Imágenes de páginas

ceding from the practices and principles of closing that elaborate historical proof of the our ancestors, they only confirmed them ; same facts which Hammond (1) refers to as that in this point at least the State had been, a “full and satisfactory' account :as Field declares and elaborately proves of the Church, from the beginning Protestant (1) • Thus was religion reformed, and thus by the There are inde men so docile and gentle, Queen established in England, without either so fearful of offending against anything which motion, or seeking of any new way not pracseems to be tolerated by God, or to be a

tised by our ancestors, but using the same

courses had been formerly traced out unto them punishment of his providence, that they for stopping profaneness and impiety, whenever would hesitate to resist even an unjust power they peeped in the Church. And certainly, to once established, lest it should prove rebel- my understanding, there can be none that will lion. But this question of the providential with indifference look upon those times, but he right of popery has been satisfactorily an- must (however he mislike the thing done) apswered by Kettlewell,(2) from the decisions prove the manner of doing it.(2) of the ancient as well as of the English Church. And Bramhall, with the concurrent the Reformation did the Church of England

Neither in the purely ecclesiastical part of voice of our greatest lawyers, after enumerat. commit any act of schism : for schism is the ing all the ecclesiastical powers and privi denial of a lawful, not of an unlawful, au. leges possessed and exercised by the Kings thority: of England from time immemorial, will satisfy them that there is no new act in the * And the Pope's Vicarship to Christ,' says secular part of the Reformation :

Bishop Bilson, 'must be proved by stronger and

plainer evidence than yet you have showed, be“What did King Henry VIII. in effect more fore we may grant it. ' as to his Patriarchship, than this ? He forbad all suits to the court of by God's law he bath none: in this realm for Rome by proclamation, which Sanders calls the 600 years after Christ he had none; for the last beginning of the schism ; divers statutes did 600, as looking to greater matters, he would the same. He excluded the Pope's legates ; so have none; above or against the sword which did the law of the land, without the king's God hath ordained, he can have none; to the special license. He forbad appeals to Rome ; subversion of the faith and oppression of his so did his predecessors many ages before him. brethren, in reason, right, and equity, he should He took away the Pope's dispensations; what have none. You must seek farther for subjecdid he in that but restore the English bishops to tion to his tribunal : this land oweth him their ancient rights, and the laws of the country, none.' (3) with the canons of the fathers, to their vigour? He challenged and assumed a political suprema.

We did indeed claim the right of acting as cy over ecclesiastical persons in ecclesiastical a free and independent Church—ůvróvouos, causes; so did Edward the Confessor govern the «vromequlos, avvrtevouro; '—' fortified with Church as the Vicar of God in his own king its own privileges, supported on its own pildom ; so did his predecessors hold their crowns, lars, subject to no foreign tribunal;' (4) but as immediately subjecied to God, not subjected to the Pope. On the other side, the Pope by our

we were not guilty of that injurious unchaEnglish laws could neither reward freely, nor ritableness and presumption to shut those out punish freely, neither whom, nor where, nor from the Church of Christ who can truly when he thought fit, but by the consent or con- plead their just claims for their undoubted nivance of the State. He could neither do just interest in that holy society. Amongst ice in England by the legates without control- whom,' continues Bishop Hall

, we can conment, nor call Englishmen to Rome without the King's license. Here is small appearance of fidently say, all the water of Tiber cannot

wash the Church of Rome from the heinous a good legal prescription; nor any pregnant signs of any sovereign power and jurisdiction, guilt of this double crime.' (5) We did not by undoubied right, and so evident uncontrovert. excommunicate Rome, but Rome excommued a title as is pretended.'[31

nicated us. "We that were cast out,' says

Hammond, “cannot be said to be separate.' (6) And so the learned' Sir Roger Twisden, Again-do men complain that the legisla.

ture took part in modelling our formularies ? [1] Field, p. 886. See also the whole of the Bishop Taylor thought it Appendix to his third book, which Thorndike allows has never been answered, proving that the Latin church was and continued a true orthodox [1] Works, vol. ii. p. 211. and Protestant church, and that the maintainers of [2] Historical Vindication, ch. ix. s. 30, p. 196. Romish errors were only a faction in the same at (3) True Differ., p. 235. See Hammond, or the time of Luther's appearing.' So Usher's Trea- Schism, vol. i. c. 4, el seq. tise on the Religion of the Ancient Irish.

(4) Haminond, Epist. Præfat. ad Dissertation. 4, [2] Works, vol. ii. p. 259.

contra Blondell. [3] Bramhall, Just Vind., tome i. Disc, ii. c. 4, (5) The Peace-Maker, s. iv., vol. vii., p. 51.

(6) Of Schism, vol. i., p. 366.

p. 77.

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no small advantage to our liturgy that it was between us and them we maintain the negative,
the offspring of all that authority which was to that is we go as far as we dare, or can, with
prescribe in matters of religion ;' that the king warrant from the Holy Scriptures and the Pri-
and the priest, which are the antistites religionis, mitive Church, and leave them in their excesses,
and the preservers of both the tables, joined in or those inventions which themselves have
this work ; and the people, as it was represent- added. But in the mean time they forget that
ed in parliament, were advised withal..... And we maintain all those articles and iruths which
then, as it had the advantages of discourse, so are contained in any of the ancient creeds of the
also of authorities-iis reason from one, and its Church, which I hope are more than nega-
sanction from the other, that it might be both tives.' (1)
reasonable, and sacred, and free, not only from
the indiscretions, but (which is very considera If some things are missed from our liturgy
ble) from the scandal of popularity.' (1) which
* In the reformation which canie after," says where thiey might be used without danger of

be found in the ancient Church,

may Laud, our princes had their parts, and the clergy theirs, and to these two principally the abuse, Hooker, and with him, one after anopower and direction for reformation belongs. ther, the greatest authorities, will unanimously Thal our princes had their parts is manifest by reply,their calling together of the bishops and others of the clergy, to consider of that which might

"True it is that neither councils nor customs, seem worthy of reformation. And the clergy be they never so ancient and so general, can let did their part: for being thus called together by the Church from taking away that thing which regal power, they met in the National Synod of is hurtful to be retained. Where things have sixty-iwo; and the articles there agreed on been instituted, which, being convenient and were asierwards confirmed by Acts of state, and good at the first, do afterward in process of time the Royal assent.' (?)

wax otherwise, we make no doubt but they may

be altered, yea, though councils or customs genIs it complained that the reform was nega- eral have received ihem.' (2) tive ? Laud continues in the same place -

Are our services thought too informal ? In this Synod the positive truths which are

• If Mr. Mason,' says Bramhall,“ did commend delivered are more than the polemics: so that a the wisdom of the Euglish Church, for paring mere calumny it is that we profess only a nega: did well.

away superfluous ceremonies in ordination, he tive religion. True it is, and we must thank

Ceremonies are advancements of Rome for it, our confession must needs contain order, decency, modesty, and gravity in the sersome negatives. For we cannot but deny that vice of God, expressions of those heavenly de images are to be adored; nor can we admit sires and dispositions which we ought to bring maimed sacraments; nor grant prayers in an

along with us to God's house, adjuments of uo known tongue. And, in a corrupt time or

attention and devotion, furtherances of edificaplace, it is as necessary in religion to deny false- tion, visible instructors, helps of memory, exer. hood, as to assert and vindicate truth. Indeed, cises of faith, the shell that preserves the kernel this latter can hardly be well and sufficiently of religion from contempt, the leaves that defend done but by the former; an affirmative verity the blossoms and the fruit; but, if they grow being ever included in the negative to a false- over thick and rank, they hinder the fruit from hood.'

coming to maturity, and then the gardener * For the subject of Reformation,' says Bram- plucks them off .... When ceremonies become hall, as it was not other Churches but their burthensome by excessive superfluity, or unlaw. own.... so it was not Articles of Faith, but it ful ceremonies are obtruded, or the substance of was of corruptions, which were added of later divine worship is placed in circumstances, or the times, by removing that hay and stubble which service of God is more respecied for human orthe Romanists had heaped upon the foundation. naments than for the divine ordinance, it is high Always observing that rule of Vincentius Lyrin- time to pare away excesses, and reduce things

These fachers are quite ensis, to call nothing in question which hath to the ancient mean. been believed always, everywhere, and by all out when they make it lawful at sometimes to Christians. Yea, further, ihese turbulent

add, but never to pare away: yet we bave

persons who have attempted to innovate anything pared away nothing which is either prescribed in saving faith, who upon their arising were

or practised by the true Catholic Church. If censured and condemned by the Universal our ancestors have pared away any such things Church, we reckon as nobody, nor doch their out of any mistake (which we do not believe), opposition binder a full consent. Hence it is let it be made appear evidently to us, and we that the Romanists do call our religion a nega- are more ready to welcome it again at the foretive religion. Because in all the controversies door, than our ancestors were to cast it out at

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p. 286.

(1) Bramhall, Protestant's Ordination Defended, (1) Preface to Apology for Set Forms, vol. vii., | 1017, 1018, tome iv., D. vii. See also Dodwell's

Reply to Six Queries; and Sir H. Lynde's Via (2) Conf. with Fisher, § 24, p. 100. See Stil. Tuta, 12mo., 1628, p. 70. lingfleet's Vindicat., vol. iv., part ii. ch. 1.

(2) Hooker, b. iv., s. 14, p. 502.


the back-door.'—Errare possumus, hæretici esse p in condemnation of the discipline of Calvin, nolumus. (1)

whom, for mine own part, I think incom

parably the wisest man that ever the French Is a jealousy entertained of the influence church did enjoy, since the hour it enjoyed of the foreign reformation ?

him.' (1) • Calvin I truly honour,' says If the Church of England did join, as Bishop Bilson, - for his great gifts and pains Bishop 'Taylor says, to their own starall the in the Church of God; but I may not take shining tapers of the other reformed churches, him for the founder of Christian religion, and calling for the advice of the most eminently therefore where he dissenteth from the learned and zealous reformers in other king: worthy pillars of Christ's Church I dissent doms, that the light of all together might from him.' (2) 'Mr. Calvin,' says Bishop show them a clear path to walk in,' (2) is Morton, is always worthy of the first place this a fault? Or, rather, is it not a wonder.

the innumerable company of late ful proof of strength and wisdom, that, with divines.' (3) willingness to consult, (3) there was independence to refrain from submitting to any • Worthy instruments,' says Sanderson, 'they other rule than that word of God and an. were both of them of God's glory, and such as cient judgment of Christ's Church,' (4) 'in did excellent service to the Church in their whose steps the reformed Church of England times, whereof we yet find the benefit ; and we hath trodden, in her doctrine and discipline and therefore it is an unsavoury thing for any

are un thankful if we do not bless God for it; legally constituted.' (5)

man to gird at their names, whose memories Of Luther, indeed, and Calvin, our great ought to be precious. But yet, were they not divines uniformly speak with respect. men ?' (4)

Touching Luther,' says Field, 'we answer And while we of this day acknowledge that that he was a most worthy divine, as the world they were men, and can see more clearly the had any in those times wherein he lived, or in sad effects of their faults and errors, it may many ages before; and that, for the clearing of be humble and pious for us also to guard tian profession, much obscured and entangled against any intemperance of censure ; any. before, with the intricate disputes of the school- thing unbecoming that respect which Chris men and Romish sophisters, (as of the power of tians owe to those whom God has blessed nature, of free will, grace, justification, the dif. with great gifts, and made instruments in ference of the law and the gospel, faith and great designs. works, Christian liberty, and the like,) all suc Of the foreign Protestant reformers genceeding ages shall ever be bound to honour his

erally Field thus speaks, in a passage where happy memory.'

he disclaims, in the most energetic manner, And then apologising for the variations and either sympathy or communion with all errors in his doctrine :

sectaries whatsoever':* Let not our adversaries,' he concludes, in 'It so fell out by the happy providence of sult upon Luther, for that he saw not all the God, and force of that main truth they all sought abominations of popery at the first; but let to advance, that there was no material or essenthem rather consider of, and yield to the reason- tial difference amongst them, but such as, upon ableness of the request, which in the preface of equal scanning, will be found rather to consist his works he maketh to all Christian and well in the divers manner of expressing one thing, minded readers, to wit, that they would read his and to be but verbal upon mistaking, through books and writings with judgment, and with the hasty and inconsiderate humours of some much commiseration, and remember that he was men, than anything else. Yea, I dare confisometime a friar, nourished in the errors of the dently pronounce, that after due and full examRomish church, so that it was more painful to ination of each other's meaning, there shall be him to forget those things he had formerly illo no difference found touching the matter of the learned, than to learn anew that which is sacrament, the ubiquitary presence, or the like, good.' (6)

between the churches reformed by Luther's 'A founder it had,' says Hooker, writing ministry in Germany and other places, and those

ries; that none of the differences between Me(1) Consecrat. of Protest. Bishops Defended, p. ceremonies, were real; that Hosiander held no

lancihon and Illyricus, except about certain 488, tome i., D. 5.

(2) Preface to Apology for Set Forms, vol. vii., private opinion of justification, howsoever his (3) See Preface to Dr. Cardwell's Liturgies of Edward VI., note, p. xxvii.

(1) Preface to Eccl. Pol., s. 2, p. 129. (4) Bilson, True Differ., Part iii. p. 545.

(2) Sufferings of Christ, p. 267; so also p. 77, (5) Bishop Nicholson, Apology for Discipline, and Perpetual Govern., p. 282. Epist. to Reader.

(3) Defence of Ceremon., p. 87. (6) B. 3, c. 42, p. 166.

(4) Ad Populum, Serm. 7th, vol. i. p. 295. 37

P. 287.


strange manner of speaking gave occasion to It may be, that some ‘Lutheran or Cal. many so to think and conceive. And this shall vinian fancies crept into the writings of be justified against the proudest Papist of them private men, but they were not decrees all.' (1)

of the Church.'(1) It may be, that crimes And such is the general language of were committed, and principles put forth the English divines. They claimed and under cover, as it were, of a new spirit acted upon their own liberty; but they rising up: but the same men who opposdid this in a respectful and kindly spirit ed popery opposed dissent as earnestly; towards those who were engaged in the and there is not a criine or principle of same battle with themselves against a dissent which had not previously been common enemy, with far less advantages, sanctioned by the old spirit of popery, and, as we have lived to see, with far and grew out of it as a legitimate devel.

Violent transferences of Church greater risk to the cause of Christian opment. truth among them, because they were property, insult to the civil magistrate, deprived by God of our two great bless- overthrow of episcopacy, tampering with ings, a monarchical and an episcopal re- the sacraments, subjection of ecclesiasformation.

tics to lay canonists and chancellors, deBut whatever were their personal feel-parture from primitive antiquity, disreings towards the foreign reformers, Lu- spect to the fathers, these and other exther and Calvin were not the authors nor cesses of the kind, which those who do the modellers of our English Reforma- not understand the affinity between pope. tion. "Melancthon, indeed,' says Heylin, ry and dissent charge upon the Reformastates that he was sent for by Edward tion, are in reality to be charged upon VI., but was stayed on some occasion, popery. Popery had prepared the soil and, had he come, had come too late to

and sown the seeds, and by express mis. have had any share in the Reformation,

sionaries had matured them and called the articles of the Church being passed, them out, and the harvest is its. (2). the liturgy reviewed and settled in the And it may be that evils have followed year before.' 'Calvin offered his assist- since the Reformation, which, from a ne. ance to Cranmer ; but Cranmer,' pursues glect of history, we are unable to balance Heylin, “knew the man, and refused the with the evils which preceded it. But offer, and he did very wisely in it.' Pe to follow in point of time, and as cause ter Martyr and Bucer were placed at and effect are two different things-Oxford and Cambridge, rather as private

private Our Reformation,' says Bramhall, 'is just doctors, than any way made use of in the

as much the cause of the ruin of our Church Reformation.'

and commonwealth as the building of Tenter

den steeple was the cause of Goodwin's sands, "God,' concludes the same historian, certain- or the ruin of the country thereabouts, because ly had so disposed it in his heavenly wisdom; they happened both much about the same time. that so this Chureh, without respect unto the ** Careat successibus opto.” names and dictates of particular dictors, might May he ever want success who judgeth of acfound its reformation on the prophets and apos- tion's by the event! Our Reformation hath ruintles only, according to the explications and traditions of the ancient fathers; and, being so founded in itself, without respect to any of the vines of the seventeenth century repudiate any differing parties, might in succeeding ages sit such interference, when incompatible with true as judge between them, as being more inclina- consider the Reformation free from censure on this ble by her constitution to mediale a peace head, is all that it is wished to point out. Thus amongst them, than to espouse the quarrel of Andrews : Calvinistæ convitium, protritum jam either side.' (2)

Nemo hic addictus jurare in verba illius. Tanti est, quanti rationes quas affert pro se, nec

pluris.' Tort. Torti, p. 309. And again, Resp. (1) Book iii., chap. 42, p. 165. So Andrews, Ad ad Apolog, p. 162. So Hickes: · Luther was none Bellarm. Apolog. Resp., p. 328. For the agree- of our Reformers;'Ours and the Lutheran are ment of the Reformed Churches concerning the different Reformations. Controv. Letters, vol. i. Sacrament of the Eucharist, see Bishop Cosin's p. 44. And Hammond : " I must tell you that the History of Transubstantiation, c. ii.

Church of England always disclaimed the being [2] Ecclesia Vindic., part ii. pp. 68, 69. It is called by the names, or owning the dissensions of not necessary to inquire how far the foreign reform- Lutheran and Calvinist, and professeth only the ers really influenced the Reformation. (See Pre- maintaining of the primitive Catholic faith, and to face to Dr. Cardwell's Liturgies of Edward VI.) have no father on earth to impute their faith to.' Some influence they must have possessed, though View of the Apol. for the Infallibility of the Church evidently less [see especially notes, pp. 14 and 27] of Rome, vol. ii. p. 621. than is sometimes asserted, when it is wished to [1] Ibid. disparage the Reformation. The fact that the di-| [2] Brett, Church Government, passim.


ed the faith, just as the plucking up of freely, and without scruple, making use of weeds in a garden ruins the good herbs. It them.' (1) hath ruined the Church, just as a body full of • The Church of England,' as Jackson desuperfluous and vicious humours is ruined by scribes her, 'was not willing to dissent from a healthful purgation. It hath ruined the com- the Romish Church, save only in matters of monwealth, just as pruning of the vine ruins great consequence.' (2) the elm. No, no, Sir! Our sufferings for the faith, for the Church, for the monarchy, do pro So Bramhall, eulogizing her moderation claim us innocent to all the world of the ruin in the same proceedings,either of faith, or Church, or monarchy. . It is your new Roman creed that hath ruined

It is a rule in prudence, not to remove an the faith. It is your papal court that haih ru; Jill custom when it is well settled, unless it ined the Church. It is your new doctrines of bring great prejudices. Needless alteration the Pope's omnipotence over temporal persons, doth diminish ihe venerable esteem of religion, in order unto spiritual ends, of absolving sub- and lessen the credit of ancient truths. Break jects from their oaths of allegiance, of exempio ice in one place, and it will crack in more. ing the clergy from secular jurisdiction, of the Crooked sticks, by bending straight, are somelawfulness of murdering tyrants and excom times broken into iwo.' (3) municated prioces, of equivocation and the like, that first infected the world, to the danger

So Andrewes : of civil government.'(1) VI. And now, when, wearied and un- riiu vestro discessum est à casto integroque Dei

• Ubi mutatum quid, id eo factum, quod in satisfied with the coldness, and worse cultu; et quod “ab initio non fuit sic." (4) than coldness, into which as individuals we may have sunk, (not by following the And giving this praise to the ReformaChurch of England, but by neglecting tion, and believing, as our divines did, and despising her,) young and ardent that the Church of England is the most minds have been led to think that another excellently instructed with a body of reformation may be needful; let them true articles, and doctrines of holiness, learn from our great and good father of with a discipline material and prudent, the English Church, what are the princi- with a government apostolical, with every: ples to be adhered to in such a 'going on thing that could instruct or adorn a Chrise to perfection,' and there will be no fear tian church' (5)-what would have ineither of Papery, or of heresy, or of duced them, were they now living, to schism.

contemplate any change in her system, In the first place, our Reformation was which would be felt or perceived to be safe and good, because it proceeded upon a change, and not a natural development an old and existing foundation. It did and practical application of principles not startle men's minds by some sudden already acknowledged ? What would proclamation that the system under which they have thought to hear young men— they were living was to be abandoned ; full of earnestness and zeal indeed, but that the ground on which they trod was only just awakened by the teaching of hollow ; it did not commence upon the others, and as yet unlearned themselves principle of unsettling their attachment as Whitgift describes the Puritans, ‘so to their church as it existed, even with far from acknowledging this singular and all its corruptions. Unsettlement there unspeakable benefit [the purity of reliwas, and must be with every change: gion taught in the Church of England, but it was not aimed at; it was strenu- and, not least, of its establishment by the ously resisted, even in thought, by the State,] proceeding from the mere mercy authors of our Reformation :

of God; so far from being thankful for

the same, from desiring the continuance *They dealt,' says Bishop Bull, 'with our of it with hearty prayers,-seeking rathChurch' as they did with our temples or material churches. They did not pull them down, er to obscure it, and to deface it, because and raise new structures in their places; no,

in certain accidental points they have not nor so much as new consecrate the old ones;

their fantasies and proper devices ?' (6) but only removed the objects and occasions of idolatrous worship; (at least out of the more

[1] Bull, Vindicat., sec. 26, vol. ii. p. 210. open and conspicuous places,) and took away

[2] Jackson, vol. ii. p. 529. some little superstitious trinkets, in other (3) Bramhall, Answer to De la Militière, p. 29. things leaving them as they found them, and [4] Tortura Torti, p. 309.

(5) Bishop Taylor, Preface to the Doctrine of

Repentance, vol. viii. p. 244. [1] Answer to De la Militière, tome i, Disc, i. p. [6] Whitgift, Preface to the Defence of the An30.

swer, fol. 1574.

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