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protesting that if he has affirmed anything | proved myself to be unto her a most obedient therein that by learning and good reasons may son; and, so long as I continue among the be proved erroneous, he will reform the same: living, by God's help, intend to continue such.'(1) for he wholly submits it to the rule of God's word, and the judgment of those that be learn- Not Hooker :ed, discreet and wise.'(1)
"We had rather glorify and bless God for the
fruit we daily behold reaped by such ordinances Not Laud, who
as his gracious spirit maketh the ripe wisdom
of this national Church to bring forth, than vainwas willing to have his work pass as silently ly boast of our own peculiar and private inven. as it might, because he could not hold it worthy tions, as if the skill of profitable regiment had of that great duty and service which he owed left her public habitation to dwell in a retired to his dear mother the Church of England;' and manner with some few men of one livery: we. who wholly submits it to her with his prayers make not our childish appeals, sometimes from for her prosperity, and his wishes that he were our own to foreign churches, sometimes from able to do her better service.'(2)
both unto churches ancienter than both are, in
effect always from all others to our own selves; Not Hammond, with whom
but, as becometh them that follow with all hu
mility the ways of peace, we honour, reverence, a meek son of the Church of Christ will cer- and obey, in the very next degree unto God, the tainly be content to sacrifice a great deal for the voice of the Church of God wherein we live."(2) making of the purchase of peace and commu. pion; and when the fundamentals of the faith Not Jackson, when next to that and superstructures of Christian practice are not glory of God, which is the supreme cause of concerned in the concessions, will cheerfully causes, the main end of all other ends, intended express his readiness to submit or deposit his by good men or angels, his second aim, subordiown judgment in reverence and deference to his nate to this, was to give satisfaction to his long. superiors in the Church where his lot is fall- ing desires of discharging his duty to the Church en.'(3)
his mother, by doing her such service as he was
able in setting forth the true worship of God, Not Bishop Cosin, (4) where he speaks of and in maintaining the truth professed by his
her.'(3) having no other aim in his work than to be
Not Bishop Hall, when he exclaimse serviceable to the truth of God, set forth and professed by the Church of England; which truth we endeavour, in these wavering and laps- free for discourse, let me ever be swayed by
In all those verities which are disputable and ing times, to preserve entire and upright amoug | the sacred authority of that orthodox Church
wherein I live.(4) Not Bishop Montagu, when, in one of many passages to the same effect,(5) he in- Not Bishop Buckeridge, when he could dignantly repels the
sadly own, imputation, that he not only agrees with the If the spirits of the prophets were subject to Council of Trent, but disagrees from the Church the prophets among us, as in right they ought of England, -"I deny this absolutely: prove it to be, every private man should lay down his and take all. If I disagree from the Church of own self-conceit, and submit himself to the more England, promote, inform against me; spare mature and ripe judgment of the Church wherein not. In morboniam all the Councils of Trent in he liveth.'(5) the world, if there were ten thousand of them. I forsake them all respectively: such regard and Not Stillingfleet, where he is showing the awful
respect do I bear unto my mother, the concurrent declaration of our divines, that Church of England." '(6)
Rome is guilty of idolatry: Not Bishop Bull, when he declares
• I cannot see,' he says,' why the authority of "Whatever here or elsewhere I have written, I
some very few persons, though of great learning, do most willingly, and with the profoundest humility (summa cum animi demissione), submit
 Examen Censuræ, vol. iv., p. 6. unto the judgment of my holy mother the
 Eccles. Pol., b. v., s. 71. Church of England; as one who have thus far
[31 Dedication of Book ix., vol. ii., p. 937.
(4) Christ. Moder., vol. vi., p. 4:3. See also the  Defence of the Answer, p. 17.
pathetic dedication of his Common Apology;' to  Dedication of Conference.
our "gracious and blessed mother, the Church of  Hammond, Of Schism, vol. i., p. 336. England,' from the meanest of her children, wish(4) Preface to Scholastic History.
ing her all peace and happiness.' - vol. x.  Appeal to Cæsar, pp. 48, 60, 111, 321. (5) Discourse concerning Kneeling at the com.  Appeal to Cæsar, p. 183.
munion, p. 245. 38
should bear sway against the constant opinion their opinions and practice to some imaginof our Church ever since the Reformation ; since ary standard of perfection, picked out by our Church is not now to be formed according themselves from some peculiar age or class to the singular fancies of some few. (though of teachers, probably from some one or two caprichios of superstitious fanatics, who prefer insulated writings of some single father, besome odd opinions and ways of their own before yond which their reading cannot have extendthe received doctrine and practice of the Church ed, is a very dangerous delusion.
It is only they live in. Such as these, wo rather pity a repetition of Puritanism. Substitute 'Caththeir weakness than regard their censures; and olic antiquity' for 'God's Spirit, and the are only sorry when our adversaries make such words of Hooker are as applicable to one as properties of them, as by their means to beget to the other :in some a disaffection to our Church. Which I am so far from, (whatever malice and peevishness may suggest to the contrary,) that, upon
• If the Church did give every man licence to the greaiest inquiry I can make, Í'esteem it the follow what himself imagineth that Catholic best Church of the Christian world; and think antiquity doth reveal unto him, or what he my time very well employed (whatever thanks supposeth that it is likely to have revealed to I meet with for it) in defending its cause, and some special person, whose virtues deserve to preserving persons in the communion of it.'(1) be highly esteemed, what other effect could
hereafter ensue but the utter confusion of his Not Brett, in whose admirable words their Church, under pretence of being taught, led,
and guided by Catholic antiquity?'(1) spirit may well be summed up:
Is not the danger of private interpretation • Wherefore having given, as I trust, a faithful and impartial account of the government and even greater in the fathers than in the Scripgovernors of the primitive church and our own, tures? They who appealed to the Bible as having showed how near our Church has been interpreted by their own private judgment, Teformied to the pattern of the primitive, aposto-appealed to a small book, of which all was lical, and catholic church in the point of govern- known to be inspired, infallible, and framed meni and discipline, and also how it might yet by God himself for the purpose of making be brought a little nearer to that most excellent known the truth ; a book which the church pattern, (2) I heartily and humbly sulmit the whole to the judgment of my much-honoured threw open to all her children, and insisted and entirely beloved mother, the Church of on their studying; and which all could study, England. And if I have unfortunately let slip and even the humblest, with a teachable spirit, anything that may seem to derogate from the might fairly understand. If even here guidhonour of this most excellent Church, or to re-ance is required, the guidance not of some flect on any of the governors of it, further than self-chosen teacher, but of the Church in a general complaint of some abuses, with which which we live, 'how much more in launching I conceive I have charged no particular person or body of men, but only mention them as cor- on the great sea of antiquity-in reading works ruptions crept in by degrees, I heartily wish it uninspired, voluminous, uncommented on, unsaid, and shall be ready to ask pardon for untranslated, and which as they come down to it.'(3)
us have passed through the hands of Roman
ists, who, in Bishop Taylor's words, by their And those who act in this spirit, whether innumerable corruptings of the fathers' writthey search in Scripture, or in a' tiquity, to ings:' by their thrusting in that which was find in them what they have been taught by spurious, and, like Pharaoh, killing the legittheir own mother church, will in each case imate sons of Israel,' and at last, by their exalike walk in their search by her guidance, purgatory index, have 'corrupted the witnot wholly by their own eyes; and will give nesses, and rased the records of antiquity, to her view and interpretation of catholic an- that the errors and novelties of the Church of tiquity as much weight as to her view and Rome might not be so easily reproved.' (2) interpretation of Scripture. Let young men This fact alone, the extent of which has be assured, that to go back by themselves to been shown by James, (3) as by others, the ancient church ; to talk boldly of the ought in itself to deter a student from fathers; to venture rashly on conforming venturing on the study of the Fathers, especially as regards the Romish controver-, we read in the Fathers, touching points in consy, except under the direction of those troversy at this day: “Non eadem, de iisdem, great divines who have before this exa- ab eodem dicuntur," upon experience we find it, mined and detected the forgeries of pope- differently in divers places: with some imputa
(1) Preface to Discourse on Idolatry, Works,
(1) Eccl. Pol. b. v. s. 10. (2) As by the substitution of clerical for lay chan- Dissuasive from Popery, vol. x. pp. 135, 136. cellors—the formation of councils of presbyters for  In his · Treatise of the Corruptions of Scripbishops—of both which improvements germs may ture, Councils, and Fathers, by the Prelates, Pasbe traced in some recent ecclesiastical arrange- tors, and Pillars of the Church of Rome, for Mainments.
tenance of Popery and Irreligion.' 4to. London, (3) Church Government, p. 451.
that the same man of the same thing speaketh ry. But moreover, the Fathers have an tion perhaps of uncertainty and contradiction, idiom and propriety of speech,' without yet not deserved, if we consider divers and diffamiliar acquaintance with which, ‘how,' ferent circumstances. In beat of opposition, by says Bishop Morton, “shall we children way of contention, some things fall from them know our Father's doctrine? How shall now and then, which will not hold weight at we not by our ignorance of their tongues take advantage at them in one point will soon
the beam of the sanctuary, and the men that build up some towers of Babylonish and fall off from them in another. S. Hierome is confused conceits ?' Again, when the much in this head, according to the vehement Church was established in the truth of choleric nature and disposition of the man. Sedoctrine, the Fathers,' adds the same great condly, in public and popular collations, very Bishop, "might presume to take a greater often to move affection, and gain action in point liberty of speech, knowing that they should of practique piety, they lavish by way of exagbe understood of Catholic bearers cathogeration in large hyperboles and amplifications. lically ;' and this occasioned in after-times pecially above them all: not in this, but in ma.
So the Grecian Homilists, and Chrysostom es. a prodigal error in doctrine.'(1) Again, ny other passages also. Thirdly, much is found ' being ignorant,' says Field, of the He- in them of which they are reporters, and no brew tongue, they did rather strive with more: they relate unto us the opinions of others all their wits and learning to devise alle and not their own: they tell us what was done, gories, and to frame the manners of men, but do not intermeddle by way of censare or than to clear the hard places of the Law opinion for their parts.' and the Prophets;' (2) and thus he says, Does this dishonour the Fathers ? Does though 'touching the interpretations it invalidate their testimony to Catholic which the Fathers have delivered, we re- truth? Does it set them aside as doctors ceive them as undoubtedly true in the ge- and teachers in the Church, most honourneral doctrine they consent in, and so far ed and most holy? God forbid ! esteem them as authentical, yet do we think that, holding the faith of the Fathers, • What think we of the Fathers ?! says Bishit is lawful to dissent from that interpre- op Jewell. • What shall we think of them, or tation of some particular places which the be interpreters of the word of God. They were
what account may we make of them? They greater part of them have delivered, or learned men, and learned Fathers: the instruperhaps all that have written of them.'(3) ments of the mercy of God, and vessels full of Again, 'In the sway of disputation,' says grace. We despise them not, we read them, Bishop Jewell, they use oft-times to en- we reverence them, and give thanks unto God large their talk above the common course for them. They were witnesses unto the truth, of truth; but specially when they intreat they were worthy pillars and ornaments in the of the nature and effect of the holy sacra- ed with the word of God. We may not build
Church of God. Yet may they not be compar. ments; to the end to withdraw the eyes upon them: we may not make them the founof the people from the sensible and cor. dation and warrant of our conscience: we may ruptible creatures to the contemplation of not put our trust in them. Our trust is in the things spiritual that be in heaven. .... name of the Lord. . . . Some things I believe, Thus the Holy Fathers have evermore and some things which they wrote I cannot beused upon occasion to force and advance lieve. I weigh them not as the holy and canontheir words above the tenour of cominon Church ; yet he was deceived: Hierome was a
ical Scriptures. Cyprian was a Doctor of the speech. (4)
Doctor of the Church; yet he was deceived : And therefore, says Bishop Mounta- Augustine was a Doctor of the Church; yet he gu, (5) than whom, in his own words, (6) wrote a book of Retractions, he acknowledged
no man living carried a more awful res that he was deceived. God did therefore give gard and reverend respect unto antiqui- to his Church many Doctors, and many learned
men, which all should search the truth, and one
reform another, wherein they thought him de•We should weigh and consider what and how ed: they have pre-eminence in the Church:
ceived.' And so he concludes: 'They are learnthey are Judges: they have the gifts of wisdom
and understanding; yet they are often deceived.  Protestant Appeal, p. 105.
They are our Fathers, but not Fathers unto  Ibid. p. 166.
 B. iv. c. 17. God: they are stars, fair, and beautiful, and (4) Jewell's Answer to Harding, vol. ii. p. 343. bright; yet they are not the sun : they bear wit(5] Treat, on the Invocat. of Saints, p. 155. ness of the light, they are not the light. Christ (6) Appeal to Cæsar, p. 129.
is the sun of righteousness, Christ is the light,
which lighteneth every man that cometh into we dreaded lest a rash and presumptuous apthe world.' (1)
peal to the Fathers should lead in many cases And if Jewell's voice is not sufficient, general contempt of their authority-would
to positive errors, and so ultimately to the Jackson may be added :
there be in this any irreverence to their • But what if the most reverend and ancient memory, any wish to depart from those old Fathers of former times were of a contrary paths in which our ancestors walked before, mind? O Lord, they were faithful servants in
and in which we must walk also ? Let us fol. thy House, and yet faithful but as servants, not as thy Son; and it may be thou didst suffer those
low their footsteps gladly, but not without the thy worthy servants io go awry, to try whether guidance of our own Church; and of those I, ihy most unworthy servant, would forsake who reverencing them no less, knew and unthe footsteps of thine anointed Son to follow derstood them better than this generation can them: but Lord ! teach me thy statutes, so shall do. I (in this point wherein I differ from them) And the same must be said of any attempt have more understanding than the ancient. Thy name hath been already glorified in their or wish, whether expressed or implied, whe many excellent gifts
, all which they received of ther secretly encouraged in our own minds, thy bounteous hand, and it may be that now it or suggested indirectly to others, of reformis thy pleasure in this present difficulty, to ordain ing the Church of England by any change thy praise out of such infants' mouths as mine. in her system, after a more ancient and pri
They out of this thy fertile and goodly field mitive model, selected by ourselves. When have gathered many years' provision for thy
we have seen, as clearly as our old Reformgreat household, thy Church, but yet either let somewhat fall, or left much behind, which may
ers and those divines of whose opinions we be sufficient for us thy poor servants to glean are now speaking-the real nature of popery, after them, either for our own private use, or its workings, its artifices, and its powerfor that small flock which thou hast set us to when we have searched as deeply into its feed. And let all sober-hearted Christians history, and watched its gradual growth from judge, yea let God that searcheth the very heart the seeds of imperceptible errors, until they and reins, and Christ Jesus, the Judge of all
and "rent and tore the very walls of mankind, give judgment out of his throne, whether in reasoning thus we are more injurious to
Christ's temple '(1)—when we have read the ancient Faihers deceased, than ihey (the both the Scriptures and the Fathers, as the Romanists] unto the Ancient of Days, and Fa- martyrs of our Church read them, by the ther of the world to come, in denying the free light of the fires in which their own bodies gifis and graces of his Holy Spirit unto succeed- were to be burnt, then to think of abandoning ing as well as former ages.'
their model for a model of our own may not And thus, if, following these our natural be presumption-not presumption in those teachers, we thought that early Christianity, who are placed in authority in the Church, most pure and most trustworthy as it was in with power to decide on such questions—but maintaining simply the truths committed to presumptuous and dangerous it always must it, yet in things beyond, in pious opinions, be for any but the heads of the Church even might err or be deficient—if we thought to deliberate on such matters. that, though nothing can be added by length “The restoration of the English Church,' of time to the definite creed once revealed, says Bishop Hall
, (2) and eversion of palonger experience may yet warn us against pery, next under God and our kings, is chiefly practices indifferent, which have since been to be ascribed and owed to the learning and seen to give occasion to grievous corruptions industry of our bishops.' It was an epis-if, while we reverently acknowledged the copal as well as monarchical reformation,' teaching of the Fathers to be holy, and their and therefore safe. collective historical testimony to be the great evidence of our faith, we yet balanced
• This was the form of Church government,' their personal authority by holiness and wis- says the Judgment of the university of Oxford, dom wherever they can be found in the without violence or tumult, and so happily re.
under which our religion was at first so orderly, Church-if, assured that all the lines of the formed, and hath since so long flourished with foundation of the Church are marked out in truth and peace, to the honour and happiness of the midst of their accumulated materials, we our own, and admiration of other nations.' yet doubted whether a common eye can distinguish these without aid, and for this And it will be the great test that we not only aid preferred the old and tried Doctors of our profess but have imbibed the true spirit of the own Church to any modern teachers—and if ancient church as well as of our own, and
(1) Treatise of the Holy Scripture, vol. ii.p. 36. (2) Tome i., b. ii., p. 307.
(1) Jackson, vol. i. p. 313.
(2) Defence of Humble Remonst., vol. x, p. 355, quoted from Du Moulin,
that we have taken up that white belt and all, like silly minds that dote on ceremonies, badge of humility,' which, in Hammond's (as Sanderson says, 'no true son of the Church words, she binds on all her sons and exem- of England' can do,)(!) permitting ourselves plifies to all,' (1) if, in the midst of that fe- to startle the weak and offend the strong by verish irritation which must accompany every introducing so-called ancient novelties of revival of religious feeling, we adhere steadily | dress, or gesture, or mode of reading, or bowing, to our bishops. It is easy to talk and write or crossing, or turning to the east, or any like of this, but hard to practise it. And the re- external acts, which, if of moment, ought not fractory spirit will show itself and work to to be altered without a superior authority; mischief in many subtle forms without and, if of no moment, only betray the friavowed disobedience,
volity of our own minds, and perplex and The true obedience will be to receive their unsettle the minds of others. warnings and rebukes not only with submis- If this dutiful spirit be shown in the clergy, sion, but thankfulness; to distrust ourselves the Church of England will soon begin to when they distrust us; to interpret their develop its wonderful strength. When the words, even when they seem to us in error, body is prepared to follow, the head may with the most favourable construction possi- / venture to lead, but not before. And a battle ble, and to hide the error, if it be one, rather is before them-a battle not so much against than drag it forth to light; to do nothing dissent, which every day is losing ground, which may provoke an expression of public but against popery which is rising up amongst feeling in opposition to their expressed senti- us with renewed vigour, and affecting to ments; to form no centre of action except cherish the hope that the revival of the true subject to their control and sanction; to ab- principles of the English Church-its prinstain from remonstrances against their acts, ciples of order, reverence, and truth-is a unless it is demanded from us in our own friendly approximation to its own corruptions, official position; not to think that we are because some few minds, of neither age nor walking in the faith of Abraham, because weight, have rashly and wrongly spoken of we follow wherever we are led, without union, in language which the Church of knowing whither we are going, unless the England would little tolerate, and one or two voice that leads us be that of our appointed others, never nurtured in her principles, have, living rulers under God, not the mere echo avowedly in the spirit of dissent, forsaken of our own self-will, or of our own private her communion. What the Church generally interpretation, whether of history or of scrip- would think of such a meditated union, unture. The true obedience will be to co-ope- less preceded by a thorough retraction of rate with them cordially and zealously in Romish errors cannot be expressed better their efforts for the good of the Church; to than in the words of Jackson: (2)save them, as far as we may, from the anxiety of witnessing the growth of a restless discon- *England, for that blind and slavish obedience tented spirit among the young; to join with which in respect of other nations she did perthem, and to strengthen their hands, in re other foreigners not unaptly termed the “Pope's
form unto the see of Rome, was by Italians and pressing and condemning it, at whatever sa
ass." Howbeit the brutish ignorance of our crifice, either of personal or party feeling; forefathers in the mysteries of their salvation to inculcate a dutiful reference to them in all did make that measure of obedience to the Roconscientious difficulties ; not encouraging, mish Church partly excusable in them, which either in others or ourselves, any alteration in us (to whom the gospel bath long time whatever in the customary forms of the shined) would be altogether damnable. But it Church, without their consent ; (2) least of would be ignorance more than brutish, ignorance
so far from excusing other sins, ibat itself
would be a sin inexcusable, if we should hope (1) Hammond's Works, vol ii. p. 93.
(2) "Forasmuch,' says the Preface to the Prayer or presume that the Romish yoke would not be Book, as nothing can be so plainly set forth, but made ten times heavier unto us than it was upon doubis may arise in the use and practice of the our foretathers, if God in his just judgment same, to appease all such diversities, if any arise, should strengthen the enemies of our peace to and for the resolution of all doubts, concerning the lay it again upon this island's neck. For the manner how to understand, do, and execute the Church of Rome, since our forefathers' departure things contained in this book, the parties that so from her, hath multiplied her doctrines of devils, doubt, or diversely take anything, shall always re- and mingled her cup with such abominations as sort to the Bishop of the Diocese; who by his dis- would make the taste of it to such as have been cretion shall take order for the quieting and ap- accustomed to the sincere milk of the gospel peasing of the same; so that the same order be not altogether deadly; and yet hope there is none contrary to anything contained in this book. And if the Bishop of the Diocese be in doubt, then he may send for the resolution thereof to the Arch- (1) Preface to Sermons, vol. i. $ xii. bishop.'
(2) Jackson, Book xii. c. v. s. 13.