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The Flower Garden.

115

professedly_monopolized by horticultural, preserving—the Viceroy'-was sold for subjects. Even during the last year, two 4203 florins ; and for another, called “Semnew societies have sprung up in the me- per Augustus,' there were offered 4600 tropolis— the London Floricultural and the forins, a new carriage, a pair of grey

horsRoyal Botanic, each taking a line of its es, and a complete set of harness !* own, distinct, though not antagonistically The florimania, as it has been called so, from that of any previously formed in- we should rather say “anthomania'--has stitution : and both, we believe, prospering, never reached so ridiculous a height in and likely to prosper.

England, nor, with all our love for flowers, Many of our readers, who have heard of a is it likely to do so, though there are staid fashionable, and a scientific, and a sporting, men of business among us who would and (stranger name still!) a religious doubtless be amazed at the sums of money WORLD; may perhaps be in unhappy igno- even now occasionally lavished on a single rance of the floricultural one. But such plant. A noble Duke, munificent in his indeed there is, with its own leaders, lan-patronage of horticulture, as in everything guage, laws, exclusiveness--aye, even its else, and who-though till quite lately, we party bitterness, and personal animosi- believe, ignorant of the subject—now unties. And shameful indeed it is that such derstands it as thoroughly as he appreciates pure and simple objects should be the it, is said to have given one hundred guineas source of the unseemly quarrels and bick- for a single specimen of an orchideous erings which are too often obtruded into plant; and we know of another peer, not floricultural publications; that men should quite so wise in this or perhaps other matextract 'envy and malice and all uncharita- ters, who, seeing a clump of the rich and bleness' out of the purest of all human gorgeous double-flowering gorse, instantly pleasures'

gave his gardener an order for fifty pounds'

worth of it! · Even as those bees of Trebizond,

Before we have done with the florists and Which from the sunniest hours that glad

botanists we With their pure smile the garden round

must say one word about Draw venom forth that drives men mad!

their nomenclatures. As long as the exLallah Roohk. treme vulgarity of the one and the extreme

pedantry of the other continue, they must The division of labour, both in the horti- rest assured that they will scare the majorcultural and floricultural world, is carried ity of this fastidious and busy world from to extent that the uninitiated little taking any great interest in their pursuits. dream of. There are not only express Though a rose by any other name will exhibitions for each particular plant that smell as sweet,' there is certainly enough to has been adopted into the family of flo- prejudice the most devoted lover of flowers rist's flowers'—as for the tulip, dahlia, against one that comes recommended by pink, and heartsease—but there are actu- some such designation as ‘Jim Crow, or ally several existing cucumber clubs' and · Metropolitan purple,' or · King Boy,' or 'celery societies;' and, within a very short · Yellow Perfection. When indeed calceperiod, four or five treatises have been pub- olarias and pansies increase to 2000 named lished on the culture of the cucumber varieties,' ihere must of course be some alone. Then we must speak of the 'fake' difficulty in finding out an appropriate title of the carnation—the edging' of the pico- for every new upstart; but in this case the ice—the crown' and the lacing' of the evil lies deeper than the mere name: it pink—the · feather and flame' of the tulip-consists in puffing and palming off such the 'eye and depth of the dablia—the seedlings at all, half of which are either * tube, the truss, and the paste' of the au- such counterparts of older flowers, that ricula—and the pencil and blotch' of nothing but the most microscopic examithe pansy. Besides these peculiar pets of nation would detect a difference, or else so the fancy, there are the old-fashioned poly- utterly worthless as to be fit only to be anthus, the ranunculus, the geranium, the thrown away. This is an increasing evil; calceolaria, the crysanthemum, and the hy: and if anything gives a check to the preacinth, which are also under the especial sent growing taste for choice flowers, it patronage of the florists; and, lately, the iris, the gladiolus, the fuchsia, and the ver

* At the sale of Mr. Clarke's tulips at Croydon, bena, may be considered as added to the in the year 1836, 1001. was given for a single bulb, list.

Fanny Kemble;' and from 5l. to 101. is no uncomThe tulipomania of Holland is well mon price for the new and choice sorts.

We see known : it was at its height in the year lias, the first year of their 'coming out,' at the like

also frequent advertisements of geraniums and dah1637, when one bulb-its name is worth | price.

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will arise from the dishonesty and trickery | the specific titles, as Passiflora Middletoof the trade itself.

niana–Middleton's Passion-flower, and the Meanwhile, let there be at least some like; but this is not enough : the combinapropriety in the names given. We cannot tion of a little observation and taste would quite agree with Mr. Loudon, who seems soon coin such names as 'our plainer sires' to approve of such names as • Claremont- gave in ‘Jarkspur,' and 'honeysuckle,' and nuptials primrose' and 'Aflicted-queen' bindweed,' or even in ladies'-smocks,' carnation! though they do point to the and ragged-robin,' and love-lies-bleedyears 1816 and 1821 as the dates of their ing.' respective appearances : neither will we

As pames

run at present, the ordinary aver that Linnæus was not something too amateur is obliged to give up the wbole fanciful in naming his · Andromeda,* and matter in despair, and rest satisfied with in calling a genus Bauhinia, from two illus- the awful false quantities which bis gardentrious brothers of the name of Baubin, be- er is pleased to inflict upon him, who, for cause it has a double leaf; but surely there his own part, wastes hours and hours over is marked character enough about every names that convey to him no information, plant to give it some simple English name, but only serve to puff him up with a false without drawing either upon living charac- notion of his acquirement, when he finds ters or dead languages. It is hard work, himself the sole possessor of this useless as even Miss Mitford has found it, to make stock of · Aristophanic compounds and inthe maurandias, and alstræmerias, and sufferable misnomers.' Crabbe, whom noeschscholtzias—the commonest flowers of thing was too minute to escape, has admiour modern gardens-look passable even rably ridiculed this botanical pedantry :

They are sad dead letters in the glowing description of a bright scene in High-sounding words our worthy gardener gets, June. But what are these to the pollopos

And at his club to wondering swains repeats; temonopetalæ and eleutheromacrostemones

He there of Rbus and Rhododendron speaks, of Wachendorf, with such daily additions

And Allium calls his onions and his leeks. as the native name of iztactepotzacuxocbtil

Nor weeds are now; from whence arose the

weed, icohueyo, or the more classical ponderosity Scarce plants, fair herbs, and curious flowers of Erisymum Peroftskyanun

proceed;

Where cuckoo-pints and dandelions sprung, "-like the verbum Græcum,

(Gross names had they our plainer sires among) Sperinagoraiolekitholakanopolides,

There Arums, there Leontodons we view,
Words that should only be said upon holidays, And Artemisia grows where wormwood grew.'
When one has nothing else to do.'
As to poetry attempting to immortalize a

To make confusion worse confounded, modern bouquet, it is uiterly hopeless; and our botanists are not satisfied with their

far-fetched if our cultivators expect to have their new

names; they must ever be varieties handed down to posterity, they changing them too. Thus it is a mark of must return to such musical sounds as bư- ignorance in the world of flowers to call glosse, and eglantine, and primrose, before our old friend geranium otherwise than bards will adopt their pets into immortal Pelargonium; the Glycine (G. sinensis) song.

the well known specimen of which at the We perceive some attempt made lately in Paxton's Magazine and the better 9000 of its beautiful, lilac, laburnum-like

Chiswick Gardens produced more than gardening journals to render the names somewhat more intelligible by Englishing called Wistaria : the new Californian anGoing on at this rate, a man might spend this mimickry is still more strongly marked. the morn of his life in arriving at the pres- Besides the butterfly-plant already alluded ent state of botanical science, and the rest to, there is the dove-plant, and a host beof his days in running after its novelties sides, so like to other things than flowers, and changes. We are only too glad when that the seem to have undergone a inetapublic sanction triumphs over individual morphosis under the magic wand of some whim, and, as in the cases of Georgina transforming power. proposed for Dahlia, and Chryseis for Esch- Remembering the countries from which scholtzia, resists the attempted change. most of them come-the dank jungles of

racemes from a single stem-is now to be * The foll, wing is bis reason for thus naming nual Ænothera is already Godetia; while this delicate shrub, one of those bog-plants not half the pretty little red Hemimeris, once a contemplated it, I could not help thinking of An- | Celsia, is now, its third designation, an dromeda, as described by the poets-a virgin of Alonsoa; and our list is by no means exmost exquisite beauty and unrivalled charms. The hausted.* plant is always fixed in some curly hillock in the midst of the swamps, as Andromeda herself was * There is a curious perversion of name in the tuchained to a rock in the sea, which bathed her feel, berose, which has nothing to do with 'tubes' or 'roses,' as the fresh water does the root of the plant. As but is the corruption of its specific name, Polianthes the distressed virgin cast down her blushing face tuberosa, simply signifying 'ruberous :' so Jerusalem through excessive affliction, so does the rosy-coloured artichoke has nothing io do with the hill of Sion, but flower hang its head, growing paler and paler vill it is vulgarized from the Italian Girosole, sun-fiower, withers away. At length comes Perseus, in the of which it is a species ; so Mayduke cherry, from shape of summer, dries up the surrounding waters Medoc; and grass from asparagus. Gilliflower is and destroys the monsters, rendering the damsel a probably July-fower, but it would take an essay to fruitful mother, who then carries her head erect.'- discuss which is the true gilliflower of our greatTour in Lapland, June 12th.

great-grandmothers.

One class of plants, which, though it has Hindoostan—the fathomless woods of Mexlately become most fashionable and culti- ico—the unapproachable valleys of Chinavated by an almost separate clique of nur- one might alniost fancy them the remains sery-men and amateurs, cannot yet be said of the magic influence which tradition afto rank with florists' Howers, is that of the firms of old to have reigned in those wild Orchidaceæ, trivially known, when first retreats : and that, while the diamond palaintroduced, by the name of air-plants. It ces of Sarmacand, and the boundless cities is scarcely more than ten years ago that of Guatemala, and the colossal temples of any particular attention was bestowed upon Elephanta, have left but a ruin or a name, this interesting tribe, and there are now these fairy creations of gnomes and sprites, more genera cultivated than there were and afreets, and jinns (if so we must call then species known. Among all the curi- them), being traced on the more imperishosities of botany there is nothing more sin- able material of Nature herself, have been gular-we had almost said mysterious handed down to us as the last vestiges of a than the character, or, to speak more tech- dynasty older and more powerful than Eu. nically, the habit of this extraordinary rupean man. It is impossible to view a coltribe. The sensation which the first exhi- lection of these magic-looking plants in bition of the butterfly-plant (Oncidium flower without being carried back to the papilio) produced at the Chiswick Gardens visions of the Arabian Nights-not indeed must still be remembered by many of our wandering in disguise through the streets readers, and so wonderful is the resem- of Bagdad with Haroun and his vizier (we blance of the vegetable to the insect speci- beg pardon--vezeer), but entering with men, floating upon its gossamer-stalk, that some adventurous prince the spell-bound even now we can hardly fancy it otherwise palace of some sleeping beauty, or descendthan a living creature, were it not even still ing with Aladdin into the delicious subtermore like some exquisite production of ranean gardens of fruits, and jewels, and fanciful art. Their manner of growth di flowers. tinct from, though so apparently like, our To

pass

from the romantic to the useful, native misletoe, and other parasitical plants we cannot do a kinder deed to our mar.u-generally reversing the common order facturers than to turn their attention to the of nature, and throwing summersets with splendid works of Mr. Bateman and Dr. their heels upward and head downward - Lindley, dedicated to this class of plants. one specimen actually sending its roots into It is well kuown how contemporaneous was the air, and burying its flowers in the soil, — the cultivation of flowers and manufactures living almost entirely on atmospheric mois- in some of our large cities—(at Norwich, for lure,—the blossoms in some species sus- instance, where the taste yet survives, and tained by so slender a thread that they seem where there is a record of a flower-show to float unsupported in the air,-all these being held so early as 1087)—the flowers things, combined with the most exquisite which the foreign artisans brought over contrast of the rarest and most delicate with them suggesting at the same time colours in their flowers, are not more ex- thoughts of years gone by and designs for traordinary characteristics of their tribe the work of the hour. Our new schools of than is the circumstance that in nearly design might literally take a leaf-and a every variety there exists a remarkable flower-out of the books we have mentionresemblance to some work either of animate ed, and improve our patterns in every denature or of art. Common observation of partment of art by studying examples of the pretty specimens of this genus in our such exquisite beauty, variety and novelty own woods and fields has marked this in of form and colour as the tribe of orchideous the names given to the fly, the bee, and the plants affords. spider-orehis;* but in the exotic orchises Another class of plants, very different * These British species are now transferred by would call the attention of designers, is that

from that just mentioned, to which we botanists to the genus Ophrys..

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of the Ferns. Though too commonly neglect- having deposited their precious contents on ed by the generality, botanists have long our shores, return again by the same ship turned their attention towards this exten-filled with the common flowers of England, sive and elegant class. These humble deni

That dwell beside our paths and homes,' zens of earth can boast their enthusiasts and

which our brethren in the East affectionatemonographists, as much as the pansy or the rose; nor has the exquisite tracery of their y value by association above all the bril

liant garlands of their sunny sky. fronds escaped the notice of the artist and

This interchange of sweets was a few the wayfarer. But few, perhaps, even of those who have delighted to watch the cro- and spray, as is well known, being most in

years ago almost unattainable, the sea-air zier-like germ of the bracken bursting from jurious to every kind of plant ; but their evil the ground in spring, and the rich um- effects are now completely avoided by these ber of its maturity among the green gorse air-tight cases, which admit no exterior inof autumn, are aware that Britain can pro: fluence but that of light. Without entering duce at least thirty-six distinct species of into any deep physiological explanation, it its own, with a still greater number of subordinate varieties; these, too, constituting animal life, does not exhaust the nutritive

may be enough to say that vegetable, unlike but a very small fraction of the 1508 spe, properties of air by repeated inhaling and cies which Sadler enumerates in his general exhaustion ; so that these plants aided percatalogue. Mr. Newman, in his recent haps by the perfect stillness of the confined work, has figured more than eighty varie

atmosphere, so favourable to all vegetation, ties, the natural growth of our own isles continue to exist

, breathing, if we may so alone, and mentioned fourteen distinct spe. say, the same air, so long as there is moiscies found in one chasm at Ponterwyd! ture enough to allow them to deposit every Though some of the tail-vignettes of his night a slight dew on the glass, which they volume fail in representing—as how could imbibe again during the day. The soil is it be otherwise ? —the natural abandon and moistened in the first instance, but on no elegance of this most graceful of all plants, account is any further water or air admitted. we would still recommend the great vari. The strangers which we have seen thus ety and beauty of his larger illustrations as transmitted, being chiefly very small pormuch to the artist and manufacturer, and tions of succulents and epiphytes, though embellisher, as to the fern-collector bim- healthy, have shown no inclination to flourself.

ish or blossom in their confinement; but Our notice of ferns might seem rather it must be remembered that the temperaforeign to the subject of ornamental garden- ture on the deck of a ship must be very ing (though we shall have something to say much lower than what this tribe requires, of a fernery bye and bye,) were it not for and the quantity of wood-work which the the opportunity it affords us of introducing, case requires to stand the roughnesses of the probably for the first time to many of our voyage, greatly impedes the transmission of readers, a botanical experiment, which, light. As soon as the slips are placed in though for some years past partially suc- the genial temperature of the orchideous cessful, has but lately been brought to very house, they speedily shoot out into health great perfection for the purposes both of and beauty. use and ornament. We allude to the mode But while this mude of conveyance anof conveying and growing plants in glass- swers the purposes of science, a much cases hermetically sealed from all commu- more beautiful adaptation of the same prinnication with the outer air. There are few ciple is contrived for the bed-room garden ships that now arrive from the East Indies of the invalid. Who is there that has not some without carrying on deck several cases of friend or other confined by chronic disease this description, belonging to one or other or lingering decline to a single chamber ?of our chief nurserymen, filled with orchid- one, we will suppose, who a short while eous plants and other new and tender vari- ago was among the gayest and the most eties from the East, which formerly bafiled admired of a large and happy circle, now the utmost care to land them here in a heal-through sickness dependent, after her One thy state. These cases frequently furnish- staff and stay, for her minor comforts and ed by the extreme liberality of Dr. Wal- amusements on the angel visits of a few lich, the enterprising and scientific director kind friends, a little worsted-work, or a new of the Hon. Company's gardens in the Quarterly, and in the absence or dulness neighbourhood of Calcutta, form on ship of these, happy in the possession of some board a source of great interest to the pas-fresh-gathered flower, and in watering and sengers of a four-months' voyage, and, after tending a few pots of favourite plants,

which are to her as friends, and whose | beyond the ken, of man, lie at least has the flourishing progress under her tender care satisfaction of knowing that he has lightened offers a melancholy but instructive contrast a heart in affliction and gained the gratitude to her own decaying strength. Some mild of a humble spirit, in restoring, without the autumn-evening her physician makes a lat- poison, a pleasure that was lost. er visit than usual_ihe room is faint from For more minute particulars of the manthe exhalations of the flowers—the patient agement of these chamber-gardens, we must is not so well to-day—he wonders that he refer our readers to page xviii. of Mr. Newnever noticed that mignionette and those man's Introduction, where also they will geraniums before, or he never should have find described the ingenious experiments allowed them to remain so long-some of Mr. Ward, of Wellclose Square,* of the weighty words on oxygen and hydrogen same kind, but on a much larger scale ; are spoken----her poor pets are banished for and if delicate health restricts any friend of ever at the word of the man of science, and theirs to the confinement of a close apartthe most innocent and unfailing of her little ment, we recommend to them the considerinterests is at an end. By the next morning ate kindness of our good physicians, and to the flowers are gone, but the patient is no 'go and do likewise.' better ; there is less cheerfulness than usu- Gardening, as well as Literature, has its al ; there is a listless wandering of the eyes' curiosities, and a volume might be filled after something that is not there ;* and the with them. How wonderful, for instance, good man is too much of a philosopher not the sensitive plant which shrinks from the to know how the working of the mind will hand of man,—the ice-plant that almost act upon the body, and too much of a Christ- cools one by looking at it,—the pitcherian not to prevent the rising evil if he plant with its welcome draught,—the haircan ; he hears with a smile her expression trigger of the stylidium,-and, most singuof regret for her long-cherished favourites, lar of all, the carnivorous Venus' fly-trap but he says not a word. In the evening a (Dionæa muscipula) -largish box arrives directed to the fair pa- "Only think of a vegetable being carnivorous !". ticnt, and superscribed, 'Keep this side upwards----with care.' There is more than which is said to bait its prickles with somethe common interest of box-opening in the thing which attracts the flies, upon whom it sick chamber. After a little tender hammer- then closes, and whose decay is supposed ing and tiresome knot-loosening, Thomp- to afford food for the plant. Disease is son has removed the lid ; ----and there lies a turned into beauty in the common and large oval bell glass fixed down to a stand crested moss-rose, and a lusus naturæ reof ebony, some mo sand at the bottom, produced in the hen-and-chicken daisy. and here and there over the whole surface, There are phosphorescent plants, the firesome tiny ferns are just pushing their curi- flies and glow-worms of the vegetable ous little fronds into life, and already prom- kingdom. There the microscopic ise, from their fresh and healthy appearance, lichens and mosses ; and there is the Raffleto supply in their growth and increase all sia Arnoldi, each of whose petals is a foot the beauty and interest of the discarded long, its nectary a foot in diameter, and flowers, without their injurious effects. It deep enough to contain three gallons, and

These delicate exotics, for such they weighing fifteen pounds! What mimickry are, closely sealed down in an air-tight is there in the orchisses, and the hare's-foot world of their own, flourish with amazing fern, and the Tartarian lamb (Polypodium rapidity, and in time produce seeds which Baron yetz!t) What shall we say to Geprovide a generation to succeed them. Every day witnessing some change, keeps the mind continually interested in their * Since writing the above we have had Mr. progress, and their very restriction from Ward's book, 'on the Growth of Plants in closely

glazed Cases' put into our hands. If we had seen the open air, while it renders the chamber this work before, we should have done more justice wholesome to the invalid, provides at the to Mr. Ward, as the inventor and improver of this same time an undisturbed atmosphere more system; he seems indeed to be the very medical suited to the development of their own practitioner of whom we spoke. Messrs. Loddiges

establishment alone have made use of 500 of Mr. tender frames. We need scarcely add, Ward's cases. that the doctor the next morning finds the + So, we believe, rightly spelt ; though otherwise wonted cheerful smile restored, and though by Dr. Darwin, whose well-balanced and once-fnrecovery may be beyond the skill

, as it is shionable lines are now so forgotten that we think

our readers will not be sorry to be reminded of their

pompous existence. και ομμάτων δ' εν χηνίαις

'Cradled in snow and fann'd by arctic air, ippel tão' appodira.-Æsch. Agam. 408.

Shincs, gentle BAROMETZ! thy golden hair ;

are

is so.

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