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tainly the graves of men. When they are more sober set of workmen are not to be well ventilated, on the other hand, it is re- found in Scotland.'— App. I., p. 497. markable that children who are ill above Another witness says : ground recover in the equable warmth below: the half-starved cotton spinner, driven • With respect to the moral condition of the thither by his necessities, often emerges they were twenty years ago: formerly their

colliers I can affirm they are much better than with gain of health and flesh, All these varied circumstances and modi- scription, but now a collier's family, if careful,

food and clothing were of the commonest defied results must be candidly considered. eat of the best and most wholesome food, and As we said at the outset, there are great have the clothing of the first-rate merchant of evils and dangers iņ many other callings, twenty years ago.' which might perhaps, if reported on by a set of gentlemen, however honest and sin- It is particularly satisfactory to guotę cere, appear actually crammed with mere such examples from Scotland, where cermisery and oppression, yet which are not taiuly they were and are most needed : but de facto inconsistent with a fair average of we are bound to say that the settlement of well-being. Many trades, and professions the legislative question as to mines and too, are undoubtedly unfavourable to length miners must be infinitely more difficult as of days.

The colliers are not cut off nearly regards that than any other part of the emso soon as some other classes—yet they, pire. The evils of the want of a libera. generally speaking, are a short-lived peo- and uniform Poor Law for Scotland are be ple. At forty they are incapable of work coming every day more and more terrible; in Shropshire and Staffordshire--are regu- and till that gigantic mischief is remediea. lar old men, as much as some at eighty ;' it will avail little to attempt regulations as at fifty in Warwickshire. In Derbyshire to particular classes of the lower popula the collier is aged at forty; and the loader, tion there. being twenty-eight and thirty. (p. 192.) To return to England let us hear one And so is it wherever we track them. As of the ablest of these Sub-commissiona race, they may be said to be extinct at fifty-five. There are only half as many old men above seventy among colliers as among beset the mental and moral progress of the

• The worst of all the many adversities which agriculturists; and twice as many deaths

working classes, is the indifference towards them by accidents. Yet, with all this, the collier of the higher orders of society. It is a fearful is fond of his colliery, preferring it to every thing to see how exempt the employers of laother calling; and, if he quits his mine for bour often hold themselves from moral obligaa time, speedily returns to it. The spirit tions of every description towards those from of adventure, and rough enjoyment, and in- whose industry their own fortunes spring. dependence, makes him gamble with life.

Even they who contribute at all to the education We cannot conclude without one or two in nineteen cases out of twenty, merely by

or moral improvement of their workmen do so, examples more of the good that may be money, and without personal pains and superdone by the proprietor, where he seriously intendence of their own.'-Mr. Symons, App. I., turns his thoughts to the condition of his p: 201. miners. And, first, look at the collier

population of Alloa, amounting to 1100, as af- How the reverse of such a feeling has fected by the kind exertions of their land- operated the following account will prove : lord, the late Earl of Mar. He gaye Mrs. Stansfield, of Flockton, and her fami{hem the means of education, improved ly, large proprietors both of mines and their cottages, encouraged gardening, pro- land, erected a room 56 feet long as a hibited the wives working in the mines; Sunday-school, and covered its walls with and so,' says Mr. John Craich, raised maps and pictures, and placed a piano in their character in a wonderful degree.' it. " At nine on each Sunday morning a The provident society of the Alloa Col. bell heard in the neighbouring village sumliery has at present 12001. in the bank!

mons about sixty-four children, who preThe present Earl of Elgin had for many pare, by prayer and psalmody, for reading years before his father's death the manage- catechisms and hearing Scripture: after ment of the property in Scotland ; and these preliminaries they are taken to the under his eye an improved system appears church, about half-a-mile off; and a simto have been established in the collieries. ilar exercise is repeated in the evening. James Grier, manager, says that twenty. Tickets, bearing a value of 1d. or 2d. a dofive years ago few persons thought them- zen, are given for attendance at school and selves safe near the spot after dark; now a chapel; and four of these can be obtained

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each Sunday. From these funds all the swelled into 'a multitude of colliers,' with girls but the youngest purchase their bible, their families, who attended the concert as prayer, and hymn-books.

well as the games, remaining the whole The first Sunday in August an examina- evening, and declaring, at its close, .This tion takes place, to which the parents are beats cock-fighting ! invited: it is termed the feast of August, We think we shall please many by giv. and is anticipated by all with delight. ing one extract more from the historian of

From the elder girls of the school eight · Fossil Fuel.' It may be surmised, from are selected; who, on each Wednesday, something already quoted, that this able are joined by twenty young men and lads, writer himself began life in the pit; but, and are formed into a singing class. Some if so, we have it not in our power to add have attained great proficiency : Mr. Sy- his name to a list which it would by no mons says that, at a concert given by Mr. means discredit. Miles Stansfield, he saw Sarah Wood and

• The Cornish miners have often been referred seven other girls, who had spent the whole

to as being a remarkably observant and intelliday in toilsome labour in the mine, per gent race of men: combining, as they commonly forming some of the most difficult pieces of do, each in his own person, the labourer, the Spohr's Last Judgment, and Haydn's adventurer, and the merchant, they have acMasses, with zest and skill. They had quired a degree of shrewdness and industry that been practised only a few months, once or could not fail to be noted, especially by strangers

with whom they came into contact. The coltwice-a-week, and they sang that most chromatic oratorio admirably, with some of the or not, have been, in this respect at least, less

liers, on the other hand, whether less knowing first chorus-singers in Yorkshire.'

known: they have almost uniformly been the

servants of capitalists between whom and the * Mr. Briggs, the partner of Mrs. Stansfield, actual labourers there have existed several graand Mr. Miles Stansfield, her son, have, in dations of rank--so to speak—the duties of the addition to these means of mental culture for uppermost of which, however, bear very lightly, the children, opened a gymnasium and cricket- if at all, on the real independence of the lowest ground for the men. Twice a-week they are the latter, indeed, frequently rising meritoadmitted by means of tickets; and the scene riously from the bottom to the top of the scale. presented by the commingling of all ages and Many honourable instances of this might be both sexes for ihe purposes of recreation strongly mentioned. It is no proof of the general intelcorroborated the impression I had formed of the ligence of any body of operatives that men of good-heartedness (in spite of the ignorance) of talent have occasionally risen from among them ihe collier population. Nor is the kindly and to distinguished stations in society; but it is grateful feeling which exists on the part of the natural io associate the ultimate fame or notoworkpeople of Messrs. Stansfield and Briggs to- riety of an individual with his original calling, wards their employers by any means confined and this without the least disparagement or to the playground :—it exists most warmly disrespect. It is on this principle that one feels throughout the village,'-Ibid., p. 203.

a certain description of interest in knowing that

the late celebrated Doctor Hutton was origiA slight trait, incidentally placed in a nally a hewer employed in Old Long Benton foot-note, will perhaps bring the whole Colliery ; that Mr. Siephenson, the intelligent scene more vividly before the reader than engineer of the Liverpool and Manchester Railthe description by Mr. Symons of the con- way, was originally a coal-miner; that the late tention for prizes these Titans, in the va

Rev. W. Huntingdon, an eccentric but talented rious games of bell-race, jumping in sacks, and even that the late king of the conjurors,"

preacher in the metropolis, was a coal-heaver ; throwing weights, running, leaping over as the ingenious Ingleby was called, was a pitpoles, &c.—' An indivi lual of great strength man, who first practised sleight of hand among is appointed to act as constable, whose office his companions on the banks of the Type. is to enforce the laws, to turn out strangers Thomas Bewick too, “the celebrated xylographer entering without tickets, or any members and illustrator of nature, may be mentioned as misconducting themselves, and to close up the neighbourhood of Hexham ; and Thomas

another instance. His father was a collier in the ground at night.'

with his brothers, one of whom died after giving A further experiment was made on these

promise of high excellency in the beautiful art sons of earth

---an attempt to entice them, of wood-engraving, was early immured in that through music, from their ordinary haunt subterranean, laborious, and loathsome employof the public-house, and its potent attrac- ment.—“I have heard him say,” remarks his tions of strong drink and fierce gambling friend Mr. Dovaston, “ that the remotest recolAt first twenty only appeared, and these lection of his powerful and tenacious memory in their shirt-sleeves.' • The concert ri- was that of lying for hours on his side between veted their attention, and they became candle, plying the pick with his little hands

dismal strata of coal, by a glimmering and dirty quiet and expressed great delight.' At the those hands afterwards destined to elevate the feast of August,' 1841, the twenty had | arts, illustrate nature, and promulgate her truths,

107

to the delight and instruction of the moral and I do not fear any violent or general outbreaks intellectual world." !--History of Fossil Fuel, on the part of the population : there may be a pp. 289, 290.

few, but not more than will be easily repressed

by the ordinary force of the country. But I do Since this article was put in type Lord fear the progress of a cancer, a perilous, and, if Ashley has obtained the unanimous assent we much longer delay, an incurable cancer, of the House of Commons for the introduc- which has seized upon the body social, moral, tion of a bill to make Regulations respect- and political; and then in some day, when ing the Age and Sex of Children and there shall be required on the part of our people Young Persons employed in the Mines and virtue and patriotism, the strength of the

empire

energy, an unprecedented effort of Collieries of the United Kingdom.' After

prostrate, for the fatal disorder will have reachperusing this Report-with its detailed Ap- ed its vitals. pendices, and the terrible woodcuts that ac- There are, I well know, many other things company them-it was impossible for us to to be done; but this, I must maintain, is an indoubt that Lord Ashley would receive the dispensable preliminary: for it is a mockery to cordial support of Her Majesty's Govern- talk of education to people who are engaged, as ment in such a measure. But we were not

it were, in unceasing toil from their cradle to

their grave. I have endeavoured for many prepared for, and therefore we were indeed most highly gratified by, the unanimity of labour, and so bringing the children and young

years to attain this end by limiting the hours of the House of Commons on the 7th of June. persons within the reach of a moral and reWe would fain hail it as an evidence that ligious education. I have hitherto been disnot by any one class of politicians alone, appointed, and I deeply regret it, because we but by all

, the danger of neglecting the are daily throwing away a noble material moral and social and also the physical con- for, depend upon it, the British people are the dition of the poor in this rich and powerful the face of the earth.

noblest and most easily governed of any on

Their fortitude and empire has at length been understood and obedience under the severest privations suffiappreciated ; and as an omen and pledge ciently prove it. (Loud cheers.)

Sure I am, that henceforth, as now, English gentlemen that the minister of this country, whoever he be, of all parties will be found ready to act to- if he will but win their confidence by appealing gether as men and as Christians when the lo their hearts, may bear upon his little finger afflictions of their humble fellow-country- the whole weight of the reins of the British emmen are brought under their consideration pire, And, Sir, the sufferings of these people,

so destructive to themselves, are altogether as legislators. Lord Ashley's speech was needless to the prosperity of the empire. ... indeed a happy specimen of clear state. Could it even be proved that they were necesment, intermixed with numberless touches sary, this House, I know, would pause before it of simply and deeply pathetic eloquence :

undertook to affirm the continuance of them.... no man could listen to it without being re- What could induce you to tolerate further the minded of Wilberforce. Such a speech existence of such cruelties? Is it not enough might well , as a display of high talents, excite to announce these things to an assembly of Chris

tian men and British gentlemen? For twenty admiration and applause ; but these are not millions of money you purchased the liberation days when rhetoric, or even oratory, can pro- of the negro; and it was a blessed deed. You duce, in regard to subjects of this kind, any may, this night, by a cheap and harmless vote, decisive practical effect. The House must invigorate the hearts of thousands of your have been operated on by circumstances of countrypeople, enable them to walk erect in a very different character : they felt, we newness of life, to enter on the enjoyment of hope and believe, that this was the first their inherited freedom, and avail themselves step in a path which must be pursued, if of virtue, of morality, and religion. These,

(if they will accept them) of the opportunities our working classes-unequalled in the Sir, are the ends that I venture to propose : history of the world for courage, energy, this is the barbarism that I seek to restore. and native goodness of feeling-are to be The House will

, I am sure, forgive me for havréconciled to the great existing institutions ing detained them so long; and still more will of their country-not excepting the insti- they forgive me for venturing to conclude, by tation of property, which, like all the rest, imploring them in the words of Holy Writ, can only deserve to be supported as being our iniquities by showing mercy to the poor,

To break off our sins by righteousness, and for the general advantage.

if it may be a lengthening of our tranquillity. 'I hope, Sir,' said Lord Ashley, that the ---Speech, fc., p. 57. House will not consider that I am speaking dogmatically on these subjects: my intercourse with the working classes, both by correspondence and personal interview, has for many years been so extensive, that I think I may venture to say that I am conversant with their feelings and habits and can state their probable movements.

!

Art. VII.-1. Gardening for Ladies. By and men of taste, who have deemed gardenMrs. Loudon. London. 1841.

ing worthy their regard, the names of Ba2. The Ladies' Companion to the Flower con, Evelyn, Temple, Pope, Addison, Sir

Garden : being an Alphabetical Arrange. W. Chambers, Lord Kames, Shepstone, ment of all the Ornamental Plants usual. Horace Walpole, Alison, Hope, and Walter ly grown in Gardens and Shrubberies ; Scott. Under the first and last of these with full Directions for their Culture. authorities, omitting all the rest, we would

By Mrs. Loudon., London. 1841. gladly take our stand in defence of any 3. The Flower Garden : containing Direc-study to which they had given their sanc

tions for the Cultivation of all Garden tion on paper and in practice. Even in its

Flowers. pp. 515. London: 1841. own exclusive domain, gardening has raised 4. An Encyclopedia of Gardening : com- no mean school of literature in the works

prising the Theory and Practice of Hor- of Gilpin, Whateley, the Masons, Knight, ticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Price, and Repton. Landscape-Gardening, fc. fc. By J. C. Time would fail us to tell of all those Loudon; F.L.S., H.S, &c. 8vo. pp. royal and noble personages whom old Ge. 1270. London.

rarde enumerates in his · Herbal' as having 5. An Encyclopedia of Plants ; with Fig- either loved to live in gardens,' or written

ures of nearly Ten Thousand Species. treatises on the subject. We know that So. Edited by J. C. Loudon. 8vo. pp. lomon spoke of plants, from the cedar that 1159. London. 1829.

is in Lebanon to the hyssop that groweth 6. Elements of Botany, Structural, Physio- out of the wall :'--though here the mate

logical, Systematical, and Medical. By rial surpassed the workmanship, for in all John Lindley, Ph. D., Professor of Bo- his wisdom he discoursed not so eloquently, tany in University College. London. nor in all his glory was he so richly ar1841.

rayed as one lily of the field. The vege7. A Pocket Botanical Dictionary: compris- table drug mithridate long handed down

ing the Names, History, and Culture of the name of the King of Pontus its discoall Plants known in Britain. By Joseph verer, “better knowne,' says Gerarde, by

Paxton, F.L.S., H.S., &c. London. 1840. his soveraigne Mithridate, than by his some8. Botany for Ladies ; or, a Popular In- time speaking two-and-twenty languages.'

troduction to the Natural System of : What should I say,' continues the old her: Plants. By Mrs. Loudon. pp. 493. balist, after having called in the authorities London. 1941.

of Euax king of the Arabians, and Arte. 9. The Orchidacea of Mexico and Guate- misia queen of Caria, 'what should I say

mala. By James Bateman, Esg. In of those royal personages, Juba, Attalus, Parts.

Climenus, Achilles, Cyrus, Masynissa, Semy10. Illustrations of the Genera and Species ramis, Dioclesian--all skilled in the excel.

of Orchidaccous Plants. By Francis lent art of simpling?' We might easily swell Bauer, Esq., with Notes and Prefatory the list by the addition of royal patrons of

Remarks. Dr. Lindley. London. 1840. horticulture in modern times. Among our 11. Sertum Orchideum ; or, a Wreath of own sovereigns, Elizabeth, James 1., and

the most beautiful Orchidaceous Plants. Charles II., are mentioned as having given By Dr. Lindley. 1840-1.

their personal superintendence to the royal 12. Å History of British Ferns. By Ed-gardens, while a change in the style of layward Newmari

, F.L.S. 8vo. 1840. ing out grounds is very generally attributed 13. Poetry of Gardening, from The Car- to the accession of William and Mary

thusian,' a Miscellany in Prose and though we doubt whether a horticultural geVerse. pp. 528. London. 1839. nius would have met with any better or more

fitting reception from the hero of the Boyne İF Dr. Johnson would not stop to inquire than did the great wit to whom he offered whether landscape-gardening demands a cornétcy of dragoons. The gardens of any great powers of the mind, we may Tzarsco.celo and of Peterhoff were sevesurely be excused from the like investiga- rally the summer resorts of Catherine I. tion on the humbler subject of gardening- and Elizabeth of Russia, where the one proper. But whether or not these pursuits amused herself with building a Chinese demand, certain it is that they have exer- village, and the other by cooking her own cised, the talents of as numerous and bril- dinner in the summer-house of Monplaisir. liant an assemblage of great names as any There are more thrilling associations one subject can boast of. Without travel connected with the Jardin Anglais of the ling inio distant times or countries, we Trianon at Versailles, where some rosefind among our own philosophers, poets,' trees yet grow which were planted by

care.

Marie Antoinette; nor will an Englishman | cients. They would liave us consider all easily forget the grounds of Claremont, classical gardens as little more than kitchenwhich yet cherish the memory and the taste gardens or orchards- to use the expression of that truly British princess who delight of Walpole, "a cabbage and a gooseberryed to superintend even the arrangement of bush.' This is a great mistake. The love the flowers in the cottage-garden. At the of flowers is as clearly traceable in the popresent moment great things are promised ets of antiquily as in those of our own times, at Windsor, both in the ornamental and and their allusions to them plainly show useful department ; and we trust that the that they were cultivated with the greatest alterations now in progress, avowedly un- Fruit trees no doubt were mingled der the eye of royalty, will produce gar- with their flowers, but in the formal, or indens as worthy of the sovereign and the deed in any style, this might be made an adnation, as is the palace to which they are ditional beauty. The very order* indeed attached.

of their olive-groves had a protecting deity Little new is to be said upon the history at Athens, and with such exactness did of gardening. Horace Walpole and Daines they set out the elms which supported Barrington have well nigh exhausted the their vines, that Virgil compares them to subject, and all later writers go over the the rank and file of a Roman legion. But . same ground. Beginning with the Eden* the "fair-clustering' t narcissus and the of our first parents, we have the old stories 'gold-gleaming' crocus were reckoned of the orchard of the Hesperides, and the among the glories of Attica as much as the dragon, and the golden fruit (now explain-nightingale, and the olive, and the steed; ed to be oranges,)—the gardens of Adonis and the violet | was as proud a device of —the Happy Isles—the hanging terraces of the Ionic Athenians, as the rose of England, Babylon-till with a passing glance at or the lily of France. The Romans are those of Alcinous and Laertes, as describ- even censured by their lyric poet § for aled by Homer, we arrive at the Gardens of lowing their fruitful olive-groves to give Epicurus and the Academe of Plato. Ro- place to beds of violets, and myrtles, and man history brings up the rear with the vil- all the wilderness of sweets.' The first las of Cicero and Pliny, the fruits of Lu- rose of spring || and the last rose of sumcullus, the roses of Pæstum, and Cæsar's mer'll have been sung in Latin as well as

English. Ovid's description of the Flora• Private arbours and new-planted orchards lia will equal any account we can produce On this side Tiber.'

of our May-day; nor has Milton himself To how different a science in each of of Enna than was the author of the Fasti.

more glowingly painted the flowery mead these instances the term,' garden' has been Cicero ** distinctly enumerates the cultiapplied we have now no time to inquire ; vation of flowers among the delights of the but we may perhaps be allowed, before entering upon the fresher and more inviting he given us his Georgic

on Horticulture, he

country; and Virgil ft assures us that, had scene of the English parterre, to say one would not have forgotten the narcissus or word in correction of an error common to acanthus, the ivy, the myrtle, or the roseall writers on ihe horticulture of the an

gardens of Pæstum. The moral which

Burns drew from his mountain daisy 'had We are sorry that Mr. Loudon in his Encyclo- been marked before both by Virgil II and pædia, to which every writer on Gardening must Catullus ; $$ and indeed a glance at the feel infinitely obliged, should think it worth while to Eclogues, the Georgics, or the Fasti, will repeat some silly sneers of Horace Walpole on this show the same love of flowers in their ausubject; as if (what indeed he himself seems to scout) a garden necessarily implied clipped hedges thors which evidently animated Aristopbaand trellis-work, or as if the new world, fresh from nes, where he described the gentleman of the hand of the Creator, could be anything else than

merry old Athens' as 'redolent of honeya garden. We might fix on many other passages to find fault with him on the same score. ultra crepidam. He had better stick to his spade. What have sceptical hints and revolutionary

* Soph. Ed. Col. 705. opinions to do with gardening ? What indeed can

# Soph. Ed. Col. 682. be more opposite to its pure and quiet spirit? To

Aristoph. Equit. 1324. Acharn. 637. say the least of it, it is ingratitude both io God and § Hor. ii. xv.5. 11 Virg. Georg. iv. 134. man in one whose daily occupation is amongst the IT Hor. Od. i. xxviii. 3. fairest works of creation, and whose income is de- **"Nec vero segetibus solum, et pratis, et vineis, rived from the purest pursuit of an enlightened aris- et arbustis res rusticæ lætæ sunt, sed etiam in hortis et tocracy. We trust we may see no more of this. Mr. pomariis; tum pecudum pastu, apium examinibus, Loudon may take our word for it, that the circulation Forum omnium varietate.? --De Sen., c. 15. and usefulness of his otherwise valuable works are ++ Georg. iv. 124.

** Æn. ix. 435. sadly marred by these flourishes.

$8 Catull. xi.

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