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house" may be satisfied, without being tanta-( while the simple and pretty wall-snapdragon lized by the rich reserves within the gate of iron weeps over the side, till its tiny pink threads tracery, of which the head gardener keeps the are tangled among the feathery ferns that fringe key.
the base of the stump. Return to the steps of the lower terrace: • The lawn now stretches some distance westwhat a fine slope of green pasture loses itself in ward, its green and velvet surface uninterrupted • the thorn, hazel, and holly thicket below, while by a single shrub (what a space for trapbat, or
the silver thread of the running brook here and les graces!") till towards the verge of the there sparkles in the light; and how happily shrubberies, into which it falls away, irregular the miniature prospect, framed by the gnarled clumps of evergreens and low shrubs break the branches of those gigantic oaks, discloses the boundary line of greensward. Here are no borwhite spire of the village church in the middle ders for flowers, but clusters of the larger and distance! while in the background the smoke, bolder kinds, as hollyhocks and peonies, rise drifting athwart the base of the purple hill, from the turf itself; here, too, in spring, golden gives evidence that the evening fires are just lit and purple crocuses, daffodils, aconites, snowin the far-off town.
drops, blue-bells, cyclamen, wood-anemonies, • At the right hand corner of the low ter- hepaticas, the pink and the blue, chequer the race the ground falls more abruptly away, and lawn in bold broad strips, the wilder sorts being the descent into the lawn, which is overlooked more distant from the house, and losing themfrom the high western terrace, is, by two or selves under the dark underwood of the adjointhree steps at a time, cut out in the native rock ing coppice. The ground here becomes more of red sandstone, which also forms the base of varied and broken; clumps of double-flowering the terrace itself. Rock plants of every descrip- gorse, tion freely grow in the crevices of the rustic
“the vernal furze, battlement which flanks the path on either side:
Wiih golden baskets hung,” the irregularity of the structure increases as you descend, till on arriving on the lawn below, the evergreen barberry, the ilex in all its variclarge rude masses lie scattered on the turf and ties, and hardy ferns, bordering the green drive along the foundation of the western terrace. which leads to the wilder part of the planta
• A profusion of the most exquisite climbing tions. Here, in the words of Bacon, “ Trees I roses of endless variety here clamber up till would have none in it, but some thicket made they bloom over the very balustrades of the only of sweet-briar and honeysuckle, and some higher terrace, or creep over the rough stones wild vine amongst; and the ground set with at the foot of the descent. Here stretching to violets, strawberries, and primroses, for these the south is the nosegay of the garden. Mig. are sweet, and prosper in the shade, and these nionette, “ the Frenchman's darling," and the are to be in the heath here and there, not in inusk-mimulus, spring out of every fissure of any order. I like also little heaps, in the nathe sandstone; while beds of violets,
ture of mole-hills (such as are in wild heaths,) “That strew the green lap of the new-come spring," to be set with wild thyme."
Another broad drive of greensward dips from and lilies of the valley scent the air below. the lawn into the darkest and most tangled part Beds of heliotrope flourish around the isolated of the wood: here, through a long vista, you blocks of sandstone; the fuchsia, alone inodo- catch a glimpse of the American shrubbery berous, claims a place from its elegance; and low. Rhododendrons, azaleas, calmias, maghoneysuckles and clematis of all kinds trail nolias, andromedas, daphnes, heaths, and bogalong the ground, or twine up the stands of plants of every species in their genial soil, form rustic baskets, filled with the more choice odo- a mass of splendid colouring during the spring riferous plants of the greenhouse. The scented months, while, even in winter, their dark foliage heath, the tuberose, and the rarer jasmines have forms an evergreen mass for the eye to rest each their place, while the sweet-briar and the upon. Returning again to the lawn, and inwall-flower and the clove and the stock gilli- clining to the south, you come to an artificial flower, are not too common to be neglected. shrubbery, not dotted about in simple plants, To bask upon the dry sunny rock on a bright but in large and bold clusters of the same spespring morning in the midst of this “wilderness cies, so that the effect from a distance is as of sweets," or on a dewy summer's eve to lean good as upon a nearer approach. Here, as else. over the balustrade above, while every breath where, not a sod of turf is broken ; but, here from beneath wafts up the perfumed air, and there, a bed of gay shrubby plants rises out ".... stealing and giving odour," of the smoothly-shorn grass, and in the back
ground, amid masses of laburnum, lilac, and is one of the greatest luxuries I have in life. guelder-rose, fruit trees of every kind hang their
· A little farther on the lawn are the trunks bright garlands in spring, and their mellow proand stumps of old pollards hollowed out; and, duce in autumn. From thence winds a path, from the cavities, filled with rich mould, climb- the deliciæ of the garden, planted with such ers, creepers, trailers, and twiners of every herbs as yield their perfume when trodden upon hue and habit form a singular and picturesque and crushed, -burnet, wild thyme, and watergroup. The lophospermum, the eccrymocarpos, mints, according to Bacon's advice, who bids the maurandia, the loasa, the rodokiton, ver- us“set whole alleys of them, 10 have the pleabenas, and petunias in all iheir varieties, festoon sure when you walk or tread." themselves over the rugged bark, and form the • It were tedious to follow up the long shady gayest and gracefullest bouquet imaginable :1 path, not broad enough for more than two,
the “lovers' walk," and the endless winding author we have quoted) that combined art tracks in the natural wood, till you burst upon and nature ever produced in gardening a wild common of
were those fine masses of many-coloured “Tooth'd briars, sharp furzes, prickly gorse, and holly-hocks clustered round a weather-tintthorns,”
ed vase; such as Sir Joshua delighted 10
place in the wings of his pictures. And glowing with heather bloom, and scented with what more magnificent than a long avenue the perfume of the furze, just such an English of these floral giants, the double and the scene as Linnæus is said to have fallen down single,—not too straightly tied, -backed and worshipped the first time he beheld it.'
by a dark thick hedge of old-fashioned If we rightly understand the plan bere dark thick hedge,' which would certainly
?'*. Such an avenue, without the
yew detailed, it is intended to combine the chief excellences of the artificial and natural ber to have seen, in the sulness of its au
have been an improvement--we rememstyles; keeping the decorations immedi- tumn splendour, in the garden at Granton, ately about the house formal, and so passing on by gradual transitions to the wildest near Edinburgh, the marine villa of a deep
—and another may have been scenes of nature. The leading features then in such a gar; ley Hill. Here the hollyhocks broke the
spected by many of our readers at Bromden would be an architectural terrace and horizon with their obelisks of colour; and flight of steps in connection with the house; the foreground was a mass of dahlias, Amelower terraces of grass-slopes and flowerbeds succeeding: these brancbing off on
rican marigolds, mallows, asters, and mig.
nionette. It was the most gorgeous mass one side towards the kitchen department, of colouring we ever beheld; but was only through an old English garden, of which a bowling-green would form a part, and
one of the many beautiful effects produced where florists' flowers might be sheltered on this spot by the taste of the lare Lady by the trim hedges ; on the other towards
Farnborough. For a moderate garden of
limited size, this was the most complete an undulating lawn bounded by flowering shrubs and the larger herbaceous plants,
ever visited, the situation allowing with one corner for the American garden, ceived within so small a compass. A con
greater variety than could well be conbeyond which would lie the natural copsecourse the aspect and situation of the house, Italian garden—the highest point of the wood and forest-ground of the place of servatory connected with the house led to
a summer-room : this looked on a small and the character of the neighbouring grounds, and affording a dim view of the ground and country, would modify these or Some of St. Paul's in the distance; and any general rules which might be laid down for the formation of a garden ; but thence you descended, by steep and grassy we think some advantage might, in every from garden to garden, each having some
-, case, be taken from these hints. In a place of any pretension, a good the most perfect little Ruysdael rivulet,
peculiar feature of its own, till you came to clear lawn where children of a younger or and such crystal springs, in all their naolder growth may romp about, without fear of damaging shrubs or plants, is in- tural wildness, that it seemed, when you dispensable.
saw them, you had never known what pure Single shrubs and flowers, or groups of
cold native fountains were before. Any them, on the verge of this lawn, springing springs with cockle-shells and crockery,
common taste would have bedizened these up directly from the turf, and dotted in and what not : but there they lay among front of shrubberies that bound it, are pre- the broad leaves of the water-lily and the ferable to those growing with a distinctly burdock, glittering like huge liquid diamarked border. The common peonies, and the Chinese variety—the tree peony making, and in their simplicity and pure
monds cast in a mould of nature's own (P. moutan.), are excellent for this pur: ness offering a striking, contrast to the pose; but there is nothing to surpass old-fashioned hollyhock. This, as has been trim gardens, and the dusky distant city remarked, is the only landscape flower we
you had just left above.t possess—the only one, that is, whose forms
Another source of great leauty in these and colours tell in the distance; and so * We do not often indulge in prophesy, but we picturesque is it, that perhaps no artist will venture to stake our gardening credit, that withever attempted to draw a garden without in five years' time, the holly hock will again be reintroducing it, whether it were really there stored to favour, become a Horist's flower, and carry or not. “By far the finest effect (says the † There was no occasion in this place for the ex.
gardens was the evident care bestowed on, of the year and day. The prospect to the growth and position of the flowers. wards the north would then be as cheerful Every plant seemed to be just in its right as any other. place, both for its flourishing and its effect. It is astonishing how people continue to There was a very great abundance and va plant spruce and Scotch firs, and larches, riety of the tenderer kinds that required and other incongruous forest-trees, so close, protection in winter; but we believe they that they chafe the very house with their were, for the most part, kept in cold pils, branches, when there are at hand such very little forcing being used: and there beautiful trees as the Lebanon and Deodara were not more than six or eight gardeners cedars ; or, for smaller, or more formal, or or labourers at any time employed. We spiral shrubs, the red cedar, the cypress, still have before our eyes the splendid the arbor-vitæ, the holly, the yew, andmasses of the common scarlet geranium, most graceful of all, either as a tree or and a smaller bed of the leafed variety edged shrub, or rather uniting the properties of with a border of the ivy-leaf kind; nor ought both, and which only requires shelter to we to forget the effect of a large low ring make it flourish-the hemlock spruce. of ivy on the lawn, which looked like a gi As a low shrubby plant on the lawn, gantic chaplet, carelessly thrown there by nothing can exceed the glossy, dark, insome Titan hand.
dented leaves and bright yellow spikes of A garden should always lie sloping to the new evergreen berberries (Berberis* the south, and if possible, to the south of aquifolium and B. repens), with their many the house.* In this case, the chief en- hybrid varieties. They are becoming trance to the house should be, in an ordi- daily more popular, not only from their narily sheltered situation, on the east or beauty, but as affording perhaps the best north ; for, common as the fanlt is, nothing underwood covert fur game yet discovered. so entirely spoils a garden as to have it The experiments made in the woods of placed in front of the public approach. Sudbury and elsewhere have completely Views, it should be remembered, are al- succeeded; the plant being evergreen, ways clearest in the opposite direction to very hardy, of easy growth, standing the the sun.
Thus the north is most unin. tree-drip, and affording in its berry an exterruptedly clear throughout the day; cellent food for pheasants. Our nurserythe west in the morning; the east in the men are already anticipating the demand, afternoon. Speaking with a view only to and we have no doubt that a few years' gardening effect, trees, which are generally time will see this the main undergrowth of much too near the dwelling for health, and our game-preserves. The notice we took beauty, and everything else, should be a few years ago (in an Article on the kept at a distance from the house, except Arboretum Britannicum)t of the Deodara on the east side. On the south and west pine—now classed among the cedars-has they keep off the sun, of which we can —unless the dealers flatter us-given a never have too much in England: and on great impetus to the cultivation of this the north they render the place damp and
* Now changed 10 Mahonia. gloomy; whereas, on that side they should
+ Q. R., vol. Ixii. The Chili pine (Araube kept so far from the windows as to caria imbricata) is now treading upon the heels of back and shelter a bright bank of shrubs the Deodara cedar as an ornamental garden-tree, and flowers, planted far enough from the but though announced as the largest iree in the
world,' it will ever want the elegance of the latter. shadow cast by the house so as to catch Even yet another monster is threatening us under the sun upon them during the greater part the name of Pawlonia imperialis : it was introduced
inio France from Japan by Dr. Siebold, and proclamation of the Roman satirist on a similar scene
mises to be one of the most imposing plants in our which had been marred by art
gardens. We saw some young planis this spring
in Mr. Rollison's nursery, which were obtained 'Quanto præstantius esset
from the Royal Gardener ai Versailles. The leaves Numen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas
of a specimen in the Jardin des Plantes are said to Herba, nec ingenuum violarent marmora tophum.' measure from 18 to 24 inches across. While speak
Juv. ill., 19.
ing of trees, we would say one word on the acacia, And which shows, by the way, that there were Cobbere's famous locust-tree (Robinia pseudoacacia) some Romans, at least, who could appreciate the now more than necessarily depreciated. We are beauties of natural scenery.
fully aware of its defects as a timber-tree from the * To show how difficult it is to lay down any britileness and splitting of its branches, and slowgeneral rule, uncontroverted, here is one from Mac ness of making bulk; but once get a bole large intosh's ' Practical Gardener," one of the best prac- enough to cut a post out of it, and ask your carpentical works on horticulture we possess.
i in all ter whether it will not last as long as the iron fixed cases, unless in small villas, or cottage residences, into it. It is more to our present purpose to say, the flower-garden should be entirely concealed from that it is by far the best tree to be used for ornamenthe windows of the house, and be placed, if cir- tal rustic-work, as its bark is as tough as its timber, cumstances will admit of it, in the shrubbery.' and never peels off.
valuable tree. Its timber qualities as a temple shining from afar' (it is always so British-grown tiee have not of course been drawn in frontispieces); while the hard yet tested'; but as an ornamental one-in climbing was a palpable type of the ambiwhich character only we can refer to it tion of after years. here--it has more than surpassed the high The
smooth bowling.green is est expectations entertained respecting it. another desideratum we would have reThe nurserymen cannot propagate it fast stored; and gardeners onght to know that enough by grafts, and layers, and the the clipt yew hedges which should accomabundance of seed which the East India pany it are the best possible protection for Company has so liberally distributed. their flowers; and that there is nothing
The olitory, or herb-garden, is a part of flowers need so much as shelter, the our horticulture now comparatively ne- nursery.grounds, where almost alone these glected; and yet once the culture and cull. hedges are now retained, will testify. ing of simples was as much a part of fe. Where they already exist, even in a situamale education as the preserving and tying tion where shelter is not required, and down of "rasps and apricocks.' There where yet a good view is shut out, we was not a Lady Bountiful in the kingdom should prefer cutting windows or niches in but made her dill-tea and diet-drink from the solid hedge to removing it altogether. herbs of her own planting; and there is a In conjunction with these, what can be neatness and prettiness about our thyme, handsomer than the iron tracery-work and sage, and mint, and marjoram, that which came into fashion with the Dutch might yet, we think, transfer them from the style, and of wbich Hampton Court affords patronage of the blue serge to that of the so splendid an example ? Good screens of white muslin apron. Lavender, and rose- this work,* which on their first introduction mary, and rue, the feathery fennel, and the were called clair-voyées, may be seen at bright blue borage, are all pretty bushes Oxford in Trinity and New College Garin their way, and might have their due dens. Some years ago we heard of a place assigned them by the band of beauty proposition to remove the latter : the betand taste. A strip for a little herbary, ter taste of the present day will not, we halfway between the flower and vegetable think, renew the scheme. Though neither garden, would form a very appropriate of these are in the rich flamboyant style transition stratum, and might be the means, which is sometimes seen, there is still by being more under the eye of the mis- character enough about them to assure us tress, of recovering to our soups and salads that, were they destroyed, nothing so good some of the comparatively neglected herbs would be put up in their place. Oxford of tarragon, and French sorrel, and pur- has already lost too many of its characterslane, and chervil, and dill, and clary, and istic alleys and parterres. The last sweep others whose place is now nowhere to be was at the Botanic Garden, where, howfound but in the pages of the old herbalists. ever, the improvements recently introduced This little plot should be laid out, of course, by the zeal and liberality of the present in a simple geometric pattern; and, having Professor must excuse it. If any collegetried the experiment, we can boldly pro- garden is again to be reformed, we hope nounce on its success. We recommend that the fellows will have courage enough the idea to the consideration of our lady- to lay it out in a style which is at once gardeners.
classical and monastic; and set Pliny's exWe can recall so much amusement in ample against Walpole's sneer, that ' in an early years from the maze at Hampton age when architecture displayed all its Court, that we could heartily wish to see grandeur, all its purity, and all its taste; a few more such planted. Daines Barring- when arose Vespasian's amphitheatre, the ton mentions a plan for one in Switzer temple of Peace, Trajan's forum, Domi(Iconographia, 1718) with twenty stops: tian's baths, and Adrian's villa, the ruins that at Hampton has but four. A fanciful and vestiges of which still excite our assummer-house perched at the top of a high tonishment and curiosity,-a Roman consul, mound, with narrow winding paths leading a polished emperor's friend, and a man of to it, was another favourite ornament of old British gardens. Traces of many such
* We were surprised, the first time we saw the mounds still exist; but the crowning build- scription, painted sky-blue and gilt, till by chance
entrance gates at Althorpe, which are of this deings are, alas' no more. We must own
we tell upon a passage in Evelyn, who speaks of our predilection for them, if it were only them (we suppose they are the same) thus coloured that the gilded pinnacle seemed to pre- dered them classical, and we quite approve of the
in his tiine. The mention of them by him has renfigure to the young idea · Fame's proud taste which renews them as he described.
elegant literature and taste, delighted in nal state ; but places like these are yearly what the mob now scarce admire in a becoming more curious from their rarity. college-garden. He little thought how We have heard of one noble but eccentric soon sturdy Oxford would follow in the lord, the Elgin of the topiary art, who is fashion of the day, and blunt the point of buying up all the yew-peacocks in the his period. Still more astonished would country to form an avenue in his domain. he have been to have had his natural style Meanwhile the lilacs of Nonsuch, and the traced to no less a founder than Nero, and orange-trees of Beddington, are no more. even the names of the Bridgeman and The fish-pools of Wanstead are dry; the Brown of the day handed down for his terraces of Moor-park are levelled. Even edification.*
that 'impregnable bedge of holly'—the The same train of thought is followed pride of Evelyn—than which 'a more gloout in 'The Poetry of Gardening' ribus and refreshing object did not exist
under heaven--'one hundred and sixty foot • Who to whom the elegance and gentlemanli- in length, seven foot high, and five in dianess and poetry-the Boccaccio-spirit-of a scene meter—which he could show in his 'poor tation made by tasty innovators upon the grounds / gardens at any time of the year, glittring laid out in the times of the Jameses and the with its arm’d and vernish'd leaves-the Charleses? As for old Noll, I am certain, though taller standards, at orderly distances, blushI have not a jot of evidence, that he cared no ing with their natural corall’—that mocked more for a garden than for an anthem; he would at the rudest assaults of the weather, the as lief have sacrificed the verdant sculpture of a beasts, or hedge-breaker-even this is vanyew-peacock as the time-honoured tracery of a ished without a solitary sucker to show cathedral shrine; and his crop-eared soldiery where it once stood. Proof it long was would have had as great satisfaction in bivouacking in the parterres of a “ royal pleasa unce” as against the wind and 'weather,' nay, against in the presence-chamber of a royal palace. It time itself, but not against the autocratic were a sorrow beyond tears to dwell on the de- pleasure of a barbarian Czar. The 'beast struction of garden-stuff in those king-killing and the ‘hedge-breaker' were united in the times. Thousands, doubtless, of broad-paced person of Peter the Great, whose great terraces and trim vegetable conceits sunk in the pleasure, when studying at Deptford, was and, alas! modern taste has followed in the foot to be driven in a wheelbarrow, or drive one steps of ancient fanaticism. How many old as
himself, through this very hedge, which its sociations have been rooted up with the knotted planter deemed impregnable! If he had stumps of yew and bornbeam! And Oxford too ever heard, which he probably had not, of in the van of reform! Beautiful as are St. John's Evelyn's boast, he might have thus loved gardens, who would not exchange them for the to illustrate the triumph of despotic will very walks and alleys along which Laud, in all and brute force over the most amiable and the pardonable pride of collegiate lionizing, conducted his illustrious guests, Charles and Hen- simple affections; but at any rate the history rietta? Who does not grieve that we must now
of this hedge affiords a curious instance not inquire in vain for the bowling.green in Christ- only of the change of gardening taste, but church where Cranmer solaced ihe weariness of of the mutability and strangeness of all his last confineinent ? And who in lately reading earthly things. Scott's Life but must have mourned in sympathy No associations are stronger than those with the poet over the destruction of the “huge connected with a garden. "It is the first hill of leaves," and the yew and hornbeam hedges of the “Garden" at Kelso ?'
pride of an emigrant settled on some distant
shore to have a little garden as like as he - The good taste of the proprietors of can make it to the one he left at home. A Hardwick and Levens still retains these pot of violets or mignionette is one of the gardens as nearly as possible in their origi- highest luxuries to an Anglo-Indian. In
the bold and picturesque scenery of Batavia, • Tacitus, in the Sixth Book of his ' Annals,' the Dutch can, from feeling, no more disgives us this information : Ceterum Nero usus est pense with their little moats round their perinde gemmæ et aurum miraculo essent, solita houses than they could, from necessity, in pridem et luxu vulgata, quam arva et stagna et in the flat swamps of their native land. Sir modum solitudinum hinc sylvæ, inde aperta spatia John Hobhouse discovered an Englishman's et prospectus; magistris et machinatoribus Severo residence on the shore of the Hellespont et Celere, quibus ingenium et audacia erat, etiam quæ natura denegavisset per artem tentare, et viribus by the character of his shrubs and flowers. principis illudere. We since learn from ''Loudon's Louis XVIII., on bis restoration to France, Encyclopædia, sec. 1145, that this passage was made in the park of Versailles the fac-simile suggested by Forsyth to Walpole, who promised, 10 of the garden at Hartwell; and there was insert it in ihe second edition of his ‘Essay,' but failed to do so.
no more amiable trait in the life of that ac17