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Surely anything which encourages, had spread around them, so many creeping such a spirit ought to be carefully avoid things and noxious animals had come to seek ed; all needless complaints; all sugges- shelter by their side, with them, but not of tions of possible changes under more them. They did not think to check puritan. favourable circumstances, which only ir- ism by encouraging Popery. Rather they ritate and discontent, however the intima- knew that both are, under different forms, tion may be guarded ; all disposition to one and the same spirit of evil-here gath. regard the Church that bore us, critically ered into a tyranny-there let loose in a and curiously, by a standard other than democracy; and that they could not de part her

own; all despondency as to her pros. from the straight path of their own blessed pects; all censure of her own authorised Church, without involving themselves in a character, as distinct from warnings to circle, in which, step by step, they would unindividuals.

consciously return back to the very point

from which they were flying. · Dearly beloved,' says Jackson, • let us, in the bowels of Christ Jesus, I beseech you, content

· Redit labor actus in orbem, ourselves with the Reformation already established by authority. It is no time to sally out

Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur error.' against ihe adversary in single bands or scattered companies; but rather with the joint forces 'He,' says Hooker, again and again, that of our united affections, of prayers, and endea- will take away extreme heat, by setting the vours, either to batter the foundation of their body in extremity of cold, shall undoubtedly Churches' walls, or manfully to defend our remove the disease, but together with it the own; keeping ourselves within the bounds diseased too. (1) And if'as Jackson says, whereunto authority hath confined us.' (1)

Never,' says Bramhall, speaking of Gro- to oppose the Romish Church by way of tius's plan of reconciliation - never were there contrariety, is but to seek the overthrow of a any genuine sons of the Church of England who tyranny by the erection of an anarchy,'(2) to thought upon any change either in doctrine or oppose puritanism on the same principle will discipline.' (2).

only overthrow an anarchy to erect a tyran. • Surely,' says Hooker, :I cannot find any ny. great cause of just complaint that good laws

Though the Bible has been abused by the have so much been wanting unto us, as we to them. To seek reformation of evil laws is a

licentiousness of private interpretation, they commendable endeavour ; but for us the more never omitted the opportunity of magnifying pecessary is a speedy redress of ourselves. We it, in its true interpretation, as 'the only inhave on all sides lost much of our first fervency fallible rule of faith ;' as containing all the towards God; and therefore concerning our own principles of faith and points of salvation,' as degenerated ways, we have reason to exhort needing no associate, nor addition of any au. with St. Gregory, örep juev yevweda, let us return thority as equally infallible, nor more peragain unto that which we sometimes were; but touching the exchange of laws in practice spicuous than itself to supply what it with laws in device, which they say are better

wants.' (3) Though the service of the for the state of the church, if they might take Church was threatened to be stripped of all place, the farther we examine them, the greater decency and order, they speak soberly and cause we find to conclude, vévouey rep éspev, though cautiously of ceremonies. Though Episcowe continue the same we are, the harm is not pacy was made a badge of Antichrist, they great.' (3)

do not reduce all religion to a matter of VII. Secondly, the divines of the seven- faith had been perverted to the wildest er

church discipline. Though the doctrine of teenth century were placed by Providence, cesses, there is no mention in them of justifilike ourselves, to contend against the princi- cation by works, or of works at all, without ples of sectarianism and dissent, which cover immediate and solemn reference to the faith themselves under the common name of Pro- which alone can sanctify them. These testant. But this never made then either points

, and many others of their doctrinal insensible to those seeds of good, of which, teaching, might be advantageously examined. as in every case of error, those errors were for much of this caution and comprehenthe rank and unchecked gro:vth; vor dis- siveness of view they were undoubtedly in. trustful of the name of Protestants ; nor sus- debted to the proximity of Popery, and to picious of the safety of their own ground, on their thorough 'acquaintance with its nature, which, in the deluge of evil which Popery and dread of its poison. Yet apparently

(1) Tom. iii. p. 694.
[2] Vindication of Grotius, c. iii, p. 612.
(3] Eccl. Pol., the Epistle Dedicat,

(1) Book iv. s. 8.
(2) Jackson, vol. iji, p. 692.
(3) Jackson, vol. i. p. 226.

they had more to fear from Puritanism than the corruptions of Popery, we cannot cease from Popery; and if we in this day might to be Protestants, without ceasing to do our be reluctant to retain the name of Protest- duty as Christians. It is our glory and our ant, from the fear of being confounded with happiness to be Christians-our safeguard sectarians, much more might they. And and consolation to be Catholics-our sad and yet, Catholic as they were both in language melancholy duty, a duty which we never can and in spirit, they use it boldly and promi- abandon till Rome has ceased to work pently. As the believing Jews, when other among us, to be Protestants. Jews refused to believe, were compelled to distinguish themselves as Christians; and as • My Lords,' said Laud, “I am as innocent in the Christian Church, when heretics also this business of religion, as free from all practice, called themselves Christians, was compelled or so much as thought of practice, for any alterto add the name of Catholic; so Catholic ation to Popery, or any way blemishing the true Christians, when one great branch of the England, as I was when my mother first bare

Protestant religion established in the Church of Church, retaining the same title, is spreading me into the world. the grossest errors, must distinguish them- • If I had blemished the true Protestant reselves as Protestants. They are Protestant, ligion - The number of those persons whom, as the · Latin or West Church' (so Field has by God's blessing upon my labours, I have proved), 'wherein the pope tyrannised settled in the true Proiestant religion established before Luther's time, was and continued a

in the Church of England '—'I pray God, his true Protestant Church, condemning those lished) sink not — God of his mercy preserve

truth (the true Protestant religion here estabprofane and superstitious abuses which we the true Protestant religion amongst us '-(1) have removed; and groaning under that tyranny, the yoke whereof we have now This was the common language of Laud cast off.'(1) They are Protestants, as the the martyr of the Puritans. Church Catholic itself is Protestant against So Bramhall, while rightly denying that the sins and follies of heathenism; as every · Protestancy is of the essence of the Church, Christian in every age and every country is any more than the weeding of a garden is appointed by God hinself to be a witness and the ess-nce of the garden, does not scruple protester against evil. If, indeed, the acts throughout the whole of the same treatise to we rebuke are no sins, then to protest is a use the word as the right denomination of crime. If they are sins, yet sins of the past, men, whom he describes in the same place now buried and forgotten, to rake them up as endeavouring to conform themselves in unnecessarily may well be condemned. If all things to the pattern of the Primitive we judge them by our own private judgment, Church,' as ready to shed their blood for the we intrude on the rights of our superiors, and least particle of saving truth.' (2) so we sio. And if they be distant and weak, So Hammond, speaking of those who and no danger exist of infection, we may well preached resistance to the lawful magisspare ourselves and others the pain of declar- trate :ing against them. But whether the deeds of Popery be sins or not-whether they be •Such as these, if they must be called Protesdead and buried, or alive and in full vigour tapts, are yet in this somewhat more than that

- whether our Church has spoken on them, uitle ever imported, I may say, perfect Jesuits and we are bound to speak with her voice

in their principles.'- This doctrine (of non-resiswhether in the silence and debility of the by God's Providence, hath formerly been time

tance] purely Protestant-The contrary of which Church Catholic she was not bound to speak, ously restrained, and not broken out to the dewhen no other voice could speak so strongly faming of our Protestant profession.' (3) -and whether there is not danger from Po. pery now in the very heart of the country;

So Nicholson :danger, which calls on us all to rouse the weak and the strong together to vigilance The laws are now silent, and any man may be against their greatest enemy—unhappily now anything, so he be not an old Protestant of

] need not be asked. We are not, and dare not be, Protestants, in the sense which some few

So Sanderson is not afraid to saymay wrongly affix to the word, as discarding all guides to truth but our own self-will: in. When we have wrangled ourselves as long as this sense Protestantism is worse than folly ; it may be worse than Popery: but as remonstrating and warning all around us against (1) Troubles, pp. 225, 311, &c.

(2) Protestant Ordination, p. 1013.

(3) Hammond, Of Resisting the Lawful Magis

trate, pp. 68, 69. (1) Appendix to Third Book, p. 187.

(4) Apology, p. 155,

our wits and strength will serve us, the honest, I used too carelessly, and a false meaning downright, suber English Protestant will be popularly given to it, which must be confound in the end the man in the safest way, and deinned and corrected. But as yet, while by the surest line.'

no other badge exists to mark to the world, Nor is he ashamed to avow his

and especially to the poor and the weak, the

duty of guarling against Popery, instead of • zeal for the safety and honour of my dear mo- dallying with its temptations, and palliating ther, the Church of England, which hath nour. its corruptions, we cannot proscribe it.

It is ished me up to become a Christian and a Pro- a sign -a little sign, but one most looked to testant (that is to say, a pure pute Christian, 1-by which a large number of Christian without any other addition or epithet).' (1) minds within the Church, in a time of nalu

* Protestauts,' says Laud, did not get that ral alarm and jealousy, test our attachment name hy protesting against the Church of Rome, but by protesting (and that when nothing else to the Church, and our repudiation of errors would serve) against her errors and superstitions. which they have been taught—and taught Do you but remove them from the Church of most righily—to regard with dread. (1) Rome, and our protestation is ended, and the For their sakes we are bound to be spare separation too. Nor is protestation itself such ing of our own liberty, and tender of their an unheard-of thing in the very heart of religion. consciences. If a French army is closely For the Sacraments, both of the Old and New Testament, are called by your own school besieging a town in which we live, we have "visible signs protesting the faith.” Now, if no right to dress ourselves up as French the Sacramenro be protestantia, signs protest.

soldiers and walk about the streets, or to reing, why may not men also, and without all fuse to give our English pass-word, though offence, be called Protestants, since by receiving | by this refusal we may alarm none but wothe true Sacramenis, and by refusing them men and children. We have no right to which are corrupted, they do but protest the alarm any one. He who really desires the sincerity of their faith against that doctrinal restoration of Christian unity will desire, corruption which hath invaded the great Sacra

most of all, to recall to the fold of the Church ment of, the Eucharist and other parts of religion? especially since they are “men which her own sheep. If he dreads to offend Pamust proiest their faith by visible signs and pists by the word Popery, he will dread to sacramenis.'' (2)

offend Puritans by rejecting the word Pro. "They are the Protestants,' says Stillingfleet, testant. If he fears that it will confound him 'who stand for the ancient and undefiled doctrine with Dissenters, he musi fear alike lest the of the Catholic Church against the novel and word Catholic should confound him with corrupt tenets of the Roman Church. And such kind of protestation no true Christian, who sible to the evils of Popery, while keenly

Popery--unless, indeed, he be wholly insenmeasures his being Catholic by better grounds than communion with the Church of Rome, will alive to the evils of Puriianism-unless the ever have cause to be ashamed of.' (3)


of Church government in the one

is to cloak over all errors of doctrine, while So Hickes, though fully alive to the the neglect of it in the other is to blot out all wicked, absurd, and unchristian doctrines, truth of doctrine-unless Popery in his sight which atheistical, heretical, and other se- be only holy, and Puritanism only sinfulducing teachers taught in his day, under the unless he close his eyes to all the wickedness name of Protestants, does not therefore repu- which the one has essentially produced, and diate the name, but declares that

to all the goodness with which the other has

been accompanied- such as earnestness, the Protestant religion of the Church of Eng. energy, personal piety, study of the Scripture, land is but another name for primitive Christianity, and a Protestant for a primitive Chris believes to be truth, jealousy of all that seems

prayer, self-denial, charity, zeal for what it tian, who protests against all the corruptions of the gospel by popery.' [4]

to trench on the supremacy of God, or to sub

stitute the creature for the Creator. We

e may not indeed distinguish ourselves Such would not be the spirit of our old disolely as Protestants, or without express de vines towards individual Protestants, where clarations of Catholic principles, especially error in separating from the Church could where the name is likely to confound us be palliated, as it may be in these times, in with sects, and doctrines, which a Catholic numbers of hereditary Dissenters, by the Christian repudiates. The word bas been very principles which we wish to encourage ers, attachment to existing institutions; or by obstacle; nevertheless, always in my heart, and ignorance of the real claims which the soul, and affection, I hold communion and unile Church has upon their obedience. It was with ibem- that which I wish especially to be not their feeling towards foreign Protestant understood of the Protestant and well-reformed communions. With their resolute persya. difference of opinions or of ceremonies-on

-of reverence for parents, docility to teach(1) Letters of Sanderson; D'Oyley's Life of San. crofi, vol. ji. p. 443; Sermons, vol. i. Pref. s. xxiv. (1) There is a remarkable letter of Evelyn's to (2) Confer, with Fisher, p. 87.

Archbishop Sancroft on the danger resulting from (3) Works, vol. iv. p. 329.

the omission of the word, and the advantage taken (4) Sermon before the Lord Mayor, vol. i., pp. of the ounission by the Jesuits. D'Oyly's Life of

Sancroft, vol. i. p. 350.

216, 277

Churches. Fur the foundations being safe, any sion that the government of the Church by points circumstantial, and not essential, nor rebishops was ordained of God'—and to be pugnant to the universal practice of the ancient honoured not merely upon ancient custom,'| Church, in other churches (over which we are but as a true apostolical, heavenly, and di- not to rule)—we in a friendly, placid, and peacevine ordinance ;'(1) it is yet interesting to see able spirit, may bear, and therefore ought to the caution with which they speak of other re

bear.' [1] formed bodies, which, without any fault of all or any considerable part of the episcopal di

• I cannot assent,' says Bramball, 'that either their own, were driven to want that kind of vines in England do unchurch either all or the polity or regiment which is best, and to con- most part of the Protestant churches. tent themselves with that which either the They unchurch none at all, but leave them to irremediable error of former times, or the stand or fall to their own master. They do not necessity of the present, had cast upon unchurch the Swedish, Danish, Bohemian them.' (2) This, their defect and imperfec- churches, and many other churches in Polonia, țion,' says Hooker, in the same pa-sage, 'I Hungaria, and those parts of the world which bad rather lament in such a case ihan exagi, pastors-some by the vames of bishops, others

have an ordinary, uninterrupted succession of tale. And so, in no unfriendliness, .blessed under the name of seniors, unto this day. (I Bishop Morton did often bewail their infelicity meddle not with the Socinians.) They unfor want of bishops :' (3)—

church not the Lutheran churches in Germany,

who both asseri episcopacy in their confessions, • You demand then,' says Bishop Andrews, and have actual superintendents in their prac. wheiher your churches sin against the Divine tice, and would have bishops, name and thing, right? I did not say it: this only I said, that if it were in their power. ... Episcopal divines your churches wanted somewhat that is of Di- do not deny those churches to be true churches, vine right; wanted, but not by your fault, but by wherein salvation may be had. We advise the iniquity of the limes; for that your France them, as it is our duty, to be circumspect for had not your kings so propitious at the reform- themselves, and not to put it to more question, ing of your church as our England had.' (4) whether they have ordination or not, or desert

the general practice of the Universal Church And again :

for nothing, when they may clear it if they

please. Their case is not the same with those "He must needs be stone-blind that sees not who labour ander invincible necessity. ... The churches standing without it; he must needs mistake procedeth from not distinguishing bebe made of iron, and hard-hearted, that denies tween the true nature and essence of a Church, them salvation. Weare not made of that metal, which we do readily grant them, and the integwe are none of those ironsides; we put a wide rity or persection of a Church, which we cannot difference betwixt them. Somewhat may be grant them, without swerving from the judg. wanting, that is of Divine righ:, (at least in the ment of the Catholic Church.[2] exterual goveroment), and yet salvation may be bad. ... This is not to damn anything, to

How would such minds as these : how prefer a better thing before it: this is not to would Sanderson :(3) how would the martyr damn your church, to recall it to another form, Charles :(4) how would Laud, whose worst that all antiquity was better pleased with, i. e. thought of any reformed Church in Christento ours; and this when God shall grant the dom was to wish it like the Church of Eng. opportunity, and your estate may bear it.' (5)

land'— whose deepest intention was how So Bishop Cosin, in his last will - they might not only be wished, but made so'

· Wheresoever in the world churches bearing (1) Life by Basire. See also Hickes [True Nothe name of Christ profess the true, ancient, tion of Persecution, vol. i., Serm. iv.], and a remarkand Catholic religion and faith, and invocate able passage in Brett on Church Government [c. v. and worship, with one mouth and heart, God b: 118 et 3:9.), in which he shows that the foreign the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy | privilege of episcopacy by the machinations of

Protestant communions were excluded from the Ghosi, if from actual communion with thern I am pow debarred, either by the distance of popery, acting on its conviction that, if it come to

pass that heretic bishops be so near, Rome and ibe regions, or the dissensions of men, or any other clergy utterly falls.' (p. 119].

(2) Vindication of Grotius, p. 613; see a passage (1) Hooker, b. vij. s. i. xi.

to precisely the same effect, especially as regards (2) Idein, b. iii. 8. xi.

the Lutheran churches, in Laud, Troubles and Tri(3) Basire, Life of Cosin, p. 62.

als, p. 141. (4) Answer to Du Monlin's 3d Epistle. See (3) See Episcopacy not prejudicial, S. II. s. XV. Wordsworth's Christian Institutes, vol. iii. p. 257. (4) Icon Basilice, c. xvii, i Clarendon Papers,

(5) Answer to Du Moulin's Second Epistle. vol. ii, p. 433, 434.

- whose continued labours for some years they deliver (tradant) those things only together were to reconcile the divided Pro- which they received from the Lord.'( 1 ) testants in Germany, that so they might go This is a fundamental law of the English with united force against the Romanists Church. It is the salt of the English Rewho joyed with a joy which he would never formation.(2) deny, while he lived, when he conceived of And the judgments of the English divines the Church of Scotland's coming nearer, both to the same effect are collected in a noble in the canons, and the liturgy, to the Church passage of Bishop Bull's 'Apologia pro Harof England (1) How would these great minds, monia;' but their doctrine is too clearly eswho never confounded the case of schismat- tablished to require quotation.(3) ics within England with that of reformed What, then, is the danger to be appreChurches without it, have been gladdened in hended in this appeal to catholic antiquity, the hour of their trials with the prospect of which has recently been revived among us? a time, when, by the same monarchical re- It is, in the first place, lest, in honouring formation, to which we owe the blessing of our ancestors, we should learn to despise our episcopacy, a hope was once more held out parents; lest, in recognising them as a court of restoring to the Reformation of Germany of appeal, we should violate the obedience that great apostolical ordinance; without due to that authority which immediately which the Christian communion must fall to presides over us, our own mother Church. pieces, and all heresies spring up; and of It is, in the second place, lest, in pretending once more binding together, wil hout compro- to recur to the judgment of the fathers, we mise of Christian truth--if so God grant- should in reality be appealing to our own the reformed Churches throughout all the judgment, and to our own private opinion, world!

and false interpretation of their language, not VIII. One more salutary warning we must to their real teaching. And it is, in the mention in conclusion, which may be de- third place, lest we should assume them as rived from the example of our old divines. models for our imitation, and tie ourselves

That catholic antiquity must be studied, down to their rules, beyond not only the reaand studied deeply-ihat all modern church- sonable duty of Christians, but their own exes, as they are engrafted, so should also be press declarations of our liberty to depart modelled on it- that it is the trunk from from them. which all the branches spring forth—that a Whether our old divines, with their deep profession of disregard and contempt for it reverence for antiquity, failed in their reveinvalidates the authority of any religious rence for the judgment of their dear mother teachers—that to it a writ of error lies from Church of England,' may be estimated from subordinate tribunals in the Church, they all what has previously been said. Not Bramwith one voice proclaim, and this without hall, who, the least disparagement to the supremacy of scripture. It is the glory and the beauty until a general council can be procured, subwhich they delight to trace in the Church of mits himself to the Church of England, wherein England, that she is so primitive, so ancient, he was baptized, or to a national English so apostolical. She herself leads us always

synod. (4) to the apostles and ancient catholic fathers,' to the ancient bishops and primitive

Not Whitgift, when he dedicates his book church ;'(2) to‘the primitive Church which to his loving nurse, the Christian Church was most holy and godly,' 'most pure

of England, uncorrupt,' 'to the 300 years after our Saviour Christ, when Christian religion was most pure, and indeed golden,' to ancient

(1) Latin Catechism, p. 15. and godly use ;(3) 'always eschewing in.

12] See this fact elaborately and satisfactorily novations and new-fangledness ;'(4) to the of the Rev. W. Beadon Heathcote, Documentary

established in a small but very valuable publication old councils and canons;'(5) to the apostles, Illustrations of the Principles to be kept in View in doctors, and prophets in the Church of the interpretation of the Thirty-nine ArticlesChrist, as to be listened to no less than the [Oxford, 1841) especially pp. 67, 76. Of the maLord himself if he were present, so long as ced, it is perhaps the only one of general and per

ny works which the recent controversy has produmanent utility to the theological student; and we

cannot but hope that it may be followed up by the [1] Hist. of Troubles, pp. 134, 355, 419, 101. publication, by the same hands, of Archbishop [2] Jewell's Apology, p. 13, ed. 1838.

Cranmer's · Coinmonplace Books, or Collections [3] Homilies, passim.

from the Fathers,' illustrating the same fact. (4) Preface to Common Prayer.

[3] S. i. $ 4. Works, vol. iv. p. 309. [5] Cardwell's Document, Annals, vol. i. p. 418. (4) Preface to Replication, Works, p. 142.


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