of their sudden vicissitudes of fortune, and are driven on social system 'on which our Gallic neighby such a reckless ardour, that they are not only bours more pride themselves than on their looked upon by the police as dangerous persons, code of erotic laws; and it is with somebut become objects of dread to all the well-dis- what of a flourish of trumpets—a pauloposed. Of all our evil propensities, the love of play is the most tyrannical, devouring, and majora-canamus sort of a tone-that M. Frétenacious; and there are no excesses to which gier enters upon the subject : it does not lead. Among the professed gamblers there are many, especially of the lower and of *This vice," he exclaims, “begotten by one the educated but necessitous classes, who are of the passions the most imperious in man, and solely occupied by the craving appetite for play, to which the progress of civilisation has in vain the activity of which absorbs in them all other attempted to oppose any efficacious barrier, exwants. They retrench as much as possible ercises more especially its influence in mighty their food and clothing, to furnish the means of cities. It reigns—such is the recital of travelindulging this deadly passion. They frequent lers, such is the testimony of writers the most the lowest lodging-houses; and whilst they risk accredited—over the entire surface of the at the gaming-table every franc they possess, it globe! is with regret that they part with two or three sous to pay for a bed of rotten straw, or of rags In Paris, prostitution exists under two covered with mud. Such is their destiny, day distinct forms : it is public, and it is clanafter day; and it brings them to the level of the destine ; the inscription of names in the robbers and cut-throats who inhabit the same dens. It is this community of abode, this close register of the police being the line of sepaapproach to criminals of the worst description. ration. Convinced of the necessity of the which so powerfully seconds the pernicious evil

, the municipal authorities have eninfluences of the passion that controls them. deavoured to render it obedient to such Deprived by the cast of the die of their last crown, laws as should restrain its excesses—to and urged to desperation, they throw them- organize it, as far as its nature will perrobbers with whom they dwell. This extremity years, and more especially of late,


• During the last five-and-twenty of guilt is sooner or later the fate of almost police have,' we are told, "evinced great neither fraud por luck has befriended them, can wisdom and firmness in the ameliorations submit to every privation, give way to the wild- they have introduced into this division of est extravagance when the chance of the cards the community; and Paris has become

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distinguished among all the capitals of counsel of some early friend who is herself decivilized nations, as the one in which pub- voted to vice. In all these cases the police prolic order, morals, and health, are the best ceed with extreme caution. The cause of moguaranteed against the influence of this rality being the one object they have in view, it vice.'

is by no means unusual for them to refuse the In England prostitution is tolerated, in ing, and the girl is not suffering under disease.

inscription, if they see any remains of good feelFrance it is sanctioned : advantages and They do more. To preserve her from the dandisadvantages result probably from both ger of clandestine prostitution, and to do away systems; but neither the pages of our au- with any pretext for remaining at Paris, they thor, nor the voluminous treatise of his give her a passport and funds to enable her io great authority, M. Parent-Duchâtelet, return home. Even in those cases in which the have convinced us that the cause of virtue ed, they do not, in the first instance, definitively

police perceive that this course cannot be adoptis promoted by legalizing vice. This at inscribe the name: a communication is addressed least is certain, that the proud supremacy to the mayor of the place in which the girl was of moral discipline, which these two politi- born, requiring him to furnish, free of expense, cal economists claim for Paris, exists only a certificate of her birth; and although the obin part : clandestine prostitution has re-ject for which it is demanded is not expressed, sisted every attempt to bring it under con

the researches which the local authorities are trol ; nor can it ever be so brought, with- obliged to make suffice to apprise the friends of out an undue and most dangerous infringe- she is placed. It rests with them to negotiate

the girl where she is, and the danger in which ment of the liberty of the subject. The her return either by the intervention of the obvious, the admitted result of this imper-mayor, or by a direct application to the police. fect, this half submission to the law is, that It is only when this document is transmitted the clandestine and ex-legal division of the without any accompanying remark that the class is more depraved and more danger- provisional inscription becomes final. ous than where there is no such separation ;

• A different line of conduct is adopted in the and that this is the case the pages of our magistrates are requested to ascertain the situa

case of a minor. If from the country, the local author abundantly prove.

tion of her parents, and what steps they are The two classes are so distinct, that he willing to take to secure her return to them. has deemed it necessary to treat of each During the period of this negotiation, she is put separately :

in separate confinement in the prison of St. Laza

If, which is very frequently the case, • The inscription has for its object to prove she is not claimed by her relations, the registhe individuality of the woman who surrenders tration takes place. When the parents reside herself to an immoral life; and thus to give the in Paris, the same solicitude is shown. They inspectors of the police the means of arresting are brought before the prefect of police, and her if guilty of disorderly conduct or crime. The urged to pardon their child. Sometimes the registered female, aware that she is thus sub- efforts of the civil authorities are successful ; jected to a constant surveillance, abandons her- but these 'reconciliations are seldom durable. self less willingly to those excesses which are The girl is again guilty, and again arrested : her almost inseparable from her vocation; and has relations break off all connection with her, and no hope, if guilty of crime, of escaping from the it becomes necessary to add her name to the pursuit of justice. The inscription declares the list. fact of prostitution; but it does not grant her the

• Each girl, when she is registered, is required authority to prostitute herself, as is commonly to sign, either with her name or her mark, a supposed to be the case.

formal printed declaration, by which she engages * If the girl who presents herself and demands to submit herself to the sanatory regulations, her inscription, or who is brought by the police, and to the prescribed system of surveillance conis of age, and appears not utterly

hardened in vice, nected with them. This is an important docuthe executive employs all its efforts to inducement: it constitutes a sort of legal right in the her to return into the bosom of her family. The police to inflict, as they are perpetually compelinterrogation which she undergoes as to her led to do, the slighter kinds of punishment on previous conduct enables them to judge whether these unfortunate women, without control and anger or despair has driven her to take this step; without appeal. It is found, also, to have a por is her name inscribed until, after a mature strong moral effect upon the girls themselves; investigation, they are convinced that there is they feel that by thus pledging themselves they no hope of reconciling her to her family. Many have entered into a kind of contract with the of those who apply for inscription are from the police : this tends to render them obedient, and provinces. Ensnared by a transitory attachment, to restrain their conduct within some bounds of they quit their native place; are brought to propriety.' Paris by the seducer, speedily abandoned by him, and compelled by actual want to add their names to the registry of infamy: or, willing to

Every trade and every occupation affords hide a first fault, they separate themselves from its contingent to this class; and, as with their family and seek concealment in the capital, us, the most productive of all are the manuand to do this they are frequently led by the factories and the workshops. Parent


Duchatelet—tho Newton of harlotry-in, The aristocracy of the profession, the his elaborate work, ‘De la Prostitution de kept mistresses, have nearly all of them la Ville de Paris,'* enumerates the in their favoured lovers, whom our author stances in which near relations have simul- warns us by no means to confound with taneously presented themselves for regis- their ostensible protectors : many of these tration. Out of 5183 registrations, 164 favourites occupy an elevated position in cases have occurred of two sisters present- society-general officers—men of letters ing themselves at the same time, 4 instances financiers-noblemen.' The next rankof three sisters, 3 instances of four; and the higher class of street-walkers--who the still more fearful spectacle of a mother live free from personal restraint, exercise and her daughter presenting themselves to their trade during the day, and devote their gether has occurred no less than sixteen nights to the society of their lovers, whom times !!

by preference they choose from among the * This is a work d'une grande célébrité' in of these grand divisions is consecıaled to a philoFrance. We marvel not that

should be so;

sophic analysis of the veteran rank of the profession. never was there a book more radically and essen- Here, in fourteen sections, we have given to us their tially French. The subject well deserves the atten- nomenclature—the gradual purifications in the tion of the philanthropist and the statesman: it is French language on this important subject during the treatment of it--the blending together philosophic a long succession of ages—the exact year, 1796, in gravity and trivial minuteness—the needless abomi- which their present decorous appellation was connation of detail, which makes the English reader ceded to then-their domestic pursuits, studies, and fling it from him with wonder and disgust. The amusements-their opinion of themselves, a nice author had prepared himself for his revolting task point-their special and individual affairs of the heart by a long familiarity with kindred subjects: the -the discomfort to their establishments when these death-spreading industry of Montfaucon-the ob- extend to more than two cherished objects at once structed sinks and sewers of Paris--had been the theirtournure d'esprit—their maternal solicitude ; objects of his care, before he busied himself with -and, to complete the interesting picture, their calm these darker impurities. To them he devoted al secession from the toils of life—their provincial remost exclusively the last eight years of his life. His tirements—their gradually extending respectability zeal and energy in the pursuit were unceasing; and - their charitable cares-their rural piety-their among the mass of facts which he has collected and eager participation in the holiest ceremonials of the brought into system many are of high importance church :-the whole wound up with what should and utility. But from long dwelling upon one have been its commencement, had there not existed, favourite and engrossing subject, his eye lost by as we are expressly told, insurmountable dificul. degrees the faculty of correci perspective: things ties' in so doing—ihe whole wound up with absolutely unimportant, things altogether base and

DEFINITION d'une Dame de Maison.' trivial, became from proximity magnified into ob The accuracy of every statement contained in jects of philosophic grandeur. What moral or this volume is repeatedly insisted upon by M. statistical advantage, for example, can result from Frégier, and the work carries within itself the ascertaining with mathematical accuracy and re- strongest evidence of truth. There are, nevertheless, ducing into decimal fractions the proportionate ratios some very startling assertions in it. 'We scarcely of the eyes, grey, brown, blue, red, and black, of know which of the three following is the most inevery street-walker in Paris? What practical | credible:utility in mastering the still more difficult problem 1st. That one of the physicians of Paris, observof the colour of their eyebrows? There may be ing the uniform increase of fat which courtezans some interest in knowing exactly the height of the acquire from the use of mercury, suggested the exVenus de Medicis, and of the Pucelle d'Orléans ;--pediency of subjecting all animals intended for the but to ascertain, within the fraction of an inch, ihe food of man to a like course of treatment!! (Page altitudes, in an ascending series, of TWELVE THOU- 116 of the Brussels edition of 1836—we dcem it ex. BAND FOCR HUNDRED AND FIFTY-Four Parisian pros- pedient to be accurate in our references.) titutes is a department of science, a species of 2d. That in one of the forty-eight quarters of philosophy, which we are convinced no human Paris, that of l'Ile Saint Louis, in å population of being but a Frenchman would ever have thought of 7500, not one single prostitute is to be found!!! cultivating

(Page 327.) As an author, Parent-Duchâtelet's merits are 3d. Thaí one woman of a superior grade-but considerable. His language is correct, clear, and we will quote the original words, to prevent the poseven eloquent; but the measureless attachment sibility of error--assurait la sanié de tous ses which he feels towards his subject betrays him cliens. Pour cela elle ne recevait que des hommes sometimes into an energy of phrase singularly ludi- mariés que tous se connaissaient ; on n'était admis crous. Subjects of loathsome disquisition, needless chez elle que sur la présentation de quelques habiand frivolous impurities, are thus pompously tués, et avec l'assentiment de tous les autres au ushcred in: 'Je consacre un chapitre,' - Cette nombre de quarante à cinquante'!!!! (Page 81.) opinion étant d'un poids immense,' J'ai puisé

Parent-Duchâtelet was a skilful and valuable largement à cette source précieuse,'--' Cet inestimable public servant. We believe, also, that he was a document ;'--and on one occasion, when dilating on virtuous man; and the disgust with which we cast a subject supereminently revolting and disgraceful, aside the book does not extend to its author. Nor filled with gratitude towards his co-explorers, he would we be unjust to the work itself. As it exists, exclaims, ' Ils l'ont étudiée pour moi, et m'ont donné it would be unendurable in this country; but if dià ce sujet des précieux renseignemens !!!

vested of all its unnecessary grossness, all its trivial In elaborate correctness of arrangement the work details, we should be glad to see, in an English dress, is a master-piece: each of its grander divisions is the solid information which it contains. "We warn subdivided into numerous subordinate sections, our readers against supposing that they will find every one of which has its duplex enunciation, the what we speak of in a late trumpery publication of one concise, the other full and comprehensive. One I the Edinburgh press.

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students of law and medicine, and the ju- men than the disdain which the higher ranks venile attorneys, ' the intelligence and wit among them express for those of an inferior of these young men rendering them espe- grade, the one grand criterion of their recially attractive. These women never ex- lative dignity being the price at which they act any payment from their favourites; on accord their favours. Should any individual the contrary, they lavish their money upon forget herself so far as to lower her terms, them; and the number of young men in she is exposed to the anger and revilings of Paris who degrade themselves by being her fellows: this is an offence which, in their thus supported is considerable. This total opinion, admits of no excuse. The contempt absence of mercenary views,' says our of the superior class naturally draws down author, 'is universal through all the grada- upon it the vindictive hatred of the other; and tions of prostitution, even to the very low- when members of the two meet, as they perest. Towards their lovers, the disinterest- petually do in the prison or the hospital, hoth edness of these abandoned women is un reduced to the same hard fare and the same mixed and perfect. The next class in the coarse dress, the inferior fails not to take a descending scale are perhaps the least cor- bitter revenge. The mistresses of the houses rupted and vicious of the whole: these of Tolerance have in their pay agents in the nearly all of them exercise some indus- different hospitals, who form acquaintance trious trade, in addition to their regular with the handsomest of their fellow-patients; profession: : many are economists, and in- and, on their report, the Dame de Maison envest their money in the savings-banks : not ters into a treaty with the girls thus selected, a few of them in the capital thus accumu- and makes them a present of clothes, and a lated find ultimately the means of emanci- weekly allowance of four or five francs dupating themselves, and set up in some de- ring the remainder of their stay in the hospital, cent business. The lovers chiefly sought the agent herself receiving a much higher reafter by this class are shopmen, journey. muneration. These selections chiefly take men hair-dressers, and journeymen tailors, place from among girls out of place, and the latter especially. In this rank there are work-women without employment; who, many women whose degradation has sprung on leaving the hospital, have no alternative from poverty, and not from any propensity before them but famine or vice. The houses to vice. The lowest class is that which most of the lower class are recruited from the demands the strict attention of the police ; prisons by similar agency. Many of the for with them are constantly associated Dames de Maison obtain their recruits by men of the vilest and most dangerous cha- the aid of correspondents in the country, esracter, their lovers or their souteneurs, who pecially in the manufacturing departments : are for the most part liberated convicts. they often employ regular travellers for the The attachment of these women for their same purpose ; and not a few are in league favourites knows no bounds: the vilest with the persons who keep offices for the treatment at their hands, blows, even hiring of servants, who, without remorse, wounds, will not shake it. The duty of the when a girl more than usually handsome souteneur is to warn his mistress of the ap- applies for a place, send her to the address proach of the police, when she is infringing of one of the most showy of the licensed the prescribed rules; and in the event of Maisons. The train is so well laid, that it her being arrested, he is always prepared very generally succeeds—flattery, dress, lux. to do battle in her defence.

uries of all sorts, conquer

her repugnance, These are the four chief classes which and she devotes herself to a life of shame, constitute that division of the system in without even being aware that she has been which the women continue to be free agents, the victim of a conspiracy. Especial care and mistresses of their own actions; with is taken to keep these unhappy creatures the exception only of their constant subjec- totally penniless, lest they should emancipate tion to the sanatory regulations, and, in the themselves from the thraldom they endure ; event of misconduct, to imprisonment. From and if they are suspected of economising, the highest to the lowest, from the femme every art used to lead them into extravagalante who lives surrounded by every lux- gance. In the more splendid establishments ury, to the half-clothed prowler through the personal indulgences are granted to them in streets, all are alike subjected to the dispen- excess ; yet, no sooner does disease attack sary, the hospital, and the prison. The visits them, than they are hurried off without symto the dispensary are required to be made pathy or remorse from the very centre of twice every month; and are recorded on a luxury to the melancholy wards of a hoscard, which they are bound to produce, when pital.' The vilest, the most revolting, and called upon to do so by the police. Nothing the most dangerous of all these licensed is a more marked characteristic of these wo-establishments are the dens in those parts of

the city where the lower classes congregate ; the benefit to the offenders would be imsuch as the Grand Barriers and the outward portant and permanent; they would be Boulevards. Day and night, one unceasing come less immoral, and less dangerous subround of riut, debauchery, drunkenness fight- jects to the state. But experience has ing, and theft, takes place in these hot-beds proved that this cannot be. The fact is noof crime.

torious, that the law is uot able to bring Clandestine prostitution has a range as within its coercive powers one-half of the wide as that which is regular and avowed. class. But this is not, we conceive, the A large proportion of the total number of chief objection to it. A portion of the class, femmes-galantes, or kept-mistresses-femmes having the sanction of the law, being under à partie the girls who habitually frequent its care, legalized and protected, establishthe theatres--workwomen-maid servants es at once a line of demarkation between -and, last and most melancholy of all, it and the remaining part, which holds itchildren, form the catalogue of the 4000 fe- self aloof from all restraint. The consemales who constitute the mass of prostitu- quence is inevitable—the unrestricted portion which does not submit itself to the law. tion become, from the mere circumstance

Che femmes à partie are a distinct race: they of this distinction, this separation, more are women distinguished generally by their depraved, more audacious, and more danwit and fascinating manners, who are, or gerous than they would be, were there no have been prostitutes. They keep a good such division. The slightest acquaintance table, and receive all visiters who are in with the nature of the human mind would troduced to them by friends in whom they convince us, à priori, that this must be so; confide: they give dinners, balls, soirées; but not only M. Frégier's volumes, but the and collect around them as many beautiful more circumstantial work of Parent-Duchâ. faces as they can-divorced wives-actresses telet, prove, beyond a shadow of doubt, -opera-dancers, and femmes galantes of all that such is the case. From the amount, kinds: they live by the spoils of the thought therefore, of good, which the exertions of less young men of fortune. In disgraceful the law effect in one half of the mass, is to conduct the women who beset the theatres be deducted the amount of evil which equal—they cannot exceed-their parallels results to the other. But the question in London. This stain upon our national which relates to society at large is one of manners has been far too patiently endured, far greater importance; and here there is and we hail with gratitude the recent effort no balancing of good and evil. The legalof Mr. Macready to free our capital from so izing, the trafficking with vice, the protecfoul a reproach.

lion and countenance given to it, cannot It has been painful to us to go into these exist without baneful effects extending details ; but as of all the divisions of so- themselves directly or indirectly over all ciety this is the one in which the greatest divisions of society. The national scale of difference exists between the two nations, morality is brought down; the distinctions we have deemed it right specially to direct of right and wrong are defaced. A licensed the attention of our readers to it. That brothel and a licensed gambling-house are both in a moral and a religious point of less dangerous places to those who freview it is a subject of the deepest import- quent them than similar abodes of vice un

can doubt; and it deserves, subjected to control ; but to society at large consequently, the calm attention of the the injury resulting from the union of crime political economist. English feelings and and law is incalculably greater.

France English prejudices may, perhaps, bias our has already perceived this as regards the judgment; our neighbours consider us an- one vice, and sanctioned gambling-houses tiquated and unwise in our views on this have ceased to exist. branch of civil government; and we know It is proved, that among the prostitutes that the French system of legalized prosti- in Paris a considerable number economize tution is gradually spreading over other their gains, are depositors in the savingsEuropean nations. We do not wonder banks, and acquire the means of quitting, that it should do so; for, unquestionably, their vicious course of life : it is proved, there are many advantages connected with also, that a large proportion of these unit. These are upon the surface. The ob- happy women do ultimately obtain re-adjections lie deeper. If legal surveillance mission into their original classes of society. could, without undue interference with the Could we restrict our views to these indiliberty of the subject, be made to extend viduals, the knowledge that such is the over all those who are tainted with this case would be consolatory : but we must vice, great good, great diminution of crime, look also at those by whom they are redisease and misery, would be the result; ceived: we then perceive that it is the ab

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