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that which was crowned of old by the city bably applied this Roman measure to the of David. The valleys which intersected the Temple courts rather loosely, the exact numcity; that of the Tyropæon which divided ber of feet or yards may not come out on Moriah from Sion, and, for reasons assignable either side ; but there is no reason to doubt from history, that which divided Acra from his assertion that the court was square, or the Mount of the Temple, can be traced, nearly so. But by actual admeasurement, more or less distinctly, if not throughout their Dr. Robinson found the area occupied by the whole length, in considerable parts. Some present mosque and the other buildings which fragments of the older works of man, scarcely unquestionably stand on the Hill of the Tem less imperishable than those of nature, part of ple to be upwards of one-third more in length the substructures of the Temple, and, accord-than in breadth. We now find the length ing to recent accounts, the spacious excava- to be 1528 feet, while the breadth is only tions beneath it, bear the same undeniable 955 feet, the former exceeding the latter by testimony to the perpetuity of the sacred city. 573 feet, or more than one-half. This, proDr. Robinson has carefully examined, and ceeds Dr. Robinson, has not improbably been brought to bear upon his investigations, the done by including within the enclosure the whole range of authorities, the scriptures of area of the ancient fortress Antonia. the Old and New Testaments, Josephus, the fathers who had visited the East, the histor “ This fortress, according to Josephus, stood ians of the crusades, down to the interminable on the north side of the area of the temple. It list of modern travellers of every period, and bees under the name of Baris, and then rebuilt

was a quadrangle, erected first by the Maccaof every nation. We cannot of course fol- by the first Herod with great strength and low him through his various researches; our splendour. A more particular description object will be rather to indicate the original places it upon a rock or bill at the north-west views to which he has been led by observa. corner of the temple area, fifty cubits high; tion or by study, and to give some account of above which its walls rose to the height of forty the valuable accessions to our topographical cubits. Within it had all the extent and apknowledge of Jerusalem, which we obtain pearance of a palace, being divided into apart

ments of every kind, with galleries and baths, from his volumes.

and also broad halls or harracks for soldiers, so The earlier antiquities of the holy city may that, as having everything necessary within itbe divided into Jewish and Christian. Three self, it seemed a city, while in its magnificence great buildings at the time of our Saviour, it was a palace. At each of the four corners and down to the destruction of Jerusalem by was a tower; three of these were fifty cubits Titus, formed the proud architectural or de- bigh, while the fourth, at the south-east corner, fensive ornaments of the city: the palace of whole temple with its courts

. was seventy cubits high, and overlooked the

The fortress Herod, on the brow of Sion, which looked communicated with the northern and western towards the Temple ; the Antonia, the for- porticoes of the temple area, and had flights of tress and stronghold of the Roman garrison stairs descending into both, by which the garrial the north-western corner of the Temple ; son could at any time enter the court of the temand above all the Temple itself, with its sur: ple and preveni tumults. The fortress was se

parated from the hill Bezetha, on the north, by rounding courts and porticoes. Now, in all plans and topographies of able from that hill; and the depth of the

a deep artificial trench, lest it should be approachJerusalem we have been embarrassed by what trench added greatly' to the elevation of the appeared an inexplicable difficulty, the site towers. of the Antonia. Of its exact relative position

• The extent of the fortress, or the area coverto the Temple there could be no doubt ; but ed by it, is nowhere specified, except where the where to find space for this large fortress,

same writer says that the circumference of the with its barracks and buildings necessary as we are elsewhere told that the temple area

temple, including Antonia, was six stadia. Now for the accommodation of a strong gạrrison, by itself was a square of one stadium on each between the Temple Mount and what ap- side, it follows that the length of each side of peared to be the borders of the Bezetha the fortress must also have been one stadium, quarter of the city, appeared to us most un- and its area equal to that of the temple. And satisfactorily accounted for by the mass of although this again is probably a mere estimate writers on the subject. Dr. Robinson has on the part of the writer, yet the conclusion

would seem to be a fair one, that the area coverbeen led to a solution of this problem by a ed by Antonia was probably much greater than process of argument and investigation totally has usually been supposed. '-vol. i., pp. 431, 432. different from our own. According to the description of Josephus, confirmed by the Dr. Robinson further supposes, that the Talmud, the area of the Temple, which oc- deep reservoir or excavation which passes cupied Mount Moriah, was an exact square of under the name of the pool of Bethesda, a stadium on each side. As Josephus pro-measuring 360 feet in length, and 130 in

breadth,'* is part of the great artificial trench in the Hebrew tongue. It was along this which separated the fortress from Bezetha. portico, or at least through the gate of enThis theory unquestionably solves many dif-trance at the end of it, that we must suppose ficulties ; but it depends entirely on the rela- the centurion to have cut his way. tive position of the Antonia to the Temple, The Romans were thus in possession of the space between the two buildings, and, to the Antonia ; the Jews of the Temple. a certain extent, on their common level. Dr. I'Titus then gave orders to level part of the Robinson has not examined the passage of Antonia, to fill up the intervening space, in Josephus, which is the great authority on this order that the engines might be brought to point, so closely as appears to us necessary. I bear upon the Temple. On this mass of rubIt describes a transaction in which the Jew-bish, over which the whole army might apish historian was himself present, and bore proach, they raised their mounds to batter a conspicuous part.

However loose then and the wall. During the seven days which inaccurate Josephus may often be, writing were devoted to this operation, a night attack from memory, and, we doubt not, for effect, he took place by a select body of troops, as the can scarcely have misrepresented, to any whole army could not yet be brought up. It great extent, the striking and memorable cir- was witnessed by Titus, who took his place cumstances of this period of the siege. on one of the towers of the Antonia still left Titus had found himself master of the Anto- standing. The attack was repelled with nia by a sudden nightly surprise ; the Jewish great loss on both sides. We coine now 10 garrison of the fortress fled to the Temple ; a passage which may throw some light on the Romans hoped to carry the Temple like the distance between the two buildings : wise by the same attack. Simon and John, The Jews, distressed by these attacks, the however, the Jewish leaders, combining war thus growing to a head and creeping their forces, a terrific conflict took place : so onward to the Temple, cut off, as it were, crowded

up

and confused was the battle, that the extremities of their wasting body, to pre. spears and javelins were useless ; they fought vent the progress of the disease. They set hand to hand with the sword ; neither party fire to the part of the northern and western could retreat for those pressing on behind, portico which joined on to the Antonia, and and the combatants scrambled over the dead made a breach of about twenty cubits (thirty bodies to get at each other. The Romans feet or more), thus beginning to burn the were at length beaten back, and were oblig- Holy Places with their own hands. This exed to content themselves with the conquest pression would certainly lead us to suppose of the Antonia. A Bithynian centurion, how- that the portico of the outer court of the ever, sprung from the side of Titus, who Temple itself joined on (was tò ouvezès) was watching the battle, probably from a with the Antonia. It was probably, howtower in the Antonia, and made so fierce an ever, a portico branching off from that corner onset, that the Jews gave way before him, of the square, though it was evidently conand he actually cut his passage into the outer sidered part of the Temple, and pariaking court of the Temple, to the corner of the inner of its sanctity. Two days after, the Romans court—there, his sandals having iron nails in set fire to another portion of the cloister, and their soles, he slipped on the pavement, 2166- burned about fifteen cubits more; the Jews spotov, and was killed. This feat of the cen- looked on, and rather assisted than prevented turion would lead us to suppose that there the conflagration, in order entirely to cut off was no considerable space between the An- that which connected them with the Antonia, tonia and the outer court of the Temple; το προς την 'Αντώνιαν συναφές αυτών διαιthat the ground or the passage between was poūvtes. If we may conclude that these tolerably level; at all events, that there was two fires consumed the whole, or nearly no wall over which the centurion had to the whole, of this portico, we have its length mount to reach the court. Now there was something more than thirty-five cubits. certainly a connecting portico or cloister Probably the buildings approached much leading from the north-western corner of the nearer to each other at this corner than Temple-court to the Antonia. It was along those further to the east, and the conflicts this passage that St. Paul, when attacked by between the two garrisons of the Antonia the Jews in the court of the Temple, was and the Temple chiefly took place where carried by the Roman soldiers, and from the the space became wider ; and if we suppose flight of steps which ascended into the An- this portico to have been raised tonia he made his address to the multitudet Josephus addressed the Jewish insurgents in the

Hebrew tongue-'E3punt wat all events, there was * Pococke had already observed that this pool bore some place within the Roman lines froni which he a great resemblance to a fosse or trench.

could be heard (iv érnkón sis) by the Jews within † It is not impossible that from the same spot the Temple.

on

on

something of a natural or artificial ridge, commencement or foot of an immense arch, we may understand how the walls which once sprung out from this western wall which the porticoes of the outer Temple- in a direction towards Mount Zion, across the court stood inight present a formidable bar- valley of the Tyropæon. This arch could only rier to the assailing army, and could not be to Josephus led from this part of the Temple to

have belonged to the Bridge, which according carried till the space was filled in, and the Xystus on Zion; and it proves incontestably mounds raised to batter the upper part of the the antiquity of that portion of the wall from wall and the surrounding porticoes. In con- which it springs. clusion, we cannot see any reasonable • The traces of this arch are too distinct and ground of objection, either from the extent definite to be mistaken. Its southern side is 39 of intervening space, or difference of level, English feet distant from the S. W.corner of the to the supposition of Dr. Robinson, that the the wall. Three courses of its stones still remain;

area, and the arch itself measures 51 feet along present area comprehends the site of the of which one is 5 feet 4 inches thick, and the Antonia as well as that of the Temple. others not much less. One of the stones is 20%

Dr. Robinson has made another discovery feet long; another 241 feet; and the rest in like at the south-western corner of the Temple proportion. The part of the curve or arc which Mount. Though there can be no doubt that remains is of course but a fragment; but of this according to our Lord's prediction, not one

fragment the chord measures 12 feet 6 inches; stone was left upon another of the Temple 10 inches. The distance from this point across

the sine 11 feet 10 inches; and the cosine 3 feet itself and its surrounding cloisters—though the valley to the precipitous natural rock of Zion the whole summit of the hill, if not literally we measured as exactly as the intervening field ploughed over, was levelled to the ground; of prickly pear would permit, and found it to be still even the pride of Roman hostility or the 350 feet, or about 116 yards. This gives the insolence of triumph would not waste unne- proximate length of the ancient bridge. We cessary labour upon the enormous substruc- sought carefully along the brow of Zion for traces tures which walled the hill more or less on That quarter is now covered with mean hon

of its western termination, but without success, every side, and enabled it to bear the weight and filth ; and an examination can be carried un of the sacred edifices. Some parts of these only in the midst of disgusting sights and substructures, we see no reason to doubt, smells.'—vol. i., pp. 424-426. from the vast size of the stones, and the manner in which they are set together, un

This locality is of great importance, espelike either Greek or "Roman or later archi- cially as illustrative of Josephus in his actecture, may belong to the age of Solomon.counts of the siege of the Temple by PomAmong these, there are manisest remains of pey, and the final desperate defence of the a most important edifice, the bridge, which, Upper City by Simon the son of Gioras, crossing the Tyropeon, connected the Tem- against the victorious legions of Titus. Dr. ple with Mount Sion, with the Xystus, or Robinson did not himself visit those most exopen place for exercise, the Boule, or Coun- traordinary tiquities which are to be found cil-House, and the great Palace of Herod : at present in the Holy City, the subterranean

crypts or vaults, which extended, no one • I have already related in the preceding sec- knows how far, under the hill of the Temple ; lion, that during our first visit to the S. W. cor. there can be no doubt that these are the ner of the area of the mosk, we observed several cavati sub terrâ montes of Tacitus, and that of the large stones jutting out from the western they contained the tanks and reservoirs wall, which at first sight seemed to be the effect which supplied Jerusalem, at least the deof a bursting of the wall from some mighty shock or earthquake. We paid little regard to fenders of the Temple, with water during the this at the moment, our attention being engrossed whole siege, which took place during the by other objects; but on mentioning the fact months when rain seldom falls in Judæa. not long after in a circle of our friends, we found They no doubt contained the vast treasures that they also had noticed it; and the remark of the Temple which were plundered by was incidentally dropped, that the stones had Crassus, and the provisions of every kind the appearance of having once belonged to a large arch. At this remark a train of thought which supplied the priests, perhaps part of flashed upon my miod, which I hardly dared to

It was to

the city, during peace and war. follow out, until I had again repaired to the these vaults (Dr. Robinson does not notice spot, in order to satisfy myself with my own this circumstance) that a large number of the eyes, as to the truth or falsehood of the sugges- partisans of Eleazer fled, when the Temple tion. I found it even so! The courses of these was perfidiously seized by John of Gischala, immense stones, which seemed at first to have and were allowed 10 withdraw on capitulasprung out from their places in the wall in con- tion. It was from these, that after the siege sequence of some enormous violence, occupy the great leader Simon, the son of Gioras, nevertheless their original position ; their external surface is hewn to a regular curve; and suddenly arose, clad in purple and white, to being fitted one upon another, they form the the astonishment of the Roman soldiery.

But we do not remember that any earlier or bevelled stones, and extending from the southern later writer has noticed one singular circum- wall northwards to an unknown extent. The stance connected with this descent and re- intervals between the rows are usually, ibough appearance of Simon, which is thus described not entirely, regular; and the pillars of some of

the ranges are of a somewhai larger size. In by Mr. Milman :

each row the pillars are connected together by

semicircular arches; and then the vault, resting Many days after, towards the end of October,

upon every two rows, formed by a lower arch, when Titus had left the city, as some of the consisting of a smaller segment of a circle. The Roman soldiers were reposing amid the ruins of circumstance mentioned by Richardson, that the the Temple, they were surprised by the sudden pillars have a much older appearance than the apparition of a man in white raiment and with arches which they support, was not noticed by a robe of purple, who seemed to rise from the the three artists. From the entrance at the earth in silent and imposing dignity. At first S. E. corner of the Haram for about 120 feet they stood awe-struck and motionless ; at length westward, these ranges of vaults extend norththey ventured to approach him; they encircled wards nearly 200 feet, where they are shut up him, and demanded his name. He answered

by a wall of more modern date. For about 150 “Simon, the son of Gioras; call hither your feet further west the vaults are closed up in like general.” Terentius Rufus was speedily sum

manner at less than 100 feet from the southern moned, and to him the brave though cruel wall; and to judge from the wells and openings defender of Jerusalem surrendered himself. On above ground, it would seem as if they had been the loss of the city, Simon had leaped down into thus walled up in order that the northern portion one of the vaults, with a party of miners, hewers of them might be converted into cisters. Beof stone, and iron-workers. For some distance yond this part, towards the west, they again they had followed the natural windings of the extend still further north. They are here termicavern, and then attempted to dig their way out nated on the west, before reaching el-Aksa,* by beyond the walls; but their provisions, however

a like wall filling up the intervals of one of the carefully husbanded, failed, and Simon deter

rows of pillars. How much further they mined on the bold measure of attempting to originally extended westward is unknown, not overawe the Romans by his sudden and spectral improbably quite to the western wall of the appearance.'—Hist. of the Jews, vol. iii., p. 67, enclosure, where are now said to be immense 2d edit.

cisterns.

• The ground in these vaults rises rapidly Now the subterranean passage into which towards the north, the southernmost columns Simon withdrew must have been in the with the double arches being about thirty-five Upper City, as the Temple and the whole of feet in height, while those in the norihern parts the hill of Moriah had for some time been are little more than ten feet high. The surface in the possession of the Romans. Simon, of the ground is everywhere covered with small therefore, must have made his way under the heaps of stones, the memorials of innumerable Tyropæon, and under or through the founda- It is a singular circumstance that the roots of the

pilgrims who have here paid their devotions. tion walls of the Temple, into those crypts large olive-trees growing upon the area of the which probably extend under a great part of Haram above have in many places forced their Mount Moriah. There is no calculating, way down through the arches, and still descendtherefore, what subterranean discoveries may ing have again taken root in the soil at the botbe hereafter made. The crypts, as they are tom of the vaults.'-- vol. i., pp. 448-50. now known actually to exist, have been hastily visited by some few travellers, and men So far as to some of the remarable Jewish tioned in terms of vague wonder and curios- antiquities illustrated by these · Researches' ity by Christian and Mahometan writers, and their result, as to the Christian antiquirumours have always prevailed of their vast ties, is not, we regret to say, so favourable, extent. Dr. Robinson inserts the report of for though we ourselves have long been perMr. Catherwood descriptive of the part suaded that the legends concerning the Holy which he visited, accompanied with a ground. Places are for every reason, geographical as plan. Mr. Catherwood is the same accom- well as historical, utterly untenable, we were plished English architect and draughtsman, prepared to surrender our enforced, but whom we meet again as the companion of neither cherished nor pleasing convictions at Mr. Stephens among the ancient cities of the slightest show of authority, and would Central America :

gladly have been relieved from the unpleasant

burden of our disbelief. Dr. Robinson ap"From information and plans kindly communi

pears to have been impressed with the same cated to me by Mr. Catherwood, who with his companions examined and measured these subterranean structures without hindrance in 1833,

* The distance from the S. E. corner of the it appears that these vaults, so far as they are Haram to the eastern wall of el-Aksa, according to now accessible to strangers, were originally form- Mr. Catherwood's plans, is about 475 feet; while ed by some fifteen rows of square pillars, measur- froin the same corner to the western side of the ing about five feet on a side, built of large vaulte now open to visitors is only about 320 feel.'

feelings, and to have entered Jerusalem with mile, the measured distance from the Temple an earnest desire, at any small sacrifice of Mount to the Church-less, as Dr. Robinson probability, to believe that in the church of observes, than some of the squares in Lonthe Holy Sepulchre we might kneel on the don and New York ; and this is in a quarter actual spot in which the Son of Man reposed of the city which we have every reason to and rose again. The monkish tradition, we believe was very populous. And at this fear there is no better authority, has not been precise spot the walls must be drawn in an content with fixing the scene of the Lord's extraordinary curve, in no way required, ór sepulchre, but has conveniently arranged indeed permitted by the conformation of the around it, at very little distance, all the other land ; and we must admit no suburbs beplaces sanctified by the sad incidents of his yond-although, doubtless, at this flourishing last hours.

period of the city, its suburbs must have ex

tended, where not prevented by the precipi- The place of our Lord's crucifixion, as we tous ravines, to some distance from the actual are expressly informed, was without the gate of walls. Against such inexplicable difficulties the ancient city, and yet nigh to the city. The the historical evidence must be clear and sepulchre, we are likewise told, was nigh at decisive ; the tradition early, consistent, unhand, in a garden, in the place where Jesus was crucified. It is not therefore without some feel

broken, and probable. Dr. Robinson has ing of wonder that a stranger, unacquainted done M. Châteaubriand the honour of selectwith the circumstances, on arriving in Jerusalem ing him as the champion of the traditionary at the present day, is pointed to the place of opinion. In general we should think a cause crucifixion and the sepulchre in the midst of the not very fairly treated which should be modern city, and both beneath one roof. This judged on the statement of a writer for effect, latter fact, however unexpected, might occasion less surprise, for the sepulchre was nigh to

one especially whose inaccuracies are perCalvary. But beneath the same roof are further haps unrivalled in his own class. In this shown the stone on which the body of our Lord case, however, though Châteaubriand has was anointed for burial, the fissure in the rock, incorporated some of the greatest improbathe holes in which the crosses stood, the spot bilities in his statenient, we do not think where the true cross was found by Helena, and that he has overlooked any circumstance various other places said to have been connected which might strengthen his argument. with the history of the crucifixion, most of which it must have been difficult to identify even after the lapse of only three centuries, and particularly

· Châteaubriand has furnished us with the so at the present day, after the desolations and clearest and most plausible statement of the his. numerous changes which the whole place has toric testimonies and probabilities, which may undergone.'- vol. ii., pp. 64, 65.

be supposed to have had an influence in determining the spot; and from him later writers

have drawn their chief arguments. I give an The glaring objection as to the locality of the present church of the Holy Sepulchre, church, he says, at Jerusalem, was gathered

epitome of his remarks. The first Christian and the difficulty of so drawing the line of immediately after the resurrection and ascension the ancient walls as to exclude this site from of our Lord, and soon became very numerous. the city, has not for the first time in this All its members must have had a knowledge critical, as it is so often anathematized, this of the sacred places. They doubtless also consceptical and rationalizing age, awakened secrated buildings for their worship, and would suspicion and mistrust. Even the most de naturally erect them on sites rendered memora

ble by miracles. Not improbably the Holy vout were occasionally disturbed, and among Sepulchre itself was already honoured in this the early pilgrims, at least the earliest

manner. At any rate there was a regular sucwriters, are heard murmurs of doubt and cession of Jewish Christian bishops, from the tincertainty. These murmurs deepen as we Apostle James down to the time of Adrian, who approach more modern times ; and they are could not but have preserved the Christian trastrongest among those who have actually ditions; and although during the siege by Titus

the church withdrew to Pella, yet they soon visited the spot. The doubts, in fact, have

returned and established themselves among the rather forced themselves on believers than ruins. In the course of a few months' absence grown slowly up out of a sceptical turn of they could not have forgotten the position of mind. In modern times this point has been their sanctuaries, which, moreover, being genmore strongly questioned by Roman Catholic erally without the walls, had probably not sufthan by Protestant writers. One argument fered greatly from the siege. And that the saappears to us absolutely insuperable. To cred places were generally known in the age of exclude the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in rebuilding Jerusalem that emperor set up a

Adrian, is proved incontestably by the fact that the ancient city, that is, the part between the

statue of Venus upon Calvary, and one of Jupiwestern wall and the hill of the Temple, ter over the Holy Sepulchre. Thus the folly of must be narrowed to less than a quarter of al idolatry, by its imprudent profanation, only

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VOL. LXIX.

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