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'I beseech you,' says Bishop Nicholson, ‘hear for disparaging word of its system, when me speak; it may be "in voce hominis tuba it had been cut down to the ground, and Dei," God's trumpet at my inouth; and if you/salt had been sown where it grew. We will but listen and suffer yourself io be roused | have seen it spring up again more vigorous by the shrillness of the sound, you may perhaps than ever. It has now stood more storms yet make a stand. Consider where you are, and

The enemy smiles at your separation; and shocks than have beaten upon any the angels would rejoice to behold you return other member of the Catholic Church back to your mother the Church of Old Eng. a Reformation, a Rebellion, a Revolution land. She is indeed now “as the teyl-tree, or the political conflicts and corruptions as the oak, when they cast their leaves, yet the which followed thein--that fearful convul. substance is in her." Her beauty is decayed sion in France, which shook popery to through bitter affliction and her face furrowed with sorrows, there is nothing now left about its centre, and led it captive in the perher to make her lovely; yet she is your Mother son of its head ;-and the spread of a still; she washed you with water, she gave you manufacturing system which has done so milk when a babe, she fed you with strong much to corrupt the whole framework of meat when a man; she honoured you with society. She is now about to enter once orders when grown; for a Mother's sake I crave one good look, some pity, some regard ! inveterate and strongest enemy, against

more into the conflict with popery, her Why fly you from her? I cannot conceive you which she has bitherio stood alone and think her so dishonest as some separatists report: if you should, I should grow angry, and triumphed. She is entering on this by hertell you, that in her constitutions she came self, not depending on foreign aid, nor nearest ibe apostolic church of any church in even on the arın of her own natural sup. the Christian world ; and this I openly profess

port,

the State. Within the last ten to make good against any separatist whatsoerer. Many ungracious sons I confess she had, years she has roused herself, like one that and they broughi an aspersion upon her, and the has been paralysed from a bed of sickness, vials of God's wrath have been justly, jusıly I and is feeling for her weapons and plantproclaim, poured upon her for their iniquities. ing herself for the combat, and stretching The constitution was good and sound, the exe- out her arms to the most distant councution passing through some corrupt hands too tries, with an energy and strength which often subject to reproof. Let not her then who have astonished all who have beheld it. had declared her mind by rules and cautions The Church on all sides is gathering against all abuses, and taught what only she would have done, be charged with her sons ir- round her. The East is willing that she regularities.' [1]

should come and help it. Germany is seek

ing from her the great blessing of episcoAnd few indeed there were who thus pacy. Four whole continents, India, Ausrequired to be recalled to the fold of their tralia, Africa, and America, are, with small mother :

exceptions, open before her, in which Eng.

land may plant the truth, as in her own pe. 'I cannot deny,' says Bramhall, but that culiar province, without violating any some of us have started aside like broken bows, tholic principle, or exposing herself, as poout of despair in this their bitter trial, wherein they have had their goods plundered, their es. pery must expose itself, to a battle with extates sequestered, their persons imprisoned, isting rights, and to ultimate expulsion. their churches aliened; wherein they have been Such a field was never before opened to any divorced froin their nearest relation, and disabled Christian Church, not even in the time of to discharge the duties of their callings to God; Constantine. And if, as yet, she is weak, wherein some of them have been slaughtered, and faltering, and unable to realise such a others forced to maintain themselves by mechanic labours, others thrust out of their native prospect, her weakness is from past discountries, to wander like vagabonds and exiled

ease: it is not inherent. beggars up and down the merciless world. But, everything we should do, then indeed we God be praised, they are not many. If we might despair. Had we taught men to compare ihis with any the like persecution in love their Church, bad we cherished obeEurope, you shall never find that so few apos- dience to our bishops, had we given alms taled.' [2]

and offerings as she exhorts; had we

been diligent in her service, regular in ber God forbid that any different voice should be heard in the Church of England the strength and nourishment which she

prayers, constant in seeking at her hands at this day! They did not despair or offers-had we brought out and acted up permit themselves to utter one faithless

to her principles--and then failed-then (1) Bishop Nichoison's Apology, p. 42.

we might have doubted if God had given (2) Archbishop Bramhall, Serinon on the Resto- to her power to guide and save us. ration, Works, p. 957.

this has been neglected : let it be tried ;

Ca

Flad we done

But

and then we shall be able to estimate the fame, as if they had nothing worth conenormous strength of Catholic truth as es-tending for. He knew that, if one thought tablished in our own blessed Church. And more than others can strengthen the let us fight the battle manfully and honest- weak hands, and confirm the feeble knees' ly, without those artificial aids and unnatu: --if anything can make the bad to cast ral excitements, by which popery endea- off his sins, and the coward to rush into vours to stimulate morbid imaginations, danger, and the effeminate to steel him. and to force a hot-house piety. Let us self for the stake, it is the sense that they fight it, as God himself has placed us here are members of a body glorified in past to fight with the world.

time, full of hope to be glorified hereafter, It is better, it is a sign of more real and and now beset with perils and distresses. healthy strength, to be able to contend, He never turned their eye upon some however unsuccessfully, against myriads dream of imaginary peace and happiness of enemies, than to enjoy peace without least of all on the pleasant fields which any: There is more real unity(1) of faith their enemies possessed in quiet. He in the adherence of ten men to a definite never thought to nerve them in the cause creed like our own, than in the acquies of their country, by telling them how much cence of ten millions in such a lax profes- happier they might have been, if it were sion as popery. There is more true unity other than it was; or biduling them to stay of heart in the free accordance of a few by it now, merely because they could minds, permitted to differ, than in the find refuge in no other. He told them subjection of the whole world to a yoke rather of its greatness and its power. He which it dares not shake off. And there bade them gaze on and feed their eyes is more true holiness in the discharge of a with the sight of this greatness day by single duty in the midst of the temptations day ;' that they might become 'enamourof the world, than in the flight from tempo ed of it,' as men devoted to some beloved tations and duties alike, in the artificial being, and so sacrifice their lives and all atmosphere of a monastery. But, above to its service, like those who through suf. all, let us not commit treason to our fering and toil had won for it its past Church, by accustoming the young and glories.(1) And so long as this voice was the ignorant to think of her with misgiv. heard, so long the Athenians triumphed. ing or contempt.

God forbid ! let us repeat once more, that When he, who knew so well how to any other voice should be heard in the rule and mould the minds of the Athenian Church of England among us now! If in. people, was called to rouse them to the deed we are lying in darkness, under a conflict in defence of all they loved, while curse from God for some sin of ourselves, the enemy was ravaging their fields, and or of our forefathers, let the sin be wiped the plague devastating their homes, he out—if for sacrilege, let the sacrilege be spoke to them not in words of despon- restored-if for rebellion, let us be more dency, as if they had no strength to fight; earnest in allegiance-if for intemperance nor disparagingly of their country and its in asserting our Christian independence,

let us pray more fervently for the peace (1) What manner of peace and unity was that,' and reunion of all Christian churches-if says Jackson, speaking of this boast of popery, for neglect of the talent committed to us, any other than such as usually is found in any poi in failing to bring our heathen empire into shrunk or the ligaments be dissolved? Where no man the fold of Christ, let us go forth more may move but he is seen, nor mutter but he is boldly and more heartily into that vast heard; where the least secret signification of any field of Christian labour. But let us not desire of freedom in speech, or liberty in action; is lay upon the parent the sins of the child. interpreted for open mutiny, and the least motion unto mutiny held matter sufficient for a cruel death. ren; or think that Abraham is despised These were the bonds of your peace and unity in before God, because the Jews have been this point of your ecclesiastic monarchy. As for rejected. “De ordine dico,' says Bishop your peace in other speculative points of less use or Andrewes, “non de hominibus (nihil atticommodity to your state, it was like the revellings or drunken concerts of servants in their night-sport-net) qui quales quales sunt Domino suo ings, when the master of the house is asleep in a stant vel cadunt.'(2) retired room.

Any schoolman might broach what III. There is one especial point in the opinion he list, and make his auditors drunk with constitution of the English Church, which it; others might quarrel with him and them, in as uncivil sort as they list, so no weapon were drawn against the Pope's peace, albeit in the mean time (1) See the Speeches of Pericles. Thucydides, the Scripture suffered open violence and abuse.'— lib. ii. vol. i., p. 314.

(2) Concio in discessu Palatini, 1613. VOL. XIX.

35

requires to be guarded at present against and 400 clergy, were suspended and depriva disposition to censure and mistrust her; ed for refusing the oath of allegiance. (1) which in any mind is sad, but in the If under such trials the loyalty of the young and ignorant is unspeakably un- suffering Church of England, and her deseemly. They have been awakened to a votion to the State, never forsook her, sense-a right and worthy sense of the how would she now grieve over any outspiritual independence of the Church, break of impatience, when the throne is as holding her spiritual privileges and still established and bound to her by the spiritual being wholly and immediate coronation oath, when the great majority ly from God. And it is difficult, without of the Parliament is once more with her, more thought and learning than it is pos- and mainly sins against her by officious sible for them to possess, to reconcile offers of assistance; and when every day this always with the claims of the civil she is obtaining a deeper hold on the afpower to take a part in ecclesiastical af- fections of the people, and the respect of fairs. That the line is hard to draw all government ! must acknowledge-as hard as to distin. Let us remember that these great men guish the confines between mind and body; were the firmest supporters of the spiritbetween the respective provinces of the ual independence of the Church. With husband and wife ; between the free agen- Nazianzen, they magnified the spiritual cy of man and the influence of external authority, as 'far more ample and excelcauses; between the action and counterac- lent than that of civil princes, insomuch tion of any two bodies co-operating to the as it is fit the flesh should yield to the same work, in the mixed circumstances of spirit, and things earthly to things heavenall human relations. And the jealousy has ly. With Chrysostom, they placed the undoubtedly been fretted in inany minds priest's tribunal much higher than that of by recent acts of a parliament, no longer the king ; who hath received only the adessentially bound to the communion of the ministration of earthly things--but the Church. Into these specific cases it is un priest's tribunal is placed in heaven, and necessary to enter. The general princi- he hath authority to pronounce sentence ple of the intimate association between the in heavenly affairs.' (3) 'Our king,' says Church and the State, as maintained by Bishop Andrews, speaking authoritatively, the Church of England, derived from the under the name of supremacy, introduces not ancient Church, and enforced by our

a new papacy into the Church. As not Aaron greatest divines, is all that need be the priest, so not Jeroboam the king, may set touched on. And the testimony of these up a golden calf of his own for the people to last is of the greatest weight, because adore; or frame new articles of faith,or new forms they spoke under circumstances far more of worship. He claims not, he does not permit trying than any to which we are exposed with Oziah, or of touching the ark with Uzzah.

possess, the power of burning incense The Church of England is not now in The office of teaching or of explaining the law a worse position with respect to the State, he never assumes; nor of preaching, nor of leadthan when Whitgift was compelled to re- ing in divine worship, nor of celebrating the monstrate with Queen Elizabeth against sacraments, nor of consecrating either persons sacrilege ; (1) when Hooker bewailed the or things: nor the power of the keys or of ecdaily bruises that spiritual promotions clesiastical censure. In one word, nothing does used to take by often falling; ' (2) when it lawful for him to touch, which belongs to the Jackson remonstrated against Simony ; priestly office or to the privileges of the priestly when Hacket was compelled to plead be- order. (3) fore a House of Commons, not against a re-distribution, but an alienation of cathe Sanderson. [6]“And thus Bilson, with

So Hooker. [4] So Bramhall. [5] So dral property ; when the whole power of Parliament was in the hands of the Puritans;

them, distinguished :When the Monarch himself

, in his own per- shops is private ; of princes is compulsory

• The government of princes is public, of bison, was the author of that lax toleration, bisitops is persuasive; of princes is lordly with

, of through which heresies and Atheism first

, rule, of bishops is brotherly with service; of and popery under their cloak at last, estab- princes is external and ordereth the actions of lished themselves in the bosom of the empire ; and when the Primate, five Bishops,

[1] Life of Sancroft, vol. i. p. 447.
[2] Field, B. v. p. 611.
[3] Tortura Torti, p. 380.

[4] B. viii. vol. iii. p. 351; 8vo., 1793. [1] Walton's Life of Hooker.

[5] Works, pp. 25, 190, 191, 340, (2] B. v. s, 31,

(6] Episcopacy not Prejud., s, xi,

swerve

the body, of bishops is internal, and guideth the And this their obedience to the State was motions of the mind. . . . . . And therefore, not a mere passive subjection, but a hearty though bishops may be called governors in re

reverence. spect of the soul, yet only princes be governors that the most high and sacred order of Kings

They taught with Bramhall, of realms: pastors have flocks, and bishops have dioceses: realms, dominions, and coun- is of Divine right, being the ordinance of tries, none have but princes and magistrates; God himself, founded on the prime laws of and so the style, “ governor of this realm,” be- nature, and clearly established by express longeth only to the prince, and not to the priest, texts both of the Old and New Testament. and importeth a public and princely regiment Moreover, that this power is extended over with the sword, which no bishop by God's law all their subjects, ecclesiastical and civil.'(1) may claim or use.'[1]

They recognized that absolute and sovereign Yet, with this solemn protest against civil princes, [even) while they were infidels, Erastianism, they never

from had true dominion, rule, and authority, holdtheir loyal and hearty recognition of the ing it as immediately from God, not dependCivil power as united with the Church. ing on any rule of the Church.?(2) They By Beveridge, side by side with the di- acknowledged with Laud, that great and vine authority of the apostolical office, undoubted rule given by Optatus, that wherethis loyalty is set as an especial proof of soever there is a Church, there the Church

the same spirit still working in our is in the Commonwealth, not the CommonChurch, wbich wrought so effectually upon wealth in the Church : Non enim respubthe Apostles.”[2] With Hooker so strong lica est in Ecclesiâ, sed Ecclesia in repubis the sense of the joint and inseparable licâ est.' With Laud also they alleged it as functions of the State and the Church for a proof against the claims of the Pope :the preservation and safety of God's people, that he proposes this as 'the true inscrip- For if the Church be within the empire or tion, style, or title of all churches, as yet other kingdom, it is impossible the government standing within this realm : By the good of the Church should be monarchical: for no ness of Almighty God and his servant Eliz- emperor or king will endure another king with abeth we are.'[3] So Bishop Mountagu con.

in his dominion that shall be greater than himnects them :

self; since the very enduring it makes him that

endures it, upon the matter, no monarch.'(3) • Them, myself, whatsoever I have said or done, or shall hereafter do any way—“Libens, They never took it for granted that the merito, more majorum”—now and ever I ecclesiastic power, as well directive as coerhave, I do, I will refer and submit, and in most cive, is entirely seated in the body of the lowly, devoted, humble sort, prostrate upon bended knees unto this Church of England,

and clergy, as it is an order of men distinct from the true defender thereof, his most sacred Ma- the laity.' They never invested the body jesty; humbly craving that royal protection of the clergy with all the privileges and prewhích sometime William Ockham did of Lewis rogatives of an absolute independent commonof Baviera, the emperor, “Domine imperator, wealth, able to make laws by itself;' not defende me gladio, et ego te defendam cala- permitting the body or community of the mo."' [4]

laity (no, not as it consists of prince and peoSo Bishop Bilson :-

ple, of magistrates and private men) to be “The strife betwixt us [against popery] is any parts or members of the Church, or of not for bishoprics and benefices; but for Christ's that society which hath power to make laws glory and the prince's safety.' [5]

ecclesiastic.' Knowing, as Jackson continIf in the convulsions of the Reformation ues, and he repeats the warning more than the great blessing of episcopacy was preserved once, that these be the premises, which, to us, it was due, according to Bishop Andrews, once granted, will necessarily bring forth under God, to the fact that our kings were that dangerous conclusion' [the formation of propitious. (6)-S. Bishop Hall. (7) So some visible centre of unity in the Church] Hickes.(8) So Stillingfleet.(9)

which will inevitably draw all states and

kingdoms, as well heathen as Christian, into (1) True Difference, p. 238.

the Romish net.'(4) They show no sym. [2] Sermon on Christ's Pres. with his Ministers. pathy with Hildebrand,--that "Firebrand, (3] Epist. Dedicat. to Eccl. Pol. vol. i. p. 125.

as Brett calls him, both of Church and (4) Appeal to Cæsar, P, 321. (5) True Difference, p. 8. (6) Third Letter to Du Moulin ; Wordsworth's Christ. Inst., vol. iii., p. 259,

(1) Answer to De la Militière, p. 28. (7) Vol. x., p. 281.

(2) Field, book v. p. 609. (8) Serm., 13, vol. ii., p. 216.

(3) Optat., lib. iii., c. 3. Laud, Conference with (9) Defence of Discourse concerning Idolatry. Fisher, p. 132. Epist. Dedicat., vol. v,

(4) Vol. iii., pp. 906, 907,

State ;'(1)--Casaubon's 'Hildebrandinæ here- monarchs of the Roman Communion do in effect seos auctor ;'(2) --Usher's ‘Fatale Portentum retain at this day.'(1) Prodigiumque Ecclesiæ;' (3) --Bishop Pa.

And so Bilson sums up this question, trick's First Great Troubler of the Christian though not without first dwelling upon the World ;'(4)—-" That man of admirable pride,' answer to be made to God, 'if hands be hastisays Bishop Overall, over whose heretical ly laid on ;' and upon the 'burden of connovelty, and most insolent attempt, many science,' which princes undertake, if in choosfalse colours have since been cast, to cover ing those that shall guide the Church under the lewdness and deformity of it.'(5)

them, they fail to provide, by the best Still less would they hold up Becket to means they can, that no venomous, nor unreverence or allow him to be a martyr :-

clean thing, so much as enter the House of

God to defile it with his presence, or disor. • We do abominate that murder, as lawless der it with his negligence: and barbarous,' says Bramhall. • But we do not believe that the cause of his suffering was • If the allowance given at first to the minissufficient to make him a martyr; namely, to ters of each parish by the lord of the soil were help foreigners to pull the fairest flowers from matter enough in the judgment of Christ's his prince's diadem by violence, and to perjure Church to establish the right of patrons, that himself, and violate his oath. All his own suf- they alone should present clerks, because they fragan bishops were against him in the cause, alone provided for them, the prince's interest to and justified the king's proceedings.'(6) confer bishoprics hath far more sound and suffi.

cient reason to warrant it. For, besides the And Bishop Bilson goes still further. His maintenance which the kings of this land yieldquarrel, he says, was one of those

ed when they first endowed bishoprics with

lands and possessions, to unburthen the people of their own nature wicked and irreligious; in that respect have as much right as any pa.

of the support and charges of their bishops, and his pride was intolerable; his contention with the king detestable; his end miserable. We trons can have; the pre-eminence of the sword conclude him to be a shameful defender of wick. whereby the prince ruleth the people, the peoedness, an open breaker of his oath, and a proud that in elections, as well as in other points of

ple rule not the prince, is no small enforcement, impugner of the sword which God hath authorized, as the Scripture teacheth. And albeit we

government, the prince may justly challenge the like not the manner of his death, that private sovereignty above and without the people, God's

laws prescribing no certain rule. And, lastly, men should use the sword which is delivered unto princes

, yet the cause for which he with though the people in former ages, by the suffer: stood the king was enormous and impious; and the election of their bishops, yet now,

ance of magistrates, had somewhat to do with

for the dying in that, though his death were violent, he could be no martyr.'(7)

avoiding of such tumults and uproar as the primitive church was afflicted with, by the laws

of this realm and their own consents, the peoIf jealousy is felt of the appointment of ple's interest and liking is wholly submitted and bishops by the Crown, Bramhall pronounces inclosed in the prince's choice; so that whom that

the prince nameth the people have bound them

selves to acknowledge and accept for their pas'the nomination and investiture of bishops in tor, no less than if he had been chosen by their England doth belong to the Imperial Crown, by own suffrages. And had they not hereunto law and custom immemorial, and hath been agreed, as by parliament they have, I see no so practised both before the Conquest and since let by God's law but in Christian kingdoms,

practice approved by the canons and consti- when any difference groweth even about the tutions of councils, of Popes, and received into election of bishops, the prince, as head and ruler the body of the law-a power which the Chris- of the people, had beiter right to name and tian emperors of the primitive times practised elect than all the rest of their people. If they both in ihe eastern and western empires; which concur in judgment, there can be no variance; the most Christian King of France and other if they dissent, the prince, if there were no ex

press law for that purpose (as there is with us), must bear it from the people; the people by

a

God's law must not look to prevail against their (1) Church Govern., c. xviii., p. 403, (2) Ded. to King James. Wordsworth's Christ.

prince.'(2) Inst. iv., p. 63.

* And this, says Field, 'can in no way preju(3) De Eccles. Success., p. 58 et seq.

dice or hurt the state of the Church, if bishops (4) Devotions of the Romish Church, p. 212.

(to whom examination and ordination pertain(5) Convocation Book, b. iii., c. 8. Bishop eth) do their duties in refusing to consecrate and Hall's quaint language is to the same effect, but ordain such as the canons prohibit.'(3) far stronger. Works, vol. ix., p. 269. (6) Just Vindication, p. 95.

[1] Tom. iv., Dis. vi., p. 989. (7) True Differ., p. 483. So, at great length, [2] Perpetual Govern., p. 362, 366, So Sander. Stillingfleet. Answer to Cressy, vol. v., p. 710 son, Episcop. not Prejud., s. iii., 32.

[3] Field, b. V., p. 695.

et seq.

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