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If men, unverged in ecclesiastical history, God's people, and being to see that they serve hesitate at the deprivation of bishops, San- and worship him aright, are to judge and conderson does not scruple to pronounce that
demn them that fall into gross errors, contrary
to the common sense of Christians, or into any • the king hath power, if he shall see cause, to there be no general failing, yet, if they see vio
other heresies formerly condemned. And though suspend any bishop from the execution of his lent and partial courses taken, they may interoffice, for so long a time as he shall think good; yea, and to deprive him utterly
of the dignity pose themselves to stay them, and cause a due and office of a bishop, if he deserve it.'(1)
proceeding, or remove the matter from one company and sort of judges to another. And
hereunto the best learned in former times agreed, He is speaking, of course, only of the ex- clearly confessing that when something is neternal exercise of the episcopal office. The cessary to be done, and the ordinary guides of internal or spiritual authority he distinctly the Church do fail, or are not able to yield that asserts to exist jure divino, and of this no help that is needful, we may lawfully fly to one can deprive him but the power which others for redress and help.'(1) conferred it. But he equally denies the principle that “bishops living under Chris
And so of the part which the Civil Power
took in the Reformation of the Church of tian kings may exercise [even] so much of their power as is of divine right, after their England :own pleasure, without, or against, the king's • It is true,' says even Thorndike, it was an leave, or without respect to the laws and cus- extraordinary aci of secular power in Church toms of the realm.'(2)
matters to enforce the change without any conIf they scruple at the arrangement of dio- if the matter of the change be the restoring
sent from the greater part of the Church. But ceses by the Crown,
of laws, which our common Christianity as
well as the primitive orders of the Church (of the length or breadth of them,' says Bishop both which Christian powers are born protecBilson, and Cosin with him, “must wholly be tors) make requisite, the secular power acteth referred to the wisdom and consideration of the within the sphere of it, and the division is not state.'(3)
imputable to them that make the change, but
to ihem that refuse their concurrence to it.'(2) If they would exempt the clergy from the secular jurisdiction, Field will answer And the blessing of such an interposition
of the Civil Power in the work of our Refthat God hath given princes the sword to pun- ormation they fully recognised. ish all offenders against the first or second table, yea, though they be priests or bishops; that Do you not now,' says Bishop Hall,' in all neither the persons nor the goods of churchmen this which hath been said, see a sensible differare exempted from their power.'(4)
ence betwixt their condition and yours (the "That princes may command that which is Scotch]? Can you choose but observe the good, and prohibit that which is evil in matters blessing of monarchical reformation amongst us, of religion, as well bishops as others, is,' ac- beyond that popular and tumultuary reformacording to Bilson, “an evident truth, confirmed tion amongst our neighbours ? Ours, a council ; by the Scriptures, confessed by the Fathers, re- theirs, an uproar: ours, beginning from the ported by the stories of the Church, and infinite- head; theirs, from the feet: ours, proceeding ly repeated by the laws and edicts of religious in a due order; theirs, with confusion: ours, and ancient emperors, made for persons and countenancing and encouraging the converted causes ecclesiastical.'(5)
governors of the Church; theirs, extremely
overawed with adverse power, or totally overEven in matters of faith, says Field, there borne with foul sacrilege: in a word, ours, comis indeed
fortably yielding what the true and happy con
dition of a church required; theirs, hand over po question but that bishops and pastors of the
head, taking what they could get for the preChurch (to whom it pertaineth to teach the blessing God for our happiness, emulate the mi,
sent. And what now? Shall we, instead of truth) are the ordinary and fittest judges; and that ordinarily and regularly princes are to leave sery of those whom we do at once respect and the judgment thereof unto them. But because
pity ?'(3) they may fail, either through negligence, igno
And, to close this head :rance, or malice, princes, having charge over
A special evidence,' says Hammond, ' which
most men have used, to conclude the papacy 10  Episcop. not Prejud., s. iii., 33.  Ibid., s. ii., p. 12.
 Field, book v., p. 681.  Perpetual Government, p. 320; Cosin's Reg. (2) Epilogue to the Tragedy of the Ch. of Eng. ni Angliæ Religio Cathol.  Book in., c. 25.
(3) Episcop. by Divine Right. Introd. s. 5. vol. (5) True Difference, p. 206.
X. p. 154.
The Church of England
be Avrigpictos, the Antichrist, is this, that the round some universal local centre of unity, Pope exalteth himself above all that is called distinct from the government of their country; God, i, e., the kings of the earth; that he, in in the place of their invisible Head in heaven; case the king be not a Catholic, absolves sub
and in addition to that visible centre, which jects from their allegiance to him, that he pretends power over them in spiritual things, and is supplied by each bishop in his own diocese, n temporal in ordine ad spiritualia.'(1) and by the patriarch in the civil province or
IV. One very serious evil of a departure kingdom. from these Catholic principles of loyalty to
Unity, indeed, an unity excluding diverthe Civil Power is the disposition which it sity, is a tempting dream to a rationalizing fosters to depart likewise from the true Catho- mind; and the vision of a spiritual empire lic constitution of the Church itself. If in resorting to one local centre, bowing down any country the Church feels herself engaged to one visible head, binding together the most in a struggle against the Civil Power, or jeal- distant countries to the footstool of one man, ous of its authority, she will be tempted to and by forms all emanating from him, and so look around for foreign help, and thus will crushing all anarchy and rebellion with the introduce that principle, destructive ulti- rod of a priestly power—this vision is to the mately even of the faith of Christianity, the humble as well as to the ambitious a temptaestablishment of some visible permanent cen- tion scarcely to be resisted. It constitutes tre of unity, for the whole of Christendom. with weak minds as with strong, the great Permanent, it is said; because no one con- chain of Popery. And though, as Barrow has tests the necessity of having such a centre so completely shown, (1) opposed to Scrip: occasionally, when the Church is gathered to- ture, to apostolical sanctions, to primitive angether under its true head upon earth, a tiquity, to the analogy of God's dealings, to General Council.
true reason, to expediency, nay, to the very The Almighty has set the bounds of the essence and object of the Church-though it nations, and divided the earth, not to promote has been found that in thus building all on one wars, but to preserve peace. It is by a bal- plank we hazard all-ecclesia universa corance of counteracting forces that equilibrium ruit, si unus universus cadit' (2)—and that is maintained; by the independence and by forcing too great an unity we only split separation of witnesses that testimony is the body into fragments ---there are not wantguaranteed ; by a chain of many fibres that ing persons in all ages who are led away by durability is secured, while perpetual repara- the seduction. But the Church of England tion is made easy; by the distinctness of the has always stood firm. The independence functions of government that tyranny is pre- of national churches, as linked hand in hand vented; by dividing the honey into cells that with their sovereign-the freedom of national it is saved from corruption. And so it is with life—is the very essence of the English Rethe great body politic of men, in the State as formation. "God,' says Stillingfleet, ‘hath in the Church: unity, indeed, must be pre-intrusted every nation
intrusted every national church with the care served in both; but unity reconcilable with of her own safety.(3) That 'they are formed a multiplicity of parts, and by that very mul- into a national church, and are for national tiplicity to be preserved, one body with churches, and detest sovereign independent many members.
communions,' is one of the chief apologies Love of our country, therefore, is as much made by Hicks for the French Protestants. (4) a Christian virtue as love of our parents; And, as he says elsewhere, National Churches are as much an integral element in the constitution of the Catholic
It is good to know what kind of Christians Church as provinces and kingdoms are in the James so passionately exhorts to contend earn,
and Churches they were, whom the brother of great family of man. The Church, from the estly for the faith. They were free episcopal earliest times, by “a rule' which Thorndike churches; neither churches without bishops, calls as evident as the common Christianity por churches under bishops who were all subis evident,' (2) has followed the divisions of ject to the authority of one; but churches un. the State, and moulded herself upon its sec
der bishops who were all sharers or colleagues tions; and it is only when enthusiasm, or St. Cyprian said of the African bishops, made
of one common Episcopat, and whereof none, as rationalism, or disloyalty, or want of faith, or himself a bishop of bishops, or forced his brethsome ambitious theory has crept in, that minds ren, by tyrannical terror, to a necessity of obehave been tempted to abandon this law of God, and to dream of rallying Christians
(1) Treatises on the Supremacy and Unity.
(2) Greg., lib. vi. ep. 24. (1) Of Resisting the Lawful Magistrate, vol. i., (3) Vindication of Laud, part ii. ch. iv. vol. iv. p.
(2) Due Way, p. 240. Juist Weights and Meas. (4) True Notion of Persecution, Serm. iv, vol. i. ures, 2d edit. 1680.
dience. Such an apostolical primitive Episco- so great churches are all that one prime apostopat has the Church of England long enjoyed, by lical church from whenceall others come. And ihe blessing of God, and the favour of her thus they are all prime and apostolical in reprinces.'(1)
gard to their unity, as long as there is that com“The Church of Rome,' says Thorndike, munication of peace, title of brotherhood, and cannot hinder us of restoring ourselves to
common mark of hospitality.'(1) the primitive right of the church, by which
Communion upon earth, union in heaven, a Christian kingdom duly may maintain the is the great prayer of a catholic mind. Whatworship of God.' (2) A remarkable acknow
ever may be hereafter, at present the Church ledgment from one, who laid so much more is one house with many chambers,' (2) stress than other divines upon the pre-emi, one family of many sisters, one continent nence of the Church of Rome in the West,' with many cities,' (3) 'one episcopacy of as, in his view, the only reasonable means many bishops.' (4) to preserve so great a body in unity.' So Bishop Hall makes
Our ground,' says Bramhall, for unity of
faith is our creed; and for unity of government, all the particular National Churches, through the very same form of discipline which was the whole Christian world, no other than sis used in the primitive church, and is derived ters, daughters of the same father, God; of the from them to us.'(5) same mother, the spiritual Jerusalem, which is
• The communion of saints,' says Bilson,' and from above;' of which none may usurp a mis- near dependence of the godly each of other, and tress-ship over the rest, or make herself a queen all of their head, standeth not of external rites, over them,' without being 'guilty of a high ar. customs, and manners, as you would fashion rogance and presumption against Christ and his out a church observing the pope's canons, and dear Spouse ihe Church.'(3)
deserving his pardons as his devote and zealous
children; but in believing the same truth, tastIf the Reformation had asserted no other ing of the same grace, resting on the same hope, principle but this, it would be entitled for this calling on the same God, rejoicing in the same alone to our deepest gratitude; to be re- spirit. (6) garded as, under God, the saviour of our common Christianity. For Christianity is built
And that this unity was not preserved but upon the faith ; and the faith upon the Bible; destroyed by Popery is the unanimous agreeand the Bible, whether in its authenticity of ment of all our greatest English divines :interpretation, comes to us on the testimony
"I cannot choose but wonder,' says Bramhall, of the Church; and this testimony is the his
to see you cite St. Cyprian against us in this torical testimony of independent branches, case, who separated himself from you, as well which cannot be merged in one, as Popery as we, in the days of a much better bishop than has endeavoured to merge them, without ab- we, and upon much weaker grounds than we, solutely destroying the foundation of truth, and published his dissent to the world in two and with truth, of all things.
African councils. He liked not the swelling Until this principle is heartily recognised, should tyrannically terrify another into obedi
title of Bishop of bishops, nor that one bishop there will always be danger from Popery. ence; no more do we. He gave a primacy, or It has been, to say the least, neglected of late; principality of order to the chair of St. Peter, as and to this neglect, humanly speaking, will Principium Unitatis; so do we. But he belierbe mainly due whatever mischief may arise ed that every bishop had an equal share of episwithin the bosom of the Church at the pre-copal power; so do we. He provided apart, as sent day.
he thought fit, in a provincial council for his “The Church's unity,' says Tertullian,
own safety, and the safety of his flock ; so did
He writ to your great bishop as to his quoted by Stillingfleet, consists in the
brother and colleague, and dared to reprehend
him for receiving but a letter from such as had • adhering to that doctrine which was first been censured by the African bishops. In St. preached by the Apostles, who, having first de- Cyprian's sense you are the beam that have se. livered it in Judæa, and planted churches there, parated yourselves from the body of the sun ; went abroad and declared the same to other na- you are ihe bough that is lopped from the tree; tions, and setiled churches in cities, from whence you are the stream which is divided from the other churches have the same doctrine propa- fountain; it is you, principally you, that have gated to them, which are therefore called apos- divided the unity of the church. (7) tolical churches, as the offspring of those which were founded by them. Therefore so many and
(1) Works, vol. iv. p. 288. (1) Serm. xiii., vol. ii. p. 215; Serm. iv. vol. i. (2) Irenæus.
(4) Cyprian. (2) Just Weights, c. vii. p 48.
(5) Schism Guarded, tom. i. Disc. iv. p. 407. (3) Resolutions for Religion, vol. vi. p. 306. (6) True Diff. p. 223. So Nicholson, Apology, p. 108.
T) Answer to De la Militiare, p. 38.
And again, speaking of 'that presumptuous, lar teaching-a8 truth is intimately mixed and (if a pope's word may pass current) anti-with error in all she professes-and as both christian, term of the Head of the Catholic Scripture and the language of the Fathers, Church:'
forged and interpolated as they have been
with this object, may be artfully wrested to 'If the pope be the head of the catholic church, confound the distinction-a mind therefore then the catholic church is the pope's body, imbued with true catholic principles, little which would be but a harsh expression to versed in the controversy, and knowing Christian ears; then the catholic church should have no head when there is no pope; two or
nothing of popery, may be easily led to three heads when there are two or three popes; pause; and suspect, that the erroneous prinan unsound head when there is an heretical ciples charged against Rome may not really pope; a broken head when the pope is censured be professed by her; or, that they are exor deposed; and no head when the see is aggerated by enemies, and modified in vacant. If the church must have one universal, practice; or, lastly, even that they are truths, visible, ecclesiastical head, a general council which the extravagances of sectarians, and may best pretend to that title.' (1).
our own imperfect acquaintance with antiThis is a summary of the general declara- quity, had kept from our sight. And with tions of the divines of England on that the the yearning which
now prevails for more prime and leading article of all popery, the visible unity in the Church, the first question pope's supremacy.' (2) For as such,' 'like which will be asked, previous to any examithe Romish controversialists, they alwayş Romish controversialists so ostentatiously put
nation of doctrine, will be that which the :says Bellarmin, cum de primatu pontificis in schism, then the first step must be to place
-. we agitur ? Brevissime dicam, de summâ rei Christianæ. Id enim quæritur, debeatne ourselves within the bosom of the true church, ecclesia diutius consistere, an vero dissolvi as it is called, and to think afterwards of et considere.' (3) And unless this point be reforn:ing her. And whether or not we are strongly guarded, there can be no solid in schism, depends on this one question of security against the seductions of Rome; the papal supremacy, and by this is it to be especially when the too common mode of tried. If controversialists are weak here warring by vague abuse is wisely abandoned, if they have doubts and misgivings, from and minds are led to think of it as still
whatever source arising—and teach others true church, however corrupted -as retain to entertain them likewise-every advance ing much that is venerable as the church, which they make and encourage in Catholic to which in former times we were indebted principles must lead them nearer to Rome; in some degree for our second conversion and every effort to hold their followers back and as professing, though only professing, when they reach the final barrier, must be those Catholic principles, which have been powerless. They are teaching them to steer so sadly neglected by sects calling themselves on a lee shore, and place no beacon on the Protestant. Where this line of thought has rock to warn of danger
But not so our old divines, who knew that been encouraged-particularly if at the same time any slur, or 'disparagement, or doubt on the firm repudiation of Rome, as a centre has been thrown upon the Church of Eng.
of unity, everything depended :land-it will be in vain to warn ardent and unthinking minds against Rome by suggest- says Bishop Andrews, ' primas tenent illæ de
In omnibus nostri temporis controversiis,' ing its doctrinal errors. For the error must ecclesiâ. In his de ecclesiâ, nihil magis quæritur alivays be tested by an appeal to authority ; quam de summo pontifice; in hâc de pontifice, and as no private judgment, nor even a sister nihil magis quàm de potestate quam "vinchureh, can pronounce authoritatively against dicat.' (1), another sister—as no general council has
It will be to little purpose,' says Bishop condemned, nor under the system of popery Romanists from the judgment of ancient fathers,
Morton, .for Protestants to dispute against could be summoned to condemn it—as Rome because in the end they make their own popehas carefully guarded her authoritative state-papam tanquam patrum patrem," that is, the ments, so as to secure herself some plausible father of fathers, preferring one before all; or defence against attacks on her formal system, to oppose the authority of ancient councils; for while she reaps the full benefit of the errors they reject the ancient councils, accounting them which she privately encourages in her popu.
not legitimate so long as they were not allowed by the pope; or yet to produce any evidence
out of Scripture, for when all is said, the supreme (1) Answer to De la Militière, p. 26. (2) South, vol. vi. Serm. i. (3) Præfat. de Rom. Pont.
(1) Andrews, Præfat. ad Respons.
judge of the exposition of Scriptures must be needs be very acceptable to any who is more the pope.' (1)
a lover of the Catholic church's peace than And thus, with the sume great man,
of disputation,' yet it will fall very short of the
reconciling the different communions, and supremacy is the chief arch, and that we that it will concern all hearty well-wishers may so say, the bighest pinnacle of their Romish temple,'the beginning and head of industry principally to discredit this one doc
to catholic peace to lay out their zeal and our controversies,' the pillar and foundation trine, the papal supremacy,) which is so exof the Romish church. 
tremely pernicious to it.' To omit it indeed " There can be ao peace possible,' says Bishop -to pass it by as a matter which common Hall, “unless they will be content to be head- minds cannot understand, although there are less, or we can be content to be ibe slaves of none so intelligible to the meanest as the Rone.' 
right of personal authority-to lead men to * The difference between us,' says Clarendon, think it possible that any safe union can be depends wholly upon the personal authority of effected with Rome, until she has retired from the pope within the king's dominions... : It her present claims into her simple position was that, and that only, that first inade the schism, and still continues it, and is the ground
the ground as an ancient bishopric, honoured by the of all the animosity of the English (Roman) church of old with a degree of pre-eminence Catholics against the Church of England. . . and precedency which the church might at This is the only argument I wish should be in- any time withdraw-or to familiarise the sisted on between us and our fellow-subjects of minds of the young to thoughts and propothe Roman persuasion. ... This is the hinge sals of peace in a besieged city, while the upon which all the other controversies depend. enemy, instead of laying down their arms,
This is the material argument.”,
are thundering at the walls—this is idle, and Usher, “the Romanisis do hazard their whole worse than idle. It encourages the assailcause, acknowledging the standing or falling of ants; it paralyses the defenders ; it stirs seditheir church absolutely to depend thereupon.'  tion and defection within our own camp; it
cuts away the very ground under our feet; it ' To this one,' says Dodwell
, are reduced tempts the young to dreams which never can all the disputes between us ;' and he adds a be realised, it makes them willing to palliate, warning, which cannot be too strongly urged: and even deny the sins and errors which seem A fourth use," he says, ' of this hypothesis, them away from their own blessed Church to
to stand in the way of reconciliation ; it leads is for the direction of peace-makers, to let them see what it is that renders our reconciliation im- a foreign centre of their affections and their possible; and which, if it be not first accommo- duties; and it gives scandal to weak brothers, dated, must render all their endeavours in par- who cannot draw the subtle line between a ticular questions unsuccessful; and therefore primacy of order and a primacy of power, against which they ought more earnestly to and who cannot understand why it should be strive by how much they are more zealous for needful to open a mere speculative question catholic peace. The way hitherto atlempied has been to endeavour to reconcile our particu.
as to what the Church might do, if Rome lar differences. This has been either by clear. were other than she is, while she shows not ing their respective churches from all those a symptom of change; unless indeed some things for which they have not expressly de- thought be cherished of accepting her auclared, and of which express professions are not thority as she is. No, let us, indeed, with exacted from persons to be reconciled unto them: Laud, (1) ever wish and heartily pray for the Or where the churches have declared them: unity of the whole Church of Christ, and the selves, thereby allowiög the greatest latitude of
ation of torn and divided exposition, and putting the most favourable peace and reconc sense on their decrees of which they are capa- Christendom'--reconciliation with the great ble. Thus Grotius has dealt with the Council churches of the East, which now seems openof Trent, and S. Clara with our English Ar- ing to us-reconciliation of our own strayed ticles. 
flocks to the bosom of their Mother Church, And then he proceeds to show, that, al- which our daily increasing labours, under though such a way of proceeding must God's blessing, may obtain—such union with
other Reformed Churches as may be etfected
by giving them that great privilege of epis Protestant Appeal, lib. v. 28, p. 677.
copacy, which they so deeply need; such  Ibid., pp. 272, 665, 670.  No Peace with Rome, c. iii. s. ii. vol. xi. p. all the foundations of religion entire.'
union as may stand with truth, and preserve [4) Animadversions by a Person of Honour (Earl But let us never wish, (speaking once of Clarendon), pp. 10, 13.
 Preface to Speech on the Oath of Supremacy.  Two Short Discourses, Pref. s. 3, 19, 22.
(1) History of Troubles, p. 159. 36