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land fell when the yoke of Popery was founded upon a rock. The light is under a shaken off-fell, by the weakness which bushel, but it is not extinguished. (1) that yoke had caused--and which has been perpetuated on it, more or less, di

Side by side with the most melancholy rectly or in directly, by the same agency, there are to be found, throughout them

pictures of the conduct of individuals, ever since. They had seen a time, in which one of the greatest favourers of the all

, the most glowing defence of her Sys. Reformation could say of it, no kind of tem, and the most earnest protestations blasphemy, heresy, disorder, and confu. that it wils not the Church, but her sons,

who were to blaine. It was sion, but is found among us.'(1) They did not witness, as we witness, a new when the Church was pestered with a generaspring-tide of piety dawning among them, tion of godless men, and with all other irreguchurches rising on all sides, the clergy larities; when her lands were in danger of alienmultiplying their duties, the laity return. ation, her power at least neglected, and her ing to their allegiance, dissent becoming peace torn in pieces by several schisms, and such weaker; the irregular movements of reli- heresies as do usually attend that sin ; when the gious feeling reorganising themselves common people seemed ambitious of doing those spontaneously under the Heads of the very things which were attended with most dan

gers, that thereby they might be punished, and Church; every day more demands upon then applauded and pitied; when they called men's alms for purposes of religion and the spirit of opposition a tender conscience, and cbarity, and those demands every day complained of persecution because they wanted more willingly complied with. The move. power to persecute others; when the giddy mulment with them seemed all to retrograde titude raged, and became restless to find out mi

-communions to become less frequent-sery for themselves and others; and the rabble confirmations disregarded (2)---discipline to govern and act in spite of authority ;-in this more abused and despised (3)--the pray- extremity, fear, and danger of the Church and ers of the Church more neglected—the State,' (2)— divisions of schism more multiplied-devotion more cold, and faith more faint ;--- it was that Hooker came forward to deeverything but the life within the Church fend that present form of Church govern--- within a small and despised portion of ment which the laws of this land have esit---dead or dying---and yet they never tablished,' and which he declared to be despaired.(4)

such as no law of God nor reason of man

hath hitherto been alleged of force suffi• He is pleased,' exclaims Bramhall, “ to style cient to prove they do ill, who to the utit a dead church, and me the advocate of a dead termost of their power withstand the alchurch: even as the trees are dead in winter teration thereof."(3) when they want their leaves; or as the sun is set when it is behind a cloud; or as the gold is!

• This I dare boldly affirm,' says Archbishop destroyed when it is melting in the furnace. Whitgift, that all points of religion necessary When I see a seed cast into the ground, I do to salvation, and touching either the mystery of not ask where is the greenness of the leaves ?

our redemption in Christ, or the right use of the where is the beauty of the flowers ? where is the sweetness of the fruit? But I expect all God, are as purely and as perfectly taught, and

sacraments, and true manner of worshipping these in their due season : stay awhile and be by public authority established, in this Church hold the catastrophe. The rain is fallen, the of England at this day, as ever they were in any wind hath blown, and the floods have beaten church since the apostles' times.' (4) upon their church; but it is not fallen, for it is

• I have lived,' says Laud, and shall (God willing) die in the faith of Christ, as it was pro

fessed in the ancient primitive Church, as it (1) Dugdale's Troubles, p. 57.4.

was professed in the present Church of England.'

“So (it seems) I was confident for the faith (2) Jackson, vol. iii. p. 272 ; Bishop Hall, vol. x. p. 464; Brett's Church Government, p. 237.

professed in the Church of England, else I would (3) Bishop Hall

, vol. x. p. 436; Andrews, Opus- not have taken the salvation of another upon cula, p. 41; Mountagu, Answer to the Gagger, p. 81. my soul. And sure I had reason of this my con

(4) For most striking passages illustrative of the fidence. For lo believe the Scripture and the state of the times in which these authors wrote, see creeds, to believe those in the sense of the anHickes, Controversial Letters, vol. ii. pref. 68; cient primitive Church, to receive the four great Nicholson's Apology, p. 151 ; Wordsworth's Christian Institutes, vol. iv. p. 580; Bishop Hall, vol. vi. p. 231; Hooker's Eccl. Polity, book v. s. 31; San- (1) Works, p. 175. derson's Sermons, vol. i. p. 129, folio. And, if it (2) Walton's Life of Hooker, p. 46. were wanted, it might be easy, from the history of (3) Preface to Eccl. Polity, vol. i. s. 1. the Primitive Church, as Jewel has done in his (4) Preface to the Defence of the Answer, fol. Apology, to draw a lamentable parallel.

( 1574.

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general councils, so much magnified by antiqui- , God that he was born, baptized, and bred up iy, to believe all points of doctrine generally re- in her communion, as the best and purest ceived as fundamental in the Church of Christ, Church at this day in the Christian world.' (1) is a faith in which to live and die cannot but Do I anywhere,' says Bishop Mountagu, give salvation.' (1)

profess correspondency with them' (the Lu• My conscience assures me,' says Hammond, therans] .or others beside the Church of Eng* that the grounds on which the established land, the absolutest representation of antiquity Church of England is founded are of so rare and this day extant? What that Church believeth, excellent mixiure, that, as none but intelligent I believe; what it teacheth, I teach; what it truly Christian minds can sufficiently value the rejecteth, I reject; what it doth not tender, I composition, so there is no other in Europe so am not tied unto. I was bred a member of the likely to preserve peace and unity, if what pru- Church of England, brought up a member of dent laws had so long ago designed they were the Church of England-therein, by the means now able to uphold. For want of which, and and ministry of that Church, I received that which only, it is that at present the whole fabric earnest of my salvation, when by baptism I was lies polluted in confusion and in blood.' (2) inserted into Christ. In the union and commun

• 1 verily believe,' says Hickes, that the ion of that Church I have lived, noi divided with Church of England, as it now stands without papist, nor separated with puritan. Through any further reformation, is apostolical in doc- the assistance of the grace of God's Spirit, which trine, worship, and government; and would is never wanting unto any that seek him, I hope have been esieeined by the faithful, in all ages to live and die in the faith and confession of that from the time of the apostles, a pure and sound Church; than which I know none, nor can any member of the Catholic Church. I heartily be named, in all points more conformable unto thank Almighty God, by whose good providence purest antiquity in the best times. . . . If there I have been bred up in her communion, and call be in any writing, preaching, saying, or thought ed to the great honour of being one of her of mine, anything delivered or published against priests; and I beseech Him of His infinite good- the discipline or doctrine of this Church, I am ness, to give all her clergy and people grace to sorry for it, I revoke it, recant it, disclaim itlive up strictly to her principles of piety, loyalty, vultu laditur pietas—if I have done so in any. justice, charity, purity, temperance, and sobrie. thing unto my Mother, in all humility I crave iy. I am sure it must be ours, and not her fault, pardon, and will undergo penance.' (2) if we be not the best Christians, the best sub- * And here I do profess,' says Bishop Sanderjects, and the best friends and best neighbours son, in his last will, that as I have lived, so I in the world.' (3)

desire and (by the grace of God) resolve to die,

in the communion of the Catholic Church of For this Ken did not hesitate to pray: Christ, and a true son of the Church of Eng.

land; which, as it stands by law established, to Glory be to thee, O Lord, my God, who hast be both in doctrine and worship agreeable to made me a member of the particular Church of the word of God, and in the most, and most England, whose faith, and government, and material points of both conformable to the faiib worship are holy, and Catholic, and Apostolic, and practice of the godly Churches of Christ in and free from the extremes of irreverence or su- the primitive and purer times, I do firmly beperstition; and which I firmly believe to be a lieve: led so to do, not so much from the force sound part of the Church Universal.' (4) of custom and education (to which the greatest

part of mankind owe their particular different Of this Leslie declared

persuasions in point of religion), as upon the

clear evidence of truth and reason, after a se• Though the events of life have given me oc- rious and unpartial examination of the grounds, casions to take a nearer view of the doctrines as well of popery as puritanism, according to and worship of other Christian Churches, vet that measure of understanding and those opfrom thence I have been confirmed in my belief portunities which God hath afforded me. . that the Church of England-abuses notwith- Wherefore I humbly beseech Almighty God, standing-is the most agreeable to the institu- the Father of Mercies, to preserve the Church, tions of Christ and his apostles.' (5)

by his power and providence, in peace, iruil,

and godliness, evermore to the world's end : In this Bull resolved to die,

which doubiless he will do, if the wickedness

and security of a sinful people and particular· As the best constituted Church this day in the ly those sins that are so rife and seem daily to world; for that its doctrine, government, and increase among us, of unthankfulness, riot, and way of worship were in the main the same with sacrilege) do not tempt his patience to the those of the primitive Church.' And he blessed contrary: (2)

• The third sort of good seed,' says Bramhall,

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'which King Charles did bear forih with him (1) Conf. w'th Fisher, pp. 210, 211.

was a good religion. A religion, not reformed (2) Preface to Treatise on the Infallibility, vol. ii. p. 560.

(1) Life of Bull, p. 398. Works, vol. ii. p. 239. (3) Apologetical Vindication, p. 145.

Burton Edit. (4) Exposit, of Church Catech., Prose Works, (2) Appeal to Cæsar, pp. 47, 48.

(3) Walton's Life of Sanderson, by Zonch, vol. (5) Introd. Epist. Works, vol. i.

ji. p. 290.

p. 251.

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lumultuously, according to the brain-sick fancies life for yours, you cannot but be happy for everof a half-witied multitude, dancing after the more.' (1) pipe of some seducing charmer, but soberly, according to the rule of God's word, as it haib And if we at this day, with hopes re. been evermore, and everywhere interpreted by vealed to us by God's providential work. the Catholic Church, and according to the pur- ing far brighter than ever dawned upon est pattern of the primitive times. A religion, the eyes of these great men—with far against which the greatest adversaries thereof have no exception, but that it preferreth

longer experience of that wonderful

grace before nature, the written word before uncer- strength which has supported the Church tain traditions, and the all-sufficient blood of of England through

many fearful Jesus Christ before the stained works of mortal struggles, and is now rising up within men. A religion, which is neither garish with her more vigorous than ever-if we,

like superfluous ceremonies, nor yet sluttish, and Bishop Hall, as her “true sons,' unto her void of all order, decency and majesty in the sacred name would in all piety devote service of God. A religion, which is as careful to retain old articles of faith, as it is averse

ourselves,'as to our 'reverend, dear, and · from new articles. . . . Religion which is not holy Mother' (2)—if with Heylin we com. likely to perish for want of fit organs, like those fort our soul with our 'adhesion to a imperfect creatures produced by the sun upon Church so rightly constituted, so

, warthe banks of Nilus, but shaped for continuance. rantably reformed, so punctually model... The terror of Rome. They fear our mod. led by the pattern of the purest and most others. ... The watch-tower of the Evangeli- happy times of Christianity; a Church cal churches. . . . . I have seen many churches which, for her power and polity, her saof all sorts of communions, but never any that cred offices and administrations, hath the could diminish that venerable estimation which grounds of Scripture, the testimony of I had for my mother the Church of England : antiquity, and consent of fathers’ (3)— from her breasts I received my first nourish- if, with Bishop Andrewes, we point to that, ment, in her arms I desire to end my days. our religion in England, ancient, holy, • Ven, brethren, and fathers," says Bishop purified, and truly one which Zion woulů

acknowledge' (prisca, casta, defæcata, Beveridge, give me leave to speak freely to you of the Church you live in; a Church, not et vero quam Sion agnoscat') (4) if, with only in its doctrine and discipline, but in all Bishop Cosin, we believe it to be .no things else, exactly conformable to the primi- other than what we have received from tive, the apostolical, the Catholic Church. For Christ and his universal Church' (5)— if, was that no sooner planted by Christ but it was in the spirit of the martyr Charles, (words watered by the blood of martyrs? So was ours. Did the primitive Christians suffer martyrdom which Sancroft thought deserve to be from Rome ?-So did our first reformers. Hath written in letters of gold, and to be enthe Caiholic Church been all along pestered graved in brass or marble,') (6) we charge with heretics and schismatics ?-So hath ours. our children 'not to suffer their hearts to Have they endeavoured in all ages to undermine, receive the least check or disaffection and so to overthrow her?-In this also ours is from the true religion established in her, but too much like unto her. And it is no wonder: as being the best in the world ;'. 'I tell you turbances and oppositions that the Catholic I have tried it ;! (7)-if, with Bishop White, Church ever met with, still holds good as to we feel that, in building our faith upon ours too; even because its doctrine is so pure, the Church of England, we are building its discipline so severe, its worship so solemn, on a rock' (8) --if, with Hooker, we regard and all its rules and constitutions so holy, per- her as the sustainer of the Churches (9) fect, and divine, that mankind, being generally —with Nelson, as the glory of the Redebauched in their principles and practices, have formation' (10) - with Bishop Nicholson, a natural averseness from it, if not an antipathy against it.'

as' every way consonant to the doctrine

and discipline of the primitive tinies,' He concludes

and in her constitutions nearest the apos

• Be but you as pious towards God, as loyal (1) Sermon on Form of Sound Words.' to our queen, as sober in yourselves, as faithful (2) Dedic. of Common Apology, vol x. to your friends, as loving to your enemies, as (3) The Reformation of the Church of England charitable to the poor, as just to all, as our Justified, General Preface, s. 1. Church enjoins you; in a word, be but you as (4) Concio in discessu Palatini. 1613. conforunable to her as she is to the Catholic (5) Scholast. Hist., Pref. Church in all things, and my life, my eternal

(6) Life of Sancroft, vol. i. p. 168.
(7) Icon Basil., s. xxvii.

(8) Reply to Fisher, p. 588.
(1) Bramhall, Sermon on the Coronation, 1661. (9) Book iv. s. 14.
Works, p. 957.

(10) Life of Bull, p. 24, s. vi.

tolic church of any church in the Chris. that they whose words were even as oratian world;' (1)—with Bishop Bilson, as cles amongst men seemed evermore loth wholly and truly Catholic, such as the to give sentence against anything publicly Scriptures do precisely command, and received in the Church of God, except it the ancient fathers expressly witness was were wonderfully apparently evil; for the faith and use of Christ's Church for that they did not so much incline to that many hundreds' (2)—if, with Archbishop severity which delighteth to reprove the Bancroft, we call her the most apostolic least things it seeth amiss, as to that and flourishing Church, simply that is in charity which is unwilling to behold any. all Christendom;' and, like him, "pray thing that duty bindeth it to reprove ?" unto Almighty God, with all our very Alas! to continue with Hooker, 'the state souls, for the long and happy continuance of this present age, wherein zeal hath of the blessed example, which it and this drowned charity, and skill meekness, will realm of England hath showed, in this not now suffer any man to marvel, whatlast

age of the world, unto all the king. soever he shall hear reproved, by whomdoms and countries on the earth that pro- soever.' (1) fess the gospel with any sincerity' (3) - Another remarkable fact in the history if, with Brett, we allow that her govern- of our old divines is the steadiness of ment is modelled, as near as may be, to their adherence to the Church throughout that which was founded by Christ and his all her trials and afflictions. As they apostles, and that there are no alterations never confounded the excellence of her made from the primitive constitution but principles as a system with the sins of what the different state of the Church her children, who refused to act on them, made in some manner necessary' (4)- so neither did they regard the punisheven if, with Archbishop Sancrost in his ment of those sins as any indication of touching expostulation to the Duke of the displeasure of God upon herself. York, we liken her to that lily among They saw her indeed in a state in which thorne,' the purest certainly on earth ;'(5) they might well have doubted if God's or,--in language not uncommon in lips favour were with her; just as the prophwhich never used irreverence,-to her ets in Babylon might have distrusted his blessed Lord himself, exposed to perse. favour on Jerusalem, and have abandoned cution on all sides, and "crucified be. the love of Jerusalem itself, because the tween thieves'-are such words of grati. Jews had deserved to be exiled from it. tude to God, and of loyalty to the moth. Instead of this, they humbled themselves er that bore us, to be construed into ar. in sackcloth ; they laid the burden on rogance and boasting? Are they not themselves, but did not deny that still compatible with the greatest charity to their church was Zion. the defects of others; with the deepest penitence for our own sins, which have O never let any Christian,' says Bishop Nibeen committed against the warnings and cholson, of whai rank soever, áud that ialen i example of such a parent? Are they not voked our good God to pour out the vials of his

of lead to that sin which hath so highly prolessons of humility and shame, rather wrath against this our Church, and these three than vauntings of presumption ?

Nations, (that I mention not the others of And so, with these great men, if we do Christendom,) as not to lay it to heart. suspect defects even in this admirable Gud sinking the gates, his destroying the walls, system, will it not be wise to follow the his slighting the strongholds of Zion, his pollaw laid down by the greatest legislator luting the kiagdom, his swallowing the palaces, of antiquity, and shutting up all such our feasts

, his abominating our sabbaths, his questions from the young, deliberate of loathing our solemnities ; God's forgetting his them only in secret with the old ?' (6) footstool, his abhorring his sanctuary, his suiserShall we be ashamed of cherishing that ing men to break down all the carved work 'acient simplicity and softness of spirit, thereof with axes and hainmers, are all eriwhich sometime prevailed in the world, dences to me, that in the indignation of his an

ger he hath despised the king and the priest.' (2) (1) Exposit. of Church Catech., Epist. Dedic, So Hammond with the same voice, Apology for the Discipline, p. 42,

after enlarging on the two great excel. (2) True Differ. Epist. Dedic.

(3) Preface to Dangerous Positions, b. i, p. 2. len cs of the Reformation-its adherence Survey, p. 460.

[4] On Church Government, p. 141.
(5) D'Oyly's Life of Sancroft, vol, i, p. 166. (1) Eccl. Pol., book iv. s. 1.
(6) Plato de Legib., lib. i.

(2) Apology, p. 151.

to antiquity and its union of faith and valuable works against it were written works :

under every temptation to attempt a re

conciliation, and join with it against a " 'Tis but just that they which have walked common foe. So the recollection of their unworthy of such guides and rules as these, Church was their solace and hope in all lived so contrary to our profession, should at length be deprived of both, not

their distress :

only to have our two staves broken, Beauty and Bands, the symbols of order and unity, both which have

'I shall only crave leave,' says Bishop Tay. now for some years taken their leaves of us; lor, that I may remember Jerusalem, and call but even to have the whole fabric demolished, to mind the pleasures of the temple, the order the house to follow the pillars' fate, and so to of her services, the beauty of her buildings, the be left—and abide without a sacrifice, and with sweetness of her songs, the decency of her minout an image, and without an Ephod, and with- istrations, the assiduity and economy of her out Teraphim, deprived of all our ornaments

priests and Levites, the daily sacrifice, and that lesı naked and bare, when we had misused our eternal fire of devotion that went not out by day beauty unto wantenness. Thus when the Devil nor by night; these were the pleasures of our was turned out of his habitation, and nothing peace, and there is a remanent felicity in the followed but the sweeping and garnishing the very memory of those spiritual delights which house, and keeping it empty of any better guest; we then enjoyed, as antepasts of heaven, and the issue is, the devil soon returns again, from consignations to an immortality of joys.: (1) whence he came out, and brings seven spirits worse than himself, and the end of that state is

They even triumphed in their afflictions worse than the beginning. And so still the for the sake of truth :taking of the ark, and the breaking the high priest's neck, and the slaying his sons, and · Yet neither with us,' says Hammond, nor many more, in that discomfiture, are all far with our dearest mother the Church still (by from new or strange, being but the natural | God's providence) of England, sorrowful as she effec's of the profanations, which not the ark is, yet still beauteous, and from her very hu. itself (that was built, every pin of it, according miliation more deeply to be reverenced, (and by to God's direction) but the sacrificers, not the us more preciously esteemed, since, hung upon religion but the worshippers, were so scanda- the cross, she hath been conformed to the image lously guilty of.' (1)

of our Lord,) is there room for complaints or

discontentments. Yea, rather do we think that Instead of being shaken from their al- we may rejoice and be glad, that now for ten legiance by the captivity and sufferings full years our constancy and dutiful obedience, of the Church, they clung to her the inore sealed with the loss of all our furtunes, with affectionately and dutifully. They antici- blood itself, being made a spectacle to God, and pated with sanguine hope the day of their angels, and men, with none to support and aid restoration, when, according to Bram- bui Him who appointed for us the trial, we hall's dream, the cathedral which he had have boldly, and like to wrestlers in the games, seen fall suddenly on his head should rise made good and proved. He, our most merciful up as suddenly without noise. (2) They Father, whom even now with constant prayers ceased not, as Bishop Taylor prayed, 'to we sorrowfully resort to, will grant, as we do love and to desire the Liturgy, which was after so many vicissitudes of storm, a calm and

hope, to the other parts of the universal church, not publicly permitted to their practice blessed peace. He will grant unto Christenand profession,'(3) nor selt inclined to dom halcyon and tranquil days. With us our borrow more exciting and enthusiastic sufferings, our wounds, and scars—as “spiritual forms from a breviary or missal, as if the pearls," says Ignatius--yea, rather as “diadems sobriety of our own service-book

of God's truly elect,” says Polycarp-not to be insufficient to raise the heart

, and had repurchased from us by any bribe of a flattering been proved so by the defections from the world, by any price of deep and unbroken rest

as being that wherewith we are conformed to Church. Bull, Sanderson, and Hammond the death of Christ, are to be counted by us learned from ii by rote, when not allowed among the donatives of our king, anong his to use the Book. (+) They cxerted them- favours, and our privileges. Let posterity judge selves as strenuously as ever against of us from this, that we complain of no one; Popery, when exiled from their

that we give thanks for all men-Father, forcountry

give them. “Lord, lay not this sin to their by Puritanism; and several of their most

charge."' (2)

And their voice was then as earnest (1) Hammond, Parænesis, c. ii. s. 25, 26. Works, vol. i. p. 378.

and as faithful as ever in recalling wan(2) Life prefixed to his Works. Sec the same derers to their duty : fact enlarged on in Dr. Wordsworth’s Christian Institutes, vol. iv. p. 578.

(1) Works, vol. vii. p. 284. (3) Works, vol. vii. p. 312.

(2) Diss. iv. contra Blundell. Epist. s. 8. (4) Life by Nelson, s. ix. Walton's Lives. Works, vol. iii. p. 716.

were

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