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suckles and holidays ;'* and which is so and, where the ground admits of them, , conspicuous in our own Shakspeare as to tiers rising one above the other-vases and have led to some late ingenious surmises statues (not half hidden in a shrubbery, or that he was born and bred a gardener. † indiscriminately scattered over a lawn, but)
Addison amused himself by comparing connected, and in character with the house the different styles of gardening with those itself—these, with marble fountains and of poetry— Your makers of parterres and such relics of antiquity as may have been flower-gardens are epigrammatists and son- discovered in the neighbourhood, form the netteers ; contrivers of bowers and grottos, chief beauties of the magnificent gardens of treillages and cascades, are romance-writ- Italy, which have in many instances swalers;' while the gravel-pits in Kensington lowed up the whole wealth of their princely Gardens, then just laid out by London and possessors. Spite of Walpole's sneer about Wise, were heroic verse. If our modern walking up and down stairs in the open critics were to draw a similar comparison, air,' we own that there are to us few things we suppose our gardens would be divided so beautiful in art as stately terraces, tier into the Classical and the Romantic. The above tier, and bold flights of stone steps, first would embrace the works of the Italian, now stretching forward in a broad unbroken Dutch, and French, the second those of the course, now winding around the angle of Chinese and English schools. The cha- the terrace in short and steep descents, each racteristics of the three symmetric styles landing affording some new scene, some are not easily to be distinguished, but from change of sun or shade-a genial baskingthe climate and character of the nations, per- place, or cool retreat--here the rich perhaps even more than from the actual ex- fume of an ancestral* orange-tree, there amples existing in their respective coun- the bright blossom of some sunny creeper-tries, a division has been made which is while at another turn a balcony juls out to recognized in most works on gardening, catch some distant view, or a recess is and may be useful in practice in keeping formed with seats for the loitering party to us to that ' leading idea' on which the cri- rest and be thankful.' Let all these be tics insist so strongly, but which has been connected by colonnades with the architecsadly neglected in most modern examples. ture of the mansion, and you have a far
The Italian style is undoubtedly the off more rational appendage to its necessarily spring, or rather the continuation, of the artificial character than the petty wilderxystus and quincunx of the ancient Ro- nesses and picturesque abandon which
With them the garden was only have not been without advocates up to the the amplification of the house : if indeed very lintel and threshold. their notion of a villa did not almost sink Isola Bella, the creation of Vitaliano the consideration of the roofed rooms in Borromeo, may be considered as the extrathe magnificence of the colonnades and ter- vagant type of the Italian style. A barren races that surrounded them. The same rock, rising in the midst of a lake, and prospirit has animated the style of modern ducing nothing but a few poor lichens, has Italy. The garden immediately about the been converted into a pyramid of terraces, house is but the extension of the style and supported on arches, and ornamented with materials of which the buildings themselves bays and orange-trees of amazing size and are composed. Broad paved terraces- beauty.
The French are theatrical even in their quidaxos öfwv kat dapaypooúrns. Aristoph. [Nub. gardens. There is an effort after spectacle 1007. † We may perhaps return to the subject of an
and display which, while it wants the grace cient gardens. Meanwhile we answer to Daines of the Italians, is yet free from the pueriliBarrington's remark, that, he knew of no Greek or ties of the Dutch. The gardens of VerLatin word for nosegay,' that the ancients wore their sailles may be taken as the great exemplar flowers on their head, not in their bosom ; and there of this style; and magnificent indeed they is surely mention enough about 'otipavoi' and 'coronæ.? But we need hardly wonder at such an over- are, if expense and extent and variety sufsight in an anthor who, noticing the passages on fice to make up magnificence. Two hunflowers in our early poets, makes no allusion to Shaks- dred acres and two hundred millions of peare. To H. Walpole, who says 'their gardens francs were the materials which Louis are never mentioned as affording shade and shelter from the rage of the dog-star,' we can now only XIV. handed over to Le Nôtre, where quote
with to construct them. To draw petty 'Spissa ramis laurea fervidos Excludet ictus;'
figures in dwarf-box, and elaborate patterns and -'platanum potantibus umbram ;'
There are in Holland many orange-trees which and Hor. ii. xi. 13. The platanus was the newly in- have been in the same family 200 and 300 years; troduced garden-wonder of the Augustan age. one at Versailles has the inscription Semé en 1421.'
in particoloured sand, might well be dis- there for the contemplation to be found in pensed with where the formal style was the 'trim gardens' of Milton. There is incarried out with such magnificence as this, deed a melancholy, but not a pleasing one, but otherwise the designs of Le Nôtre in wandering alone through those many differ little from that of his predecessors in acres of formal hornbeam, where we feel the Geometric style, save in their mon- that it requires the 'galliard and elinquant' strous extent. This is the grand manner' air of a scene of Watteau—its crowds and of which Batty Langley, in his New love-making-its hoops and minuets—a Principles of Gardening,' published in ringing laugh and merry tambourine-to 1728, has given such extraordinary speci- make us recognize the real genius of the
We wish it were only possible for place. Taking Versailles as the gigantic us to transfer a few of his designs to these type of the French school, it need scarcely pages, that the absurdity of that fashion be said that it embraces broad gravelled might be fully shown up. Some notion terraces, long alleys of yew and hornbeam, may be formed of his system, to which we vast orangeries, groves planted in the quinmay perhaps return, from his starting with cunx style, d water-works embellished the principle that the true end and design with, and conducted through, every variety of laying out gardens of pleasure is, that of sculptured ornament. It takes the midwe may never know when we have seen dle line between the other two geometric the whole.'* The great wonder of Ver- schools; admitting more sculpture and sailles was the well-known labyrinth, not other works of art than the Italian, but such a maze as is really the source of much not overpowered with the same number of idle amusement at Hampton Court, but a huge masses of littleness' as the Dutch, mere ravel of interminable walks, closely There is more of promenade, less of par: fenced in with high hedges, in which thirty- terre ; more gravel than turf; more of the nine of Æsop's Fables were represented deciduous than of the evergreen tree. The by painted copper figures of birds and practical water-wit of drenching the specbeasts, each group connected with a sepa- tators was in high vogue in the ancient rate fountain, and all spouting water out of French gardens; and Evelyn, in his actheir mouths. A more dull and fatuous count of the Duke of Richelieu's villa, denotion it never entered into the mind of scribes with some relish how 'on going, bloated extravagance to conceive.f
two extravagant musketeers shot at us with Every tree was here planted with geo- a stream of water from their musketmetrical exactness,-parterre answered to barrels.' Contrivances for dousing the parterre across half-a-mile of gravel, visitors —'especially the ladies' — which
once filled so large a space in the catalogue 'Grove nods to grove, each alley has its brother, of every show-place, seem to militate a litAnd half the garden just reflects the other.'
tle against the national character for gal"Such symmetry,' says Lord Byron, is lantry; but the very fact that everything not for solitude ; and certainly the gardens was done to surprise the spectator and of Versailles were not planted with any idea of a garden from the home and fami
evinces how different was their such intent. The Parisians do not throng liar pleasures which an Englishman looks
* Brown-who, though an uneducated man, and to in his. Paintings on a large scale, and alluled to, we suppose, by Sir W. Chambers where illusive perspectives* at the end of their aveground to take the periwig and iurn professor,' left nues, may be ranked among their characinany good sayings behind him- used to say of teristic embellislıments. these tortuous walks, that you might put one foot But during the madness of the Revolu. upon zig and the other upon zag.
Some idea may be formed of the more than tion, gardens of course could not be allowchildishness of the thing from a contemporary ac
ed alone to remain unaltered; and as Reason 'These water-works represent several of and Nature were to carry everything beÆsop's Fables: the animals are all of brass and fore them, here too the English style was painied in their proper colours, and are so well assigned, that they seem to be in the very action the Fable supposes them in, and the more so, for that * An instance of these agreeable deceptions,' they cast water out of their mouths, alluding to the perfectly characteristic of the French taste of the form of speech the Fable renders them in.' Here day, may be given from Evelyn's tour :- In the follows the description of a particular fountain. Rue de la Seine is a little garden, which, though 'Fable XIII. The Fox and the Crane.—Upon a very narrow, by the addition of a well-painted perrock stands a Fox with the Crane; the Fox is lap- spective, is to appearance greatly enlarged; to this ping somewhat on a flat gilded dish, the water there is another part, supported by arches, in which spreads itself in the form of a table-cloth'; the Crane runs a stream of water, rising in the aviary, out of a by way of complaint spouts up water into the air ; statue, and seeming to flow for some miles, by being and so on, through thirty-eight others.-- Versailles arrificially continued in the painting, where it sinks Illustrated, 1726.
down at the wall.'
of course adopted with the same enthu
In the neighbourhood of Antwerp is a siasm and intelligence as they showed in lawn with sheep—like the grey wethers of taking up the democratic parts of our con- Salisbury Plain-of stone, and shepherd stitution. Ermenonville, the seat of Vis- and dog of the same material to match. corte Girardin, was the first place of con- Generally, however, the scissors and the sequence laid out in the natural style, and yew-tree make up the main furniture of a more complete specimen of French adap- the garden; and there is something so retation was never heard of. We have not nerable, and even classical,* about cones space even to glance at half its charms ; and pyramids, and peacocks of box and but some idea of the genius loci may be yew, that we should be loth to destroy a conveyed from the fact that ' a garden in single specimen of the topiary art that was ruins' was one of its lions. And it seems not in flagrant disconnection with the scene that the Viscomte kept a band of musicians around it. continually moving about, now on water, However, the most striking and indisnow on land, to draw the attention of visi- pensable feature of a private garden in the tors to the right points of view at the right Dutch style is the lust-huis,' or pleasuretime of the day; while Madame and her house, hundreds of which overlook every daughters, in a sweet mixture of the natu- public road and canal in Holland. Perched ral, the revolutionary, and the romantic, pro- on the angle of the high wall of the enclomenaded the grounds, dressed in brown sure, or flanking or bestriding the stagnant stuff, en amazones,' with black hats; and canalulet which bounds the garden, in all the young men wore 'habillements les plus the gaiety and cleanliness of fresh paint, simples et le plus propres à les faire confon- these little rooms form ihe resort, in sumdre avec les enfans des campagnards.** One mer and autumn evenings, of the owners instance, more Frenchified and ridiculous and their families, who, according to sex still, was that of the ‘Moulin Joli' of Wate- and age, indulge themselves with pipes and let. He was a writer of a system of gar- beer, tea and gossip, or in observing the dening on utilitarian principles ; but, hav- passengers along the high road,—while ing erected divers temples and altars about these, in their turn, are amused with the his grounds, he felt himself bound, in con amiable and pithy mottoes on the pavillions, sistency with his theory, to employ occa- which set forth the · Pleasure and Ease,' sionally troops of sacrificers and worship- Friendship and Sociability,' &c. &c., of pers, to give his gimcrack pagodas and the family-party within, shrines the air of utility! In good keeping We have thought it necessary to give a with his garden was the encomium of the slight sketch of the principal continental Prince de Ligne. * Allez-y, incrédules ! styles, before we entered upon the consiMéditez sur les inscriptions que le gout y a deration of that which is universally recogdictées. Méditez avec le sage, soupirez avec nized as appropriate to the English garden. l'amant, et bénissez Watelet.'
In a former number of our Review a hisThe line of demarcation between the tory of the changes that have passed over Dutch and French styles is perhaps more English gardens was given, in his usual imaginary than real. The same exact sym. happy manner, by Sir Walter Scott, which metry everywhere prevails. There is a precludes the necessity of more than a profusion of ornaments, only on a smaller passing reference to the same subject. scale,
London and Wise were among the earliest
innovators on the old Dutch school in Eng* Trees cut to statues, statues thick as trees,'- land, and received the high praise of Addiwith stagnant and muddy canals and ditches, of a more natural manner in Kensington
son in the Spectator? for the introduction purposely made for the bridge that is thrown Gardens, then newly laid out. Bridgeman. over them; but they abound also in the followed, laying the axe to the root of many pleasanter accompaniments of grassy banks a verdurous peacock and lion of Lincolnand slopes, green terraces, caves, water
green. Kent, the inventor of the Ha-ha, works, banquetting-houses set on mounds, broke through the visible and formal boun. with a profusion of trellis-work and green dary, and confounded the distinction bepaint furnished,' in the words of Evelyn, tween the garden and the park. Brown,
with whatever may render the place agree- of capability' memory, succeeded, with able, melancholy, and country-like, not for his round clumps, boundary belts, semigetting a hedge of jets d'eau surrounding natural rivers, extensive lakes, broad gree a parterre.
* Gaz. Lit. de l'Europa, quoted by Loudon, Encyc., p. 86.
* See Pliny and Martial - we may say passin.
drives, with the everlasting portico summer- It is the natural effect of the bold enunciahouse at the end. Castle Howard, Blen- tion of a broad principle, that it will oftener heim, and Stowe, were the great achieve- be strained to cover extreme cases than be ments of these times; while the bard of applied to the general bearing of the subject. the Leasowes was creating his sentimental Withdraw the pure and intelligent mind farm, 'rearing,' says D’Israeli,“ hazels and that first directed its application, and hunhawthorns, opening vistas, and winding dreds of professed disciples and petty imiwaters,'
tators spring up, whose optics are sharp
sighted enough to see the faults con* And having shown them where to stray, demned in the old system, though their Threw little pebbles in their way;' comprehension is too limited to embrace
the whole range of truth and beauty in the displaying--according to the English new; with just so much knowledge as to rhymes of a noble foreigner who raised a call up a maxim or phrase for the purpose 'plain stone' to the memory of Shenstone' of distorting il, and passing it on the world —'a mind natural,' in laying out ‘Arcadian as the ipse dixit of the master, though withgreens rural.':
out intellect enough to perceive the time, Whateley's book completed the revolu- the measure, or the place, which alone tion. It was instantly translated into make its application desirable. Wilkes French, the · Anglomanie' being then at its was at much trouble to assure George III. height; and though the clipped pyramids that he was not a Wilkite; and if many an and hedges did not fall so recklessly as in ordinary man has need at times to exclaim, England, yet no place of any pretension Preserve me from my friends, all great was considered perfect without the addition ones have much more reason to cry out, of its jardin Anglais.'t The natural style Defend me from my disciples.' Perhaps was now for some time, in writings and all this is a little too grandiloquent for our practice, completely triumphant. At length humble subject; but if a marked example came out. Price on the picturesque,' who of discipular ultraism and perversion were once more drew the distinction between the wanting, no stronger one could be found parterre and the forest, in opposition to the than that supplied by the followers of Price. straguling, scrambling style, which Whate-And if we have made more of this matter ley called combining the excellences of the than it deserves, we care not, for our great garden and the park.'
object is to impress upon our readers that From the times of Socrates and Epicu- this unfortunate word picturesque' has rus to those of Wesley, Simeon, and Pusey, been the ruin of our gardens. Price the same story is to be told; and if theology himself never dreamt of applying it, in its and philosophy could not escape, how present usage, to the plot of ground immeshould poor gardening expect to go free? diately surrounding the house. His own
words are all along in favour of a formal * Dr. Johnson, who, we think, used to boast either and artificial character there, in keeping that he did or did not (and it is much the same) with the mansion itself; and as Sir Walter know a cabbage from a cabbage-rose, las a passage Scott remarks, he expresses in a tone of exin his ' Life of Shenstone' so perfectly Johnsonian that we must transcribe it :- Now was excited his quisite feeling his regret at his own dedelight in rural pleasures, and his ambition of rural struction of a garden on the old system. elegance; he began from this time to point his pros He might, indeed, have used the term with and to wind his waters; which he did with such reference to those splendid terraces, arjudgment and such fancy as made his little domain cades, and balconies of Italy with which we the envy of the great and the admiration of the skil- are familiar in the architectural pictures of ful—a place to be visited by travellers and copied by Panini; but he would have shrunk with hordesigners. Whether to plant a walk in undulating curves, and to place a bench at every turn where ror to have his theory applied to justify the there is an object to catch the view—so make water substitution of tadpole, and leech, and comrun where it will be heard, and to stagnate where it ma, and sausage figures for the trin gardens will be scen~:o leave intervals where the eye will of symmetrical forms, even though, he is something to be hidden-demand any great pow- might see in them (as Addison says) 'the ers of the mind, I will not inquire: perhaps a surly marks of the scissors upon every plant and and sullen spectator may think such performances bush.' rather the sport than the business of human reason. But it must at least be confessed that to embellish the Scott very justly finds fault with the term form of nature is an innocent amusement, and some landscape gardening,' which is another
If praise must be allowed by the most scrupulous ob- that has proved fatal to our parterres. server to him who does best what multitudes are such a word as ' landscaping,' be inadmissicontending to do well.'
1 Horace Walpole's description of M. Boutin's ble, it is high time to find some phrase garden.
which will express the laying out of park 15
scenery, as completely distinct from 'gar- | to build stately sooner than to garden finedening 'as the things themselves are. ly. To attempt, therefore, to disguise
Though it may be questioned whether a wholly its artificial character is as great folpicture should be the ultimate test of the ly as if men were to make their houses retaste in laying out gardens and grounds, semble as much as possible the rudeness of a Price, even on this view, offers some very natural cavern. So much mawkish sentiingenious arguments in defence not only of mentality had been talked about the natural Italian but even of the old English gar- style, that even Price himself dared not asden ; and his feelings now would evidently sert that a garden must be avowedly arhave led him still further to adopt the for- tificial. And though now it seems nothing mal system, had his theory not stood a strange to hazard such a remark, yet its little in the way. He seems to recognize a truth still requires to be brought more boldthreefold division of the domain-the ar- ly and closely home to us before we can exchitectural terrace, and flower-garden in pect to see our gardens what they ought to direct connection with the house, where he be. admits the formal style; the shrubbery or Since the publication of Price's book no pleasure-ground, a transition between the writer has appeared advocating any parHowers and the trees, which he would hand ticular theory or system of gardening. over to the natural style’of Brown and his Principles and practice have become of a school; and, thirdly, the park, which he like composite order, and, in general it considers the proper domain of his own has been left to the gardener to adopt at system. This is a distinction which it would his own pleasure, the stucco, and cast iron be well for every proprietor to keep in and wire ornaments, that fashion has from view, not for the sake of a monotonous ad. time to time produced, to suit the lası im. herence to its divisions in every case, but portations or the favourite flower of the in order to remember that the tree, the season. The early part of the nineteenth shrub, and the flower, though they may be century presents a great coolness in the occasionally mingled with effect, yei re- garden mania with which the eighteenth quire a separate treatment, and the appli- was so possessed; and it was hardly till cation of distinct principles, where they are after the peace that public attention again to be exhibited each in its full perfection. took this direction. We presume that it Our present subject of complaint is the en- will only be in the philosophical fashion of croachments which the natural and pictu- the day to say that this was a natural reacresque styles have made upon the regular tion of the public mind, after the turmoil of flower-garden. Manufacturers of bye-lanes a foreign war, to fall back upon the more and lightning-struck cottages are all very peaceful occupations of home. The instiwell in their own department, but that must iution of the Horticultural Society of Lon-not be in the vicinity of the house. We don, however, took place a little earlier, and suppose that even Whateley himself would it no doubt gave both a stimulus and a staadmit that the steps and threshold of the bility to the growing taste of the nation. door must be symmetrical, and would pro- It may be amusing to run over some few bably allow a straight pathway more appro- statistics of the progress of horticulture priate, and even more natural than a wind- since that time. It is now only thirty-three ing one, leading directly to the door of the years since the foundation of the Lonhouse. Once get a single straight line, don Society, the first comprehensive institueven the outline of the building itself
, and tion of its kind: there are now in Great Briit then becomes merely a matter of situation, tain at least 200 provincial societies, foundor convenience, or taste, how far the straight ed more or less upon its model. We find lines and right angles shall be extended ; merely in the Gardener's Chronicle' for and though nature must needs be removed last year notices of the exhibitions of 120 a few paces further into her own proper re- different societies. Everything else connecttreat, yet simplicity may still remain in re-ed with gardening has increased in the like gular and symmetrical forms, as much as in proportion. There were at that time not undulations and irregularities and mole- more than two botanical, and those stricthills under the very windows of the draw-ly scientific, periodical works; there are ing-room. 'Nothing, as Scott has remark- now at least twenty monthly publications, ed, is more completely the child of art than each devoted to some branch or other of Loa garden. It is, indeed, in our modern tany or horticulture ; and, what may persense of the term, one of the last refine- haps still more surprise those of our readments of civilized life.
• A man shall ever ers who live apart from the influence of the see,' says Lord Bacon, that when ages gardening world, there are or were very lategrow to civility and elegancy, men come 'ly, published every week three newspapers