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more with Laud,) that England and Rome, constantly. Even the patriarchate character should meet together, but with forsaking of of Rome they only recognised as a human error and superstition; especially such as institution,'  as introduced by the canons grate upon and fret the foundations of reli- or customs of the Church,' as depending on gion '--as "God forbid, but that, if this were the concessions of princes,'  and therefore done, we should labour for a reconciliation.' mutable by the Church. Even this they deIf this were done, but not without. And if clared that she had 'lost by seeking to turn we doubt whether this be possible, we but spiritual monarch.'  Even if she could reagree with Laud and all our soundest di- tain it, Britain was never rightly a part of
her patriarchate.'[+] Even as patriarch, the * Princes,' says Jackson, speaking of the Rom- Pope hath not power to impose laws in his ish doctrine of infallibility, ‘may conclude a own patriarchate, nor power to innovate any. peace, for civil and free commerce of their peo, thing, without the consent of his bishops.'  ple, though professing sundry religions; and If any such title was supposed to be acquired they and their clergy might, perhaps, procure a mitigation of some other points, now 'much in upon the first planting of the Gospel here, controversy; but—" though all others might, yet, says Hammond, it is, and hath always yet this admits no terms of parley for any pos
been in the power of Christian Emperors sible reconcilement." The natural separation and Princes, within their dominions, to erect of this island from those countries wherein this patriarchates, or to translate them from one doctrine is professed, shall serve as an everlast- city to another.” And, as Bishop Bull adds ing emblem of the inhabitants' divided hearts, after the same assertionat least in this point of religion. And let them, O Lord, be cut off speedily from amongst us, “If it be objected, that our British Church afterand their posterity transported hence, never to enjoy again the least good thing this land af. wards submitted herself to the Bishop of Rome fords: let no print of their memory be extant,
as her patriarch, which power he enjoyed for so much as in a tree or stone within our coast; many ages, and that therefore our first reformers or let their names, by such as remain here after cannot be excused from schism, in casting off them, be never mentioned, or always to their tha! power which, by so long a prescription, he endless shame, who, living here amongst us,
was possessed of; we answer, we did indeed will not imprint these or like wishes in their yield ourselves to the Roman usurpation, but it hearts, and daily mention them in their prayers. first forced, awed, and affrighted into this sub
was because we could not help it: we were at “ Littora littoribus contraria, fluctibus undas
mission. ... When this force ceased, and we Imprecor, arma armis, pugnent ipsique nepo- were left to our liberty and freedom of resuming tesque.'”
our primitive righis, why might we not do ii, Our ancestors knew that the essence of the schism ?' 
as we saw occasion, without the imputation of Papacy was the claim to dominion, and her spirit the lust of power—and that when this Rather, how could we be justified in not spirit was exorcised, if ever by a miracle doing so, when the question was not one of from God it were accomplished, she would men's device, but of re-establishing the dibe left so humbled, so stripped of authority, so vine constitution of the Church, on which penitent, yet so exposed to the fresh tempta- the faith of the Church depends ? They went tions of her past crimes, that it would be her still further: wisdom, and the wisdom of the Church, that
*If a bishop acts as the Bishop of Rome has she should rather retire from the world, and acted,' says Barrow, 'he, by such behaviour, sit apart in some post of shame, than once ipso facto depriveth himself of authority and more be placed on the pinnacle of the tem- office; he becometh thence no guide or pastor ple of God, and be tempted again to throw to any. Christian; there doth, in such case, rest herself down. Even of what the Church, decline him, to discast from him, to reject and
no obligation to hear or obey him, but rather to and such as are by God entrusted with the disclaim him. This is the reason of the caseflock to judge of this politic problem, i. e., this the Holy Scripture doth prescribe-this is princes, the nursing fathers of every Church,' in their wisdom might decide in fixing the
 Bramhall, Vindication of Grotius, p. 630. patriarchal authority, under such distant or
 Hammond, Dispatcher Dispatcht, c. ii. s. ii., even impossible contingencies, they did not vol. ii. p. 194. think it safe to speak, except in the Syrian  Bramhall, Just Vindic. of the Church of language-not in the Jews' language, in the England, Works, p. 211.
 Ibid. ; Johnson's Clergyman's Vade Mecum, ears of the people that are on the wall.' But
part ii. p. 81; Leslie, True State. of anything beyond a primacy of order and  Bramhall, Vindication of Grotius, p. 630. honour, they did speak most earnestly and  of Schism, ch. vi. s. 9, vol. i. p. 355.
 Corrupt. of Church of Rome, sec. iii. vol. ij.  Vol. i. p. 317.
p. 293. So Bishop Hall, Resolut. for Religion, vol. (2) Hammond on Schism, c. viii. vol. i. p. 365. vi. p. 306.
according to the primitive doctrine, tradition, to receive appeals of all sorts of men, out of all and practice of the Church.'
parts of the world; nay, without appeal or com
plaint, immediately to take notice of all causes in Even to acknowledge the Bishop of Rome the diocese of all other bishops; so overthrowing as permanent president of a general council their jurisdiction, and seizing it in his own hands. is, according to Bishop Cosin, criminal - He exempted presbyters from the jurisdiction of 'Porro summum concilii cujusvis præsidem their bishops, bishops of their metropolitans, alium quàm Christum quærere aut agnoscere archs; and, leaving unto the rest nothing but a
and metropolitans of their primates and patrinafas ducimus.' . To think the communion naked and empty title, took upon him to deterof Christ's Church,' says Bishop Bilson, 'de. mine all doubis and questions of himself alone, pendeth upon the Pope's person or regiment, as out of the infallibility of his judgment; to exis a most pernicious fancy.  • To make communicate, degrade, and depose; and again him chief pastor of our souls,' he says again, and judge of all causes, as out of the fulness of
to absolve, reconcile, and restore; and to hear or to give him an episcopal of apostolical his power. Neither did he there stay; but havauthority over the whole Church, though it ing subjected unto him, as much as in him lay; be no treason, is yet a wicked and frantic all the members of Christ's body, and trampled heresy.' As for a union of all the Churches underneath his feet the honour and dignity of all of Christ throughout the world, under one his brethren and colleagues, he went forward visible head, having a jurisdiction over them and challenged a right to dispose of all the king, all, and that head the Bishop of Rome for the doms of the world, as being Lord of Lords and time being--such a union as this,' says Bish- King of Kings. To this height he raised himop Bull,” was never dreamed of amongst ces, taking advantage of the ignorance, supersti
self by innumerable sleights and cunning deviChristians for at least the first six hundred tion, negligence, and base disposition which he years.  And he adds a remark,of no little found to be in many of the guides of the Church importance to those who indulge a dream of in those days, and by their help and concurrence restoring an ecclesiastical supremacy apart prevailing against the rest that were of another from the political usurpations of Popery :
spirit.'(1) • The universal pastorship and jurisdiction
He prevailed, let it be remembered, by de. of the Roman Bishops over all bishops and grees, step by step, line upon line, (2) beginchurches is now no longer a mere court opi- ning with a complimentary title and a concednion, maintained only by the Pope's parasites ed power ofarbitration, passing on from this to and flatterers, but it is become a part of the faith intrusive admonitions, and ending in a tyran. of the church of Rome; it being one of the arti- nical usurpation; till this terminated, as a nacles of the Trent creed, to which all ecclesiastics tural development, in that allegiance which are sworn themselves, and which, by the same the Jesuits seek to establish unto the Romish oath, they are obliged to teach the laity under Church,' and which Jackson—the soundtheir care and charge. So that now there is no reason for that distinction, wherewith some have
eep-thinking Jackson--does not soothed and pleased themselves, between the hesitate to pronounce, upon 'irrefragable deChurch and court of Rome; for the court is enter- monstrations,' to be a solemn apostacy from ed into the Church of Rome, or rather the court Christ; and the belief of it to be the very and Church of Rome are all one.' (6)
abstract of sorcery, the utmost degree of An
tichristianism that can be expected ;'(3)—in Lastly, to admit in the Pope anything be- which they make it, in their own words, yond a precedency of order and honour, has "sacrilege, to dispute of his fact; heresy, to been the cause of horrible confusion in the doubt of his power; paganism, to disobey Christian Church, and almost the utter ruin him ; blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, to and desolation of the same:'-
do or speak against his decrees and canons; • For,' continues Field, “after that this child of and, that which is most horrible presumption, pride had in this Lucifer-like sort advanced him- not to go to the devil after him without any self above his brethren, he thrust his sickle into grudging: -Oh, shameful and sinful subjecother men's harvests; he encroached upon their tion,' exclaims Bilson, such as Lucifer him. bounds and limits; he pretended a right to con- self never offered the bond-slaves of hell!' (4) fer all dignities, whether elective or presentative,
(1) Field, book v., Epistle to the Reader, p. 407.
(2) For an historical account of the degrees and  See a very strong passage, Treatise on the practices by which the bishops of Rome attained Suprem., vol. i. p. 744, Sup. vii. 9.
their greatness, see Bishop Overall's Convoc. Book,  Regni Angliæ Religio, cap. iv.
b. iii., c. 2, &c.  True Differ., p. 223.
(3) Preface to Book iii.  Ibid., Preface.
(4) Bishop Bilson. See these assertions confirmed  Bull, Corrupt. of Church of Rome, sec. i., vol.) in Bishop Bilson's work by quotations. True Difü. p. 243.
fer., sec. v. p. 230; and Patrick's Devot. of the (6) Ibid., s. ii., p. 248-9.
Romish Ch., p 217,
V. With this deep sense of the Christian Church.'(1) So Stillingfeet: ‘such holy, duty of maintaining the independence of na- learned, and excellent men, as our first re. tional churches, with this affectionate loyalty formers; men of so great integrity, such in. to their civil governors, and this firm convic- defatigable industry, such profound judg. tion of the blessings of their own Mother ment' (2) So Hickes: 'the reformers were Church of England, it is scarcely necessary as eminent for virtue and learning as any of to inquire what was the language of our di- that age; their judgment was and is approved vines on the English Reformation. As if by millions of Christians.' (3) So Bishop they could not be too thankful for its bless- Morton : "that goodly vine, which many ing, or to its authors, under God, they scarce. Pauls, the industrious bishops and pastors, ly ever mentioned it without some expres- have planted by preaching; and many Apolsion of admiration. It is with Jackson, that los', the faithful martyrs of Christ, have water
discreet and judicious,' that happy Reform-ed with their blood.' (4) So Sanderson : our ation ;'(1) with Hall, ‘that blessed Reform- godly forefathers, to whom (under God) we ation;' with Sanderson, a Reformation with owe the purity of our religion.' (5) So Bishout constraint of precipitancy, freely and ad- op Nicholson, of Cranmer: 'that glorious visedly,' and 'brought to a happy end;' (2) martyr of our Church.' (6) So Brett, also of with ilooker, wonderfully marked by Di- Cranmer: “truly styled that great reformer viné grace and favour,' and 'God's miracu- and glorious martyr—that great man and lous workings.
glorious martyr, who was the first and chief
instrument in our happy Reformation.' (7) • What can we less conclude,' he says, “than So Bishop Bullof. Latimer : ‘martyr conthat the thing which he so blesseth, defendeth,
stantissimus Sanctissimus .... beatiskeepeth so strangely, cannot choose but be of him? Whereture, if any refuse to believe us
simus pater.' (8) So Bishop Hall: the disputing for the verity of relig on established, composers of it (the Liturgy), we still glory to let them believe God himself ihus miraculously say, were “holy martyrs and consessors of the working for it, and wish life, even for ever and blessed Reformation of religion ;” and if any ever, unto that glorious and sacred lostrument rude hand have dared to cast a foul aspersion whereby he workeih.' (3) 'I earnestly exhort you,' says Ken, to a uni
on any of them, he is none of the tribe I plead form zeal for the Reformation, that as, blessed for; I leave bim to the reward of his own be God, you are happily reformed in your faith, merits. (9) So the University of Oxford and in your worship, you would become wholly would not hear of a new Reformation, nor reformed in your lives.' (4)
yield 'the cause which our godly bishops and • Its characters or discriminative remarks,' says martyrs, and all our learned divines, ever Hammond,' are principally two-one, the con- since the Reformation, have both by their forming all our doctrines to the primitive anti- writings and sufferings maintained.? (10) So quity, receiving all genuine apostolical traditions Bancroft: “they were most learned men, and for our rule both in matters of faith and government; the other in uniting that walnu ovveiniča, many of them godly martyrs, who were the fair, beautiful pair of Faith and Works, in the chief penners and approvers of the Commu. same degree of necessity and conditionality, nion Book in King Edward's time.'(11) So both to our justification and salvation; and to Whitgift, of the same first compilers : 'they all the good works of justice and mercy which were singular learned men, zealous in God's the Romanist speaks of, adjoining that other religion, blameless in life, and martyrs at their most eminent one of humility; attributing nothing to ourselves, when we have done all, but end.' (12) And so Bishop Taylor : all to the glory of the mercy and grace of God, " The zeal which Archbishop Grindal, Bishop purchased for us by Christ.(5)
Ridley, Dr. Taylor, and other, the holy martyrs And so of the Reformers themselves and confessors in Queen Mary's time, expressed those illustrious men,' says Bishop Andrews, of their death, defending it by their disputations,
for this excellent liturgy, before and at the time never to be mentioned without the deepest adorning it by their practice, and sealing it with reverence, whose services God employed in the restoration of religion.' (6) So Jackson :
(1) Book x. c. 39, vol. iii., p. 187. 'the sage and reverend reformers of our
(2) Unreasonableness of Separat. vol. ii. p. 473
(3) Vol. i., of Cont. Leil. p. 219. (1) Vol. iii., pp. 685, 691.
(4) Defence of Ceremonies, Epistle. (2) Preface to Sermous, vol. i., s. 15.
(5) Preface to Sermons, vol. i., s. 15. (3) Book iv., s. 14.
16) Apology, p. 102. (4) Sermon on Passion Sunday, at Whitehall. (7) On Church Govern., pp. 100, 104.
(5) Hammond, Parænesis, ch. ii. sec. 25, vol. i., p. (8) Works, vol iv., pp. 420, 457, 459. 378.
(9) Defence of Renonstrance, vol. x , p. 298. (6) Illustres illi viri, nec unquam sine summâ ho- (10) Oxford Reasons, sec 3. noris prefatione nominandi. "Concio ad Cler, pro (11) Survey, p. 357. grada Doct., Opuscula, p. 25.
(12) Defence, pp. 710, 711.
their bloods, are arguments which ought to re- what danger, what confusion, the contempt of commend it to all the sons of the Church of Holy Seripture and the following of human inEngland for ever, infinitely to be valued be ond ventions hath brought into the Church.
So all the little whispers and murmurs of argumenthat the state of the Church is become merely pretended against it.'(1)
brulish and monstrous; heaven is below, and
the earıh above; the spirit obeyeth, and the Not only in this, but in many other points, flesh commandeth.... That the Evangelical is their language respecting the leformation Doctrine is not wholly fallen, and utterly overworthy of attention, and imitation by our thrown, and extinct, is the great mercy of our
God and Saviour.' (1) selves. In the first place they do not boast of it
Was reformation not to be longed and with thoughtless exultation. It was a rent,
prayed for? or rather the occasion of a rent in the one undivided garment of Christ's church. It • You adore,' says Bishop Bilson, the creawas a publication, and in some sort a condem- tures of bread and wine instead of Christ; you nation, of the sins of the sister church. And break the Lord's institution with your private in neither of these lights can it be viewed by and half communions ; you pray in a strange a truly Christian mind without sorrow.
longue, that the people understand not ; you
keep the simple from reading the word of God, As our separation,' says Archbishop Bram- and make them bow their knees to painted and hall, “is from their errors, not from their church carved images ; you join nature with grace, es ; so we do it with as much inward charity and man?s merits with God's mercies, un written moderation of our affections as we can possibly; tions with the blood of Christ'; you take rent of
verities with holy Scriptures, your own satisfacwillingly indeed in respect of their errors, and especially their tyrannical exactions and usurpa- sale the devotions, discipline, keys, and canons
stews and dispense with incests; you set to tions, bui unwillingly and with reluctation in
of your church, respect of their persons, and much more in re
yea very sins and souls of spect of our common Saviour. As if we were to
men; and when we wish for the reformation of depart from our father's or our brother's house, these pestilent errors, and heiuous impieties, or rather from some contagious sickness where you say we blaspheme.' (2) with it was infected. Not forgeuing to pray God daily to restore them to their former purity,
They unite in one common voice in dethat they and we may once again enjoy the com- claring, that of the schismı, not the Church fort and contentment of one anoiher's Christian and State of England, but society.' (2)
the Church and Court of Rome are guilty -- by
intruding erroneous doctrines and superstitious But with this prayer they coupled no regret practices, as the conditions of her communion; that peace had been sacrificed to truth. by adding articles of faith which are contrary
to the plain rule of faith, and repugnant to the * Luther,' says Jackson, and all that followed sense of the truly Catholic, and not the Roman him, did well, in preferring a most just, most ne- Church ; by intolerable encroachnients and cessary, and sacred war, before a most unjust usurpations upon the liberties and privileges of and shamefully execrable peace; a peace, no particular churches, under a vain pretence of peace, but a banding in open rebellion against universal pastorship; by forcing men-if they ihe supreme Lord of heaven and earth, and his would not damn their souls by sinning against sacred laws, given for the perpetual government their consciences in approving the errors and of mankind throughout their generations.' (3) corruptions of the Roman Church-to join to
gether for the solemn worship of God according They believed that the Reformation was a to the rule of Scripture and practice of the reformation, and not as our adversaries blas primitive church ; suspending communion with phemously traduce it, an heretical innova. that church till those abuses and corruptions be
redressed.' (3) tion.' (4) 'They had studied history far deeper than we have, and knew that that which
If we-in our comparative ignorance of was done 'was long before wished for, expect history-are troubled with the seeming and ed, and foretold by the best men that lived in former times in the corrupt state of the such a convulsion of society, they also were
sometimes real anomalies inseparable from Church.' (5)
aware of them, but knew how to explain Was reformation not necessary
them, and to bear them patiently, without • No tongue,' says Field, using the words of compromising the character of their church, Gerson, is able sufficiently to express what evil, or undervaluing the merits of those great
 Preface to Apology for Authorized Form, vol. vii., p. 291.
(1) B. ii. p. 90.  Just Vindicat , vi., p. 100.
(2) True Difference, p. 6; see Bramhall, Just. (3) B. 2, c. xxvii., s. 3, vol. i., p. 315.
Vind., p. 92. 74) Field, b. iii., c 12, p. 92. '(2) Idem, p. 813. i  Stillingfleet, vol. iv. p. 325.
and holy men by whom the work, under , No one thing made me more reverence the God's Providence, was accomplished. Reformation of my mother the Church of Eng.
land, than that it was done (according to the •We cannot doubt,' says Sanderson, but that apostles' defence-Acts xxiv. 18,) neither with the business of the Reformation under him multitude nor with tumult, but legally and or[King Edward VI.] was carried on with such derly, and by those whom I conceive to have mixture of private ends, and other human fraile the reforming power, which, with many other ties and affections, as are usually incident unto inducements, made me always confident that the enterprising of great affairs .... that such the work was very perfect as io essentials.' (1) sacrileges were acted, and that under the name and pretence of reformation, as have cast a very
If the Church remonstrated too faintly foul blemish upon our very religion, especially against the plunder of her property, An. in the eyes of our adversaries, who have ever drewes apologises for the showed themselves forward enough to impute the faults of the persons to the profession. And error of those illustrious men, never to be under the same pretence of reformation were mentioned without the deepest reverence, whose also masked all the bloodshed, mischiefs, and services God employed in the restoration of outrages committed by Keit and his seditious religion, and who, too anxious for the restoration rabble in the same king's reign.....Now what of the doctrine, paid less attention to the parridefects or excesses there might be in the Re- mony of the Church, and said almost as the formation of religion and the Church within king of Sodom said to Abraham, “Give us the these realms during the reigns of King I!enry souls, and take the goods to thyself.” '(2) VIII., King Edward VI., and Queen Elizabeth, it doch not become me, neither is it needful, to Even as to the plunder of the Church proexamine. But sure it is, they that had the
and the violent suppression of monas
perty, managery of those affairs were ομοιοπαθείς ημίν, made of the same clay with other men, sub- teries, Bishop Andrewes, and Jackson with ject to the same infirmities and passions.' (1)
him, do not scruple to say that the former
had increased to an excess, excreverat in Yet all this does not prevent the same immensum, and that the latter in too many wise and humble bishop from confessing that instances had become nothing less than
monasteries, but rather lurking holes of sloth 'it was a very pious care, and of singular ex- and wickedness,“ desidiæ, nequitiæque latiample in so young a prince,' (that "religious bula ;” and that the crime was not so much and godly young king,” as he elsewhere calls in taking
from the Church superfluous wealth, him,) 'to intend, and endeavour the reformation of religion and the church within his realıns;'
“nimium quod erat, quod modum excessit,” nor from acknowledging the good providence as in not transferring it to pious and charitaof Almighty God in raising him up io become ble uses.'(3) so blessed an instrument of his glory and our Our old divines, understanding truly and good ;” nor from concluding that “we have far deeply the relative rights and operations of greater cause to bless God that in their then re- the Church and the State, could distinguish formation in very many things they did not a between the part which our princes, and that great deal worse, than to blame them that in some few things they did not a little better than which the clergy bore, in a Reformation, of they have done.'(2)
which the essence was at once 'to cast off *If Henry VIII. had any private, sinister the Pope's usurpation, and, as much as lay grounds,' says Bramhall
, they do not render the in the Church, to restore the king to his Reformation one jot the worse in itself, but right '(4) In the former part indeed of the only prove that he proceeded not uprightly, schism England was active. It did cast off which concerneth him, not us.'(3)
and reject a yoke which had been laid upon • No man who truly understands the English it. But how little can those men know of Reformation,' says King Charles, will derive history-even of the history of their own it from Henry VIII., for he only gave the occa- country—who require to be told that this sion.'(4)
yoke had never been formally submitted to ;
that the laws denying the papal supremacy Englishmen of the present time may be inclined to complain of the turbulence of were only declaratory; that, instead of rethe Reformation. But, says King Charles, in common with the greatest divines,
 Papers between King Charles and Hender
son, Works, p. 156, vol. i. s. xv. See also Stilling Episcopacy not Prejud., S. iii. s. xvii. xix. I feet, Div. Right of Ch. Gov. examined, Works, XX.; so Laud, Confer, with Fisher, p. 101; and vol. ii. p. 396. Stillingfleet, Disc. concerning Idolatry, Ep. Ded.,  Concio ad Clerurn pro Gradu Doct. OpusWorks, vol. v. p. 265.
cula, p. 25.  Ibid.
 Respon. ad Apolog. Bellarm., c. 6, pp. 137, 13] Bramhall's Just Vindicat., p. 240.
172 ; Jackson, vol. iii. p. 686. (4) King Charles's Works, p. 164,
 Laud, Confer. With Fisher, p. 100.