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rarde's Barnacle-tree, 'whereon do grow, tating these poetical Chinampas. It was certaine shells of a white colour tending to one of Napoleon's bubble schemes to cover russet, wherein are contained little living in the gardens of the Tuileries with glass, creatures : which shells in time of maturity those gardens which were turned into podo open, and out of them grow those little tato-ground during the Revolution, though living things, which falling into the water the agent funnily complains that the Direcdo become fowles, which we call Barna- tory never paid him for the sets! One of cles ?' What monsters (such at least they the most successful pieces of magnificent are called by botanists) has art produced in gardening is the new conservatory at Chatsdoubling flowers, in dwarfing, and hybridiz- worth, with a carriage-drive through the ing ;- painting the lily,' — for there are centre, infinitely more perfect, though we pink (!) lilies of the valley, and pink violets, suppose not so extensive as the covered and yellow roses, and bluo hydrangeas; winter-garden at Potemkin's palace of and many are now seeking that philoso- Taurida, near St. Petersburgh, which is pher's stone of gardening,' the blue dahlia described as

a semicircular conservatory -a useless search, if it be true that there allached to the hall of the palace, wherein is no instance of a yellow and a blue va- the walks wander amidst flowery hedges, riety in the same species. Foreigners turn and fruit-bearing shrubs, winding over litto good account this foolish rage of ours tle hills, '-in fact a complete garden, artifor everything novel and monstrous and un- ficially heated, and adorned with the usual natural, more worthy of Japan and China embellislıments of busts and vases. When than of England, by imposing upon the this mighty man in his travels halted, if credulous seeds and cuttings of yellow only for a day, his travelling pavilion was moss-roses, and scarlet laburnums, and fra- erected, and surrounded by a garden à grant pæonies, and such like.

l'Anglaise ! .composed of trees and shrubs, Strange things too have been attempted and divided by gravel walks, and ornamented in garden ornaments. We have spoken of with seats and statues, all carried forward water-works, like the copper tree at Chats- with the caralcade!' We ought in fairness worth, to drench the unwary; and the Chi- to our readers to add that Sir John Carr, nese have, in the middle of their lawns, notorious by another less honourable præponds covered with some water-weed that nomen, is the authority for this; though, looks like grass, so that a stranger is plunged indeed, his statement is authenticated by Mr. in over head and ears while he thinks he is London (Encyc. Gard., sect. 842.) We setting his foot upon the turf. In the ducal have heard of the effect of length being gardens at Saxe-Gotha 'is a ruined castle, given to an avenue by planting the more diswhich was built complete, and then ruined tant trees nearer and nearer together; but ex près by a few sharp rounds of artillery! anong gardening crotchets we have never Stanislaus, in the grounds of Lazienki, had yet seen a children's garden as we think it a broad walk flanked by pedestals upon might be made--beds, seats, arbours, mosswhich living figures, dressed or undressed house, all in miniature, with dwarf shrubs * after the manner of the antients,' were and fairy roses, and other flowers of only placed on great occasions. The floating the smallest kind; or it might be laid out gardens, or Chinampas, of Mexico, are on turf, to suit the intellectual spirit of the mentioned both by Clavigero and Hum- age, like a map of the two hemispheres. boldt. They are formed on wicker-work,

It is time that we pass to that portion of and when a proprietor wishes for a little our subject which is generally considered change, or to rid himself of a troublesome under the peculiar patronage of the ladies. neighbour, he has only to set his paddles at Evelyn, a name never to be mentioned by work, or lug out his towing-rope, and be- gardeners without reverence, says soinetake himself to some more agreeable part where, in describing an English place of the lake. We wonder that the barbaric which he had visited, 'My lady skilled in magnificence which piled up mimic pyra- the flowery part ; my lord in diligence of mids, and Chinese watch-towers, and mock planting ;' and this is a division of country Stonehenges, never bethought itself of imi. labour which almost universal consent and

practice have sanctioned. The gardens at

Wimbledon House and Ealing Park (we Rooted in earth each cloven hoof descends,

dare not trust oursoves to take a wider And round and round her flexile neck she bends; view, or we know not where to stop) are Crops the grey coral moss, and hoary thyme, alone enough to show what the knowledge Or laps with rosy tongue the melting rime; Eyes with mute tenderness her distant dam,

and taste of our country women can achieve Or seems to bleat, a Vegetable Lamb !'

in their own department; and with the asBot. Gurd., ii., 283.

sistance of Mrs. Loudon, the fair posses

sors of the smallest plot of garden-ground on a smaller scale : it is much more useful may now emulate on an humbler scale than a wheelbarrow for carrying away cutthese splendid examples.

tings, dead leaves, and rubbish of all kinds. In her "Gardening for Ladies,' Mrs. There are in this volume many excellent Loudon, indeed, initiates them far beyond general directions for the ordinary garden the mere culture of flowers, and those labours, some of which we shall notice, inlighter labours which have usually been terweaving them with further observations assigned to the amateur. She enters into of our own. practical details in real good earnest, gives Watering is the mainstay of horticuldirections to her lady-gardeners to dig and ture in hot countries. When King Solomanure their own parterres—on this latter mon, in the vanity of his mind, made him subject there is no mincing of the matter-gardens and orchards,' he made him also and calls a spade a spade. Perhaps she satis- pools of water to water therewith the fies herself that, if not a feminine, this has wood that bringeth forth trees ;' and the at least been a royal pastime, and so throws prophets frequently compare the spiritual in the weight of King Laertes in Homer* prosperity of the soul to a watered garto balance the scale. But really, what den.' It is with us also a most necessary with our nitrate of soda, bone-dust, gypsum, operation, but very little understood. Most guano, all our new patent pocket-manures, young gardeners conceive that the water portable, compressed, crystalline, liquid, for their plants cannot be too fresh and desiccated, disinfected, and the rest of them, cold; and many a pail of water that has we are by no means sure that this most ne stood in the sun is throwu away in order cessary but rather disagreeable portion of to bring ove • fresh from the ambrosial horticulture may not soon be performed by fount.' A greater mistake could not be the same delicate nerves that have hitherto made. Rain-water is best of all; and dirty fainted at the mention of it.

and stagnant water, and of a high temperaTen years ago, when our authoress mar- ture-anything is better than cold springried Mr. Loudon, it was impossible,' she water. Mrs. Loudon recommends pumpsays, 'to imagine any person more com- water to be exposed in open tubs before pletely ignorant of everything relating to it is used, and to be stirred about to implants and gardening' than herself. She pregnate it with air; perhaps the addition has been certainly an apt scholar, and noex- of liquid manure or any other extraneous pert reviewer can doubt there is some truth matter would be useful. Those who have in her remark that her very recent ignorance found how little service their continual makes her a better instructor of beginners, watering has done to their plants in a dry from the recollection of her own wants

summer would do well to attend to these in a similar situation. One wrinkle of hers simple rules. we recommend strongly to our fair read Lawns and gravel-walks, the pride of ers, the gardening gauntlet,f described and English gardens, can hardly have too much pictured in page 10. We have seen this care bestowed upon them. Oftentimes in use, and can assure them that it is far more of the beauty of a garden depends on from an inelegant, and certainly a most the neatness with which these are kept comfortable assistant in all the operations than even on the flowers themselves. Great of the garden. Let us also add a contrix. attention should be paid to the kinds of ance of our own, a close-woven wicker-grass seeds which are sown for new lawns. basket, on two very low wheels, similar to The horticultural seedsmen have selections those used at the Euston Square and most made for this purpose. We must refer our railway stations for moving luggage, only readers to Mrs. Loudon's 9th chapter ; but

let them be sure not to omit the sweet* According to Cicero, De Sen. c. 15. Homerus scented spring-grass (Anthoxanthum odoraLaertein lenientem desiderium, quod capiebat e filio, tum), which gives its delicious fragrance to colentem agrum, et eum stercorantem facit.' 'Memoriæ lapsu,' say the critics, the passage in Odys.

new-made hay. Lime-water will get rid w. 226, not bearing out this meaning. But in line of worms when they infest the lawn in 241 of the sarne book, the appedá xaive may imply great quantities; but perhaps it is as well the renewal as well as the loosening of the soil. We not to destroy them altogether. Most garshould venture to translate it by the word “mulch- deners strive to eradicate the moss from ing.'

Here, again, our old friend Laertes meets us. their grass : it seems to us that it should Truly there is nothing new under the sun. He had rather be encouraged : it renders the lawn his gardening gloves before ' Miss Perry of Stroud,' much more soft to the foot, prevents its becelebrated by Mrs. Loudon as the inventor of them :

ing dried up in hot weather, and saves Xupidas al ini xooi, Birwv ivoxa.-Od.w. 229.

much labour in mowing. The most per16

VOL. LXX.

fect kind of lawn is perhaps that which look better in reality than on paper. Where consists of only one kind of grass; but for beds of irregular wavy lines are required the generality a mossy surface would be far to be made, we have found nothing better better than the mangy, bare aspect we so than a good thick rope, which, thrown at often see. The grass should never be random on the ground, will, with a little mown without having also its edges trim-adjustment, give a bold and natural outline med. We have seen in some places a that it would be difficult to work out othersmall slope of grass filling up the right an- wise in tenfuld the lime. gle usually left between the turf and gravel, The second work of Mrs. Loudon's on our and we think it an improvement.

list is in alphabetical arrangement, and ex: The smoothness and verdure of our lawns clusively devoted to flowers. In all our reis the first thing in our gardens that catches ferences to this book for practical purposes the eye of a foreigner ; the next is the fine- and for the present paper, we bave scarceness and firmness of our gravel-walks. The ly once been disappointed. Though chieffoundation of them should always be thor- ly a book of reference, it is written in so oughly drained. Weeds may be destroyed easy a style and so perfectly free from by salt; but it must be used cautiously. pedantry, that, open it at what page we No walk

should be less than seven feet inay, there is something to instruct, interbroad. For terraces, a common rule given est, and amuse. The practical directions is, that they should be twice the breadth are necessarily very compressed, but nothat the house is high. Though, of course, thing of importance seems omitted. The it is enough for a' lover's walk'-without greatest · Ignorama'* in flowers could not which no country place is perfect-to ac- have this volume on her table long without commodate a duad, yet, be it in what part having every doubt and difficulty removed. of the grounds it may, every path should We know of no book of the kind so likely be broad enough to admit three persons to spread a knowledge of, and taste for, walking abreast.

flower-gardening as this. With the addiWho cannot call to mind many an awk- tion of the botanical volume of Dr. Lindward feeling and position where want of ley, Mr. Paxton, or Mrs. Loudon, the bebreadth in a garden-walk or wood-path has ginner's gardening library would be comcalled into play some unsocial precedence plete. He would afterwards like to add or forced into notice some sly predilection ? ihe Encyclopædias of Plants and GardenAnd who likes to be the unfortunate lag-be- ing; the first of which is a typographical hind-the last in a wood ?

as well as scientific wonder, the second a The edging of borders is always a difficult perfect treasure-house of information on affair to manage well. Box, the common- every subject connected with horticulture. est, and perhaps the best, is apt to harbour The rapid progress made in horticultuslugs, and get shabby unless closely attend-ral studies we have already alluded to in the ed to. The gentianella, where it flourishes immense increase of works devoted to well, is a beautiful edge-flower. Thrift, of these subjects. All the books set down at which there is a new and handsome variety, the head of the present article are good in was once (like its namesake) much more in their several ways, but we have purposely vogue than it is now, and deserves to be confined ourselves to those addressed to larestored. We have seen very pretty edg. dies and treating immediately of flowers. ings made of dwarf oaks clipped ; nothing And it is this particular turn which gardencould look neater ; but it seemed like rob- ing taste at the present moment is taking. bing the forest. Worst of all are large We first had the Herbalist with his simrugged flints, used commonly where they ples-temperature' of every plant given, abound, and in small area-gardens. In a hot or cold in the second or the third desymmetrical garden, and where they har- gree--and 'a table of virtues' for both monise with the house, strips of stone-work body and mind—against the falling sickmight be introduced ; and we think that a ness'—'to glue together greene wounds' tile might be designed of better shape and —'to comfort the heart, to drive away care, colour than any we have yet seen. and increase the joy of the mind,' and the

On the minor ornaments of gardens, such like. Then came the Kitchen-gardener, as rock-work, moss-houses, and rustic seats, with his sallet-herbs and fruit-trees—then Mrs. Loudon gives some very good hints, the Florist with his choice bulbs and thouthough we should be sorry to set up on our lawn the specimen baskets which embellish pp. 357 and 358; but, in truth, these

* So, appropriately enough, signs herself a fair things, contrary to the common rule, usually | We think this quite equal to Mr. Hume's 'Omnibi.'

correspondent of one of our gardening Journals.

sand and one varieties : meanwhile sprung, they have done more than this : they have up the critical school of essayists, which brought together, on one common scene of produced the Landscape-gardener; the enjoyment, an orderly and happy mass, modern march of intellect has added the from the labourer of the soil to the queen Vegetable Physiologist; and, latest of all, upon the throne. We could only have the Agricultural Chemist. All these seemwished that royalty had been pleased to at the present moment to have centred i have paid a public as well as private visit their exertions in a single point, and to be to the gardens. Her Majesty would have giving in each his contribution to make up gratified the loyalest and best-conducted the perfection of the Flower-gardener. A portion of her subjects, and would have very different spirit is now abroad from that seen, on the only occasion perhaps when when Sir W. Temple wrote ‘I will not en- she could have done so without annoyance, ter upon any account of flowers, having on a sight, as beautiful even as the flowers, ly pleased myself with seeing or smelling the cheerful faces of thousands of wellthem, and not troubled myself with the dressed and happy-looking people of every care, which is more the lady's part than the degree, making the most innocent and enman's, but the success is wholly with the joyable of holidays out of such simple gardener.' Now not only have we beat elements as Music and Flowers. The the old herbalists, kitchen-gardeners, and Derby day' is certainly a glorious display botanists on their own ground—for the of Old England, from the proprietor of the herb,' the root,' and 'the weed,' tea--po- aristocratic drag to the hirer of the Whitetatoes--tobacco* -were either unknown or chapel shay-cart; but the line of distinction, liardly noticed by the earlier writers on both on the road and course, is too strongly these very subjects: but governments, and marked between the drinker of champagne companies, and societies vie with men of and of botiled stout, and it is rather the science, and commerce, and wealth, in jostling than the amalgamation of ranks gladdening our British gardens with a new that is seen here. If we wished to show flower. Without dwelling on the dahlia, an 'intelligent foreigner' what every-day brought into fashion by Lady Holland in England really is—what we mean by the 1804, and the pansies first patronised and middle classes—what by the wealth, the hybridized by Laily Mary Monk in 1812, power, the beauty of the gentry of England what treasures have the last few years ad -what by the courtesy and real unaffectded to our gardens in the splendid colours edness of our nobility-we would take of the petunias, calcolarias, lobelias, phloxes, him on a horticultural fête-day to see the tropeolums, and verbenas—the azure cle- string of well-ordered carriages and wellmatis—the blue salvia--the fulgent fuchsia! filled omnibusses, the fly, the hackney, and What gorgeous masses of geraniums,—the the glass-coach taking up their position Orange-boven' and Coronation and with the britzcha, the barouche, and the * Priory Queen' for instance-and what landau, in one unbroken line from Hyde rich and endless bouquets of roses- for Park Corner to Turnham Green-bid him there are more than 2000 varieties of the look at the good-humoured faces of those flower'in cultivation--did the last horti- who filled them, and say whether any other cultural fête at Chiswick produce ! country in the world could, or ever would,

These exhibitions of the London Horti- turn out a like population. Sir Robert cultural Society have done wonders in im- Peel need not fear the return to be made proving public taste and exciting the to his property-tax, if he will cast his eyo emulation of nurserymen.

It is some on the Windsor road about three o'clock thing, even if the prize is missed, to know on the first fine Saturday of May or June. that your flower will be gazed at by five Last year more than 22,000 persons visited or six thousand critical admirers. But these exhibitions; and from the way in

which they have commenced this year,

there is no reason to apprehend any falling • Parkinson, in 1629, says only of Tobacco off of numbers.* We rejoice in this ; and "With us it is cherished as well for the medicinal trust that the same good arrangements will qualities, as for the beauty of its flowers;' not a word be continued, that the interest may be kept of smoking. Gerarde, in 1633, though he knows * the dry leaves are used to be taken in a pipe, set on up in the only meeting where our artificial fire, and suckt into the stomache, and thrust forth aguine at the nosthrils,' yet commends the syr Fallen off! At the last show, in this very rup, above this fume or smoky medicine.' Of the month, 14,000 passed the gates in one day! and polato, he mentions its being 'a meat for pleasure' many who staried for the gardens, from the intenas secondary to its 'temperature and vertues;' and sity of the crowd, never reached them. Of the that its too frequent use causeth the leprosie.' 'arrangements,' on this occasion, we fear we cannot Neither of them, of course, mentions 'lea.' speak as charitably as we have above.

no

system tolerates the assemblage of every | along the whole southern length of the buildrank and class upon an equal footing.

ing, extending to the western side also, whence, We must reserve any further remarks over the distant country, I may catch the last on the Chiswick Gardens to some other red light of the setting sun. I must have soine

musk and noisette roses, and jasmine, to run up opportunity, when we may have to con

the mullions of my oriel window, and honey. sider generally our public gardens* and suckles and clematis, the white, the purple, and . parks. In the meanwhile we may observe, the blue, to cluster round the top. The upper that the formal style which we have already terrace should be strictly architectural; and no advocated for the private garden, seems plants are to be harboured there, save such as even much more adapted to the public !wine among the balustrades, or fix themselves one; and that there are many neglected endure no plants in pots,-a plant in a por is

in the mouldering crevices of the stone. I can features in the Old English style, which like a bird in a cage. The gourd alone throws might with peculiar propriety be restored out its vigorous tendrils, and displays its green in any new grounds laid out for public and golden fruit from the vases That surmount use- not, as has been done in some tea- the broad flight of stone steps that lead to the gardens on the Croydon Railroad, cutting lower terrace; while a vase of larger dimenup the picturesque wildness of the beauti-sions and bolder sculpture at the western corner

is backed by the heads of a mass of crimson, ful Penge Wood, by hideous right-angled

rose, and straw-coloured hollyhocks that spring walks and other borrors too frightful 10 up from the bank below. The lower terrace is name—but where natural scenery twice the wid:h of the one above, of the most already exists, a place of promenade and velvety (urf, laid out in an elaborate pattern of recreation may be much more expeditiously, the Italian style. Here are collected the choicest and, we think, more appropriately formed, flowers of the garden: the Dalmatic purple of in the Continental and Old English style, bena, the fulgent lobelia, the bright yellows

the gentianella, the dazzling scarlet of the verby long avenues, terraces, mounds, foun- and rich browns of the calceolaria, here luxlitains, statues, monuments, prospect towers, riate in their trimly cut parterres, and with labyrinths, and bowling greens, than by colours as brilliant as the mosaic of an old any attempt of a picturesque' or 'natural cathedral painted window, character.

"broider the ground We have before us Lord Bacon's skeich

With rich inlay.” for his 'prince-like' garden, and Sir Wil. liam Temple's description of his perfect colouring and the two pretty fountains that play

* But you must leave this mass of gorgeous one; but though we would recommend in their basins of native rock, while you descend them, the first especially, to the student of the flight of steps, simpler than those of the upper ancient gardens, and though Dr. Donne terrace, and turn to the left hand, where a broad considered the second the sweetest place' gravel walk will lead you to the kitchen-garhe had ever seen, yet neither of them is so den, through an avenue splendid in autumn well suided to our present purpose of assist with hollyhocks, dahlias, China asters, nastur

tians, and African marigolds. ing the formation of garden-making in the

· We will stop short of the walled garden to present age, as the following extract from turn among the clipe hedges of box, and yew, the Poetry of Gardening. 't It represents and hornbeam, which surround the bowling. so correctly our own ideas, and seems in green, and lead to a curiously-formed labyrinth, the main so practicable, that making allow in the centre of which, perched up on a trianguance for its poetry and conceited style, lar mound, is a fanciful old summer-house, with we have, after some hesitation, determined whole surrounding country. Quaint devices of

a gilded roof, that commands the view of the to give the design at full length :

all kinds are found here. Here is a sun-dial of

flowers, arranged according to the time of day My garden should lie to the south of the at which they open and close. Here are pea. house'; the ground gradually sloping for some cocks and lions in livery of Lincoln green. short way till it falls abruptly into the dark and Here are berceaux and harbours, and covered tangled shrubberies that all but hide the wind- alleys, and inclosures containing the primest ing brook below. A broad terrace, iwice as of the carnations and cloves in set order, and wide, at least, as the house is high, should run miniature canals that carry down a stream of

pure water to the fish-ponds below. Farther Otherwise we might now have a word to say onwards, and up the south bank, verging 10on the new fountain and the sheep-hurdles in si. wards the house, are espaliers and standards of James's Park; and express a hope that a happier the choicest fruit-trees: here are strawberry genius of the Woods and Forests' than bas yet beds raised so as to be easy for gathering; inspired us may preside over the designs for Victoria while the round gooseberry and currant bushes Park and the newly-acquired Primrose Hill.

+ From The Carthusian,' a miscellany by the and the arched raspberries continue the formal alumni of Charter-house, containing some good style up the walls of the enclosed garden, whose papers in prose and verse, and which deserves to be outer sides are clothed alternately with fruit better known.

and flowers, so that the “ stranger within the

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