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preserved to this day with due veneration in using for this purpose all instruments, all the Protestant Churches ;'(1) and, lastly, whether of good or of evil ; professing rewith Whitgift, as that so notable a bishop, verence for all holy things, that it may win so learned a man, so stout a champion of true the holy, and practising indulgence to all religion, so painful a prelate.'-Pardon me,' sin, that it may retain the sinner.(1) More. he concludes, as we will conclude also, over they had before their eyes, and were 'though I speak somewhat earnestly; it is in brought into immediate contact with, that the behalf of a Jewel that is contemned and final and matured development of Popery, defaced.—He is at rest, and not here to its great engine and full representative, the answer for himself.—Thus have I answered system of Jesuitism ; of which we in this in his behalf, who both in this, and other day know little, and believe less; but which, like controversies, might have been a great though expelled from every country where stay to this Church of England, if we had it had settled, as if its very existence was been worthy of him. But whilst he lived, incompatible with either society or religion, and especially after his notable and most had been created, and is now again restored, profitable travails, he received the same re- unchanged and uncensured, by the Romish ward of ungrateful tongues, that other men Church, to wield in her service a machinery be exercised with, and all must look for of such gigantic power, and such atrocious that will do their duty.'(2.)
principles, that the best and greatest men, Such are some of the considerations not only of our own, but of the Roman comwhich entitle the judgment of our old munion, have been compelled to confess Divines to the highest respect from every that, if the foreshadowed form of the Antitrue member of the Church; and the christ
, which is still to come, can anywhere more they are studied, the more there be traced, it must be here. will be found in them those marks of All this must be borne in mind, when we discretion and temperance that absence approach the writings of our divines of the of partial views, renunciation of self as an seventeenth century; and especially it will authority, adherence to primitive antiquity, prepare us for many facts which must strike dislike of needless change, and yet willing- a student, when he inquires into their mode ness to change for good; refusal to com- of managing that controversy with Popery promise truth for peace, and yet earnest and Puritanism, which the English Church, struggles after peace; patient and labori- now, as throughout the whole of her existous pursuit of accurate information, strict ence, will in some shape or other be obliged and accurate reasoning, and largeness of to sustain. comprehension, which, as was said before, I. There is a disposition in the present when a witness is summoned to give evi- day to shrink from all strong and harsh ex. dence, compel respect to his testimony, pressions, when speaking of Popery:
It even without reference to his statements. may be that the general tone of our mind is
One point more is deserving of atten- relaxed in regard to strict lines of religious tion. It is their profound and extensive truth; or the infection of a spurious liberalknowledge of Popery in all its bearings. ity has crept in, even where it is most repuThey did not shape their judgment of it diated ; or we think little of the sins of by some imaginary hope of effecting an Popery, as compared with those of Dissent ; impossible reconciliation ; nor from some or so much of our own sins, that we dare favourable specimen of the Gallican Church, not condemn the sins of others. Or wę the least popish of all popish communions;overvalue the preservation of many outward nor from the face which Popery can assume apostolic ordinances in the Church of Rome, when addressing itself to an educated mind; till we undervalue its departure from an aposnor from the Catholic portions retained in tolical spirit ; as if succession without Docit, and by some confounded with the Papal. trine was not rather a curse than a blessing. They saw it before them, practically en-Or, what is most probable, we know little gaged in its real and characteristic work; of its real nature; or we are shocked by the that work which it has been about from the unthinking abuse and calumny, which have beginning, and which constitutes the very charter and essence of its existence,--the (1) See the masterly Survey of the Popish System acquisition of power-power of all kinds, by Sir Edwin Sandys, Hooker's pupil, in his Euroat all hazards, by all means, over all minds; pæ Speculum, an account which is as accurate at
this day as ever, and well deserves to be reprinted.
See also J. Taylor's Letter I., to One seduced to (1) Works, vol. ij. pp. 439, 457.
the Church of Rome, Works, vol. xi. p. 187; and (2) Defence of the Answer to the Admonition, Bishop Bull's Sermon on the Necessity of Works pp. 423, 435.
of Righteousness, vol. i. p. 9, et seq.
been too often heaped on it by men who and say, “ Dominus dixit,” the Lord hath said would equally revile our own Church ; or it
, and he hath not said it. If we had put are perplexed in drawing the line between these severe censures upon the Popish docirine the good and evil of the Romish system, and of tradition, we should have been thought un
charitable; but, because the holy fathers do so, so fear to censure at all ; or are unwilling we ought to be charitable, and snatch our charges that one sister Church (much less an indi. from the ambient flame.' (1) vidual) should sit in judgment upon another. Whichever of these reasons prevails (and
There is therefore in all a sternness of many of them are symptoms of an humble warning against what Hooker calls the gross and amiable spirit,) it is certain that the tend- and grievous abominations' of Popery, even ency of our modern theologians on all sides while yet he gladly acknowledges that Pais, to use a language in respect to Rome far pists may be ‘of the family of Jesus Christ '(2) milder than that of our old divines.
—which may prove of salutary example to All these do, indeed, write, as Bishop Mor- those who have the same battle to fight, and ton, one of the most eminent among them, the same watch to exercise over the fold inwrote, adopting the words of St. Augus. trusted to their care, against the seductions tine :
of a most subtle enemy.(3)
Thus Field, “in his time esteemed a prin. Although they be divided from our body, cipal maintainer of Protestancy, and so adyet we, confessing one bead, Christ, let us de- mirable well-knowing in the controversies beplore them as our brethren ; for we will not tween the Protestants and Papists, that few cease to call them brethren, whether they will or no, so long as they say “Our Father” in in- or none went beyond him-and one that vocation of one God, and do celebrate the same much Jaboured to heal the breaches of Chris. sacraments which we do, and answer, although tendom, and whose desires, prayers, and ennot with us, the same Amen."'(1)
deavours were for peace, not to widen differ
ences, but to compose them,'(4) sums up his Nor, although nearly the whole of their great work on the Church :labours were, from the necessity of the times, controversial, was it any harsh spirit of con • We are well assured that all these (apostol. troversy that animated them to their tasks. ical traditious, general councils, and primitive
fathers) do wiiness against her, that she is an *Far more comfort it were for us,' says Hook- erring, heretical, and apostatical church; that er, and Bishop Nicholson with him, '(so small she hath forsaken her first faith; departed from is the joy we take in these strifes,) io labour her primitive sincerily; plunged those ihat adunder i he same yoke, as men that look for the here unto her into many gross and damnable same eternal reward of their labours, to be en- errors, and defiled herself with intolerable sujoined with you in bands of indissoluble love perstition and idolatry, so that, as well in reand amity, to live as if, our persons being many, spect of her errors in faith, superstition and our souls were but one'; rather than in such dis- idolatry in divine worship, as of her slanderous, membered sort to spend our few and wretched treacherous, bloody, and most horrible and hello days in a tedious prosecuting of wearisome con
ish practices, to overthrow and destroy all that tentions: the end whereof, if they have not do but open their mouths against her abominasome speedy end, will be heavy, even on both tions, we may justly account her to be the syna. sides.' (2)
gogue of Satan, the faction of Antichrist, and
that Babylon out of which we must flee, unless Nor should we forget a remark of Bishop we will be partakers of her plagues.' Taylor, where he employs the very words which the Fathers used in condemning the which he, like the rest, most justly identifies
Thus Jackson, speaking of Jesuitism, doctrine of tradition as now held by Po
with Popery, as the creature and instrument pery :
of its policy: Now let any man judge whether it be not our duty, and a necessary work of charity, and the
Our purpose is not to charge them with for: proper office of our ministry, to persuade our gery of any particular, though grossest Herecharges from the “innmodesty of an evil heart, from having a “devilish spirii," from doing that "which is vehemently forbidden by the Apos
(1) Preface to Dissuasive from Popery, vol. x. p.
cxviii. tle," from “infidelity and pride ;” and, lastly, from that “eternal woe which is denounced
(2) Eccles. Pol, book iii. 8. 1.
(3) See the remarkable Epilogue to Bishop Hall's against them that add other words and doc- Old Religion, vol. ix. p. 385, where he sums up his trines than what is contained in the Scriptures, admonitions thus: “Shortly, let us hate their opi.
nions, strive against their practice, pity their mis.
guiding, neglect their censures, labour their recove(1) Preface to A Catholic Appeal for Protestants. ry, pray for their salvation.' (2) Preface to Eccles. Pol. s. 9. Apology, p. 240. (4) Wood's Athen. Oxon., by Bliss, vol. ii. p. 184.
sies; or Blasphemies, though most hideous; holy leagues and pious frauds through Christenbut for erecting an entire frame, ca pacious of all dom, and particularly among us) - which, as it Villanies imaginable, far surpassing the hugest without reason danineth, so it would by any mathematical form human fancy could have means destroy all that will not crouch thereconceived of such matters, but only from in- to.' (1) spection of this real and material pattern, which by degrees insensible hath grown up with the Even Laud, who pleads so strongly against Mystery of Iniquity as the bark doth with the the use of ill language against an adversa. tree.'(1)
ry'(2)—that is, of coarse words, which im. Again :
ply only abuse without discriminating truth
- yet, when truth is to be spoken, speaks *If all such particulars [speaking of papal out :dispensations) were duly collected, and examined with the circumstances, we might refer it to
• For a church may hold the fundamental any heathen civilian, to any whom God hath point literally, and as long as it stays there be not given over to a reprobate sense to believe without control; and yet err grossly, dangerlies, whether the supposed infallibility of the ously, nay damnably, in the exposition of it. Romish Church, of the prerogative given to the And this is the Church of Rome's case.' All Pope by his followers, be not, according to the Protestants unanimously agree in this, “ that evangelical law and their own tenets, worse than there is great peril of damnation for any man Heresy, and worse than any branch of infidelity to live and die in the Roman persuasion.” (3) whereof any Jew or Heathen is capable ; yea, the very arun or period of Antichristianism So Bishop Montague, esteemed one of ... because it makes sin to be no sin.' the most indulgent among them ;'(4) 'I do
not, I cannot, I will not deny that idolatry So even Thorndike, a little before his is grossly committed in the Church of Rome.' death, giving his judgment of the church of And, though he would not allow that the Rome :
Bishop of Rome personally was that Anti
christ,' the individual man of sin,- an AnI do not allow salvation to any that shall change, having these reasons before him. ..... tichrist,' he adds, 'I hold him or them, carHow can any Christian trust his soul with that rying themselves as they do in the Church.' Church which hath the conscience to bar him And, in another place, of such helps ' [service in a known tongue, and the Eucharist in both kinds) provided by ‘Surely if the general of the Jesuits' order God?' (2)
should once come to be Pope, and sit in Peter's
chair, as they call it, I would vehemently susSo Hickes:
pect him to be the party designed “the Anti
christ:" for out of what nest that accursed bird If false and dangerous, or absurd and impos- should rather come abroad than out of that sesible, nay, pernicious and impious doctrines, con
raphical society, I cannot guess.' (5) trary to Scripture expounded by Catholic tradition, derogatory to the honour of Jesus Christ So Bishop Bull :and the Christian religion, and destructive of the rights and liberties of the Catholic Church, be “I look upon it as a wonderful both just and damnable heresies, then your religion, by which wise providence of God, that he hath suffered I mean the Popery of it, is a multiform damna- the Church of Rome to fall into such gross er. ble heresy: as we doubt not but a truly free and rors, (which otherwise it is scarce imaginable general council, could such a one be had, would how men in their wits, that had not renounced soon determine; and to such a council we are not only the Scriptures, but their reason, yea, ready to appeal.' (3)
and their senses ioo, could be overtaken with,)
and to determine them for articles of faith.(6) So Barrow blesses God,
So Brett :who rescued us from having impious errors, scandalous practices, and superstitious rites, with and confounder of the true primitive and apos
'The Bishop of Rome, the grand subverter merciless violence obtruded upon us by that tolical discipline, as well as doctrine of the Romish zeal and bigotry--(that mint of woeful Christian church, in all places where he could factions, and combustions of treasonable con- at any time usurp an authority and find the spiracies, of barbarous massacres, of horrid as- means to execute it.'(7) sassinations, of intestine rebellions, of foreign invasions, of savage tortures and butcheries, of
(1) Sermon on Gunpowder Treason, vol. i.
113. (2) History of the Troubles, p. 398. (3) Conference with Fisher, pp. 197, 208.
(4) Bramhall, Just Vindic., tom. i. Dís. iii. p. 358. (1) Vol. i. p. 365; vol. iii. p. 899.
(5) Appeal to Cæsar, pp. 249, 145, 159. Answer (2) Hickes, Several Letters, vol. i. Appendix, to the Gagger, p. 75. Pap. i.
(6) Works, vol. ii. p. 187. (3) Several Letters, vol. i. p. 174.
(7) On Church Government, p. 443.
So Stillingfleet :
Popery, considered as a system, without
reference to individual members of it, is We charge them (the Romanists) with not only in error,' and 'superstitious, those reasons for separation which the Scrip. but 'heretical, in schism,' ture allows, such as idolatry, perverting the gos- idolatrous,'(1) “an Antichrist, if not the
rebellious, pel and institutions of Christ, and tyranny, over the consciences of men in making those ihings Antichrist; that it is a wonder how any necessary to salvation which Christ never made learned man can with a good and quiet
But none of these can with any appearance conscience continue in it;'(2) and that, of reason be charged on the Church of England notwithstanding the validity of its ordi--since we profess to give religious worship only nances, it risks the salvation of those who to God; we worship no images; we invocate trust to it-is the uniform language of no saints; we adore no host; we creep to no crucifix; we kiss no relics. We equal no tradi- the men who have always been held up tions with the gospel ; we lock it not up from by our Church as her greatest ornaments the people in an unknown language; we preach and pillars, and as the firmest defenders no other terms of salvation than Christ and his of her catholic and apostolical character, apostles did; we set up no monarchy in the especially against Popery--"those emChurch to undermine Christ's, and to dispense inent and learned bishops of our Church, with his laws and institutions. We mangle no that have stood up in the gap, and fought sacraments, nor pretend to know what makes more for the honour of bis blood than he did the battles of the Lord against that Gohimself. We pretend to no skill in expiating liath of Rome;' that have borne the men's sins when they are dead; nor in iurning burden and heat of the day, and have beatthe bottomless pit into the pains of purgatory en these Philistines at their own by a charm of words and a quick motion of the pons;'(3) and who, in the judgment of hand. We do not cheat men's souls withi false Laud, laid grounds in their works, from bills of exchange, called indulgences; nor give which, whensoever the Church of Eng. out that we have the treasure of the Church in our keeping, which we can apply as we see oc
land shall depart, she shall never be able, casion. 'We use no pious frauds to delude the before any learned and disengaged Chrispeople, nor pretend to be infallible, as they do tians, to make good her difference with, when they have a mind to deceive. These are and her separation from the Church of things which the divioes of our Church have Rome.?(4) And when called to answer for with great clearness and strength of reason this language before God, they will have made good against the Church of Rome; and
a noble defence to make-that they spoke, since they cannot be objected against our Church, with what face can men suppose the not as enthusiasts of the day now speak, cases of those who separate from each of them condemning what ought to be praised, to be parallel ? ' (1)
and substituting abuse for reason, but
thoughtfully and deliberately ;(5) with disSo Bramhall says :
crimination of truth from falsehood; with
the records of Catholic antiquiry as their 'That church which hath changed the apos- guide ; and with a deep insight into the apostolical regiment, and the apostolical com- whole mystery of iniquity. They conmunion, is no apostolical, orthodox, or catholic demned Rome, not for exalting, but dechurch. But the Church of Rome hath chang- stroying episcopacy; not for magnifying, ed the apostolical creed, ilie apostolical succes- but degrading sacraments; noi for revesion, the apostolical regiment, and the apostol, rencing, but despising antiquity ; not for ical constitution. Therefore the Church of honouring saints, but for dishonouring Rome is no apostolical, orthodox, or catholic God through them ; tot for observing church.'
forms, but for converting religion into And again :
forms; not for retaining, but for aban
doning tradition, and setting up a religion "The Church of Rome resolves its faith, not of novelty ; not for preserving scriptural into divine revelation and authority, but into truth in apostolical creeds as well as in the infallibility of the present church, not know. Scripture, but for tampering with those ing, or not according, what that present church is. Therefore the Church of Rome haih noi True faith.' (2)
 See the Testimonies of our divines against the
idolatry of Rome, collected by Stillingfleet. PreThere is no pleasure in multiplying face, vol. v.
 Bull, Corrupt. of the Church of Rome, vol. ii. such passages, nor is it necessary. That!
 Bishop Nicholson, Apology, pp. 156, 172. (1) Works, vol. ii. p. 649.
 History of Troubles, pp. 160, 418. (2) Works, tome i. Disc. i. pp. 43, 44. See  See for instance, Hickes, Cont. Lett. v. ii. pp. also tome i. Dis. iii. p. 165.
creeds and adding to them; not for se- deep, hearty, unshaken affection and deverity of discipline, but for laxity and li. votion to their dear Mother Church of centiousness. They will plead with England. They did not contemplate it Hooker, with Sanderson, with Stilling- as perfect. . No institution that passes fleet, with Hall, that they did not con- through human hands can be perfect. found the persons of Papists with the sys. They felt, in the spirit of the martyr tem which oppresses them—that they Charles, that, the draught being excel. rejoiced and blessed God for all the good lent as to the main, both in doctrine and and holy men within it whom He had government, some lines, as in very good saved from its pollutions, as men escape figures, may haply need some sweetening the plague in a pest-house (1) They spoke or polishing.'(1) With Laud, they would as members of a Church who had spoken not deny that, if the liturgy of the Church strongly also. As her children, they were were well as it is, and might easily be called on to justify her acts before Christ- made worse,' it might in the order of the endom-under her, as the only repre- prayers' also be made better.'(2) They sentative of the Catholic Church capable prayed with Bishop Andrewres that its of raising her voice with effect, to protest deficiencies be supplied.'(3) But deficienin behalf of Catholic truth, though all cies- defectus' (4)--with Bishop Anaround were silent, and to speak none drewes did not mean faults and vices in the but their mother's tongue.'(2) With her constitution of the Church, but the want they warned both those who refused to of means for carrying on its work and come within her fold, and those whom a practising its principles-the wants which most subtle enemy was seducing from her, we all feel at this day-of more bishops, of the peril of defection; warned them more clergy, more learning, more indiwith no uncertain sounds--by bold words vidual piety, more alms, more developed --not putting bitter for sweet, and sweet organisation for missionary exertions, for bitter, or drawing subtle lines which more institutions for the nurture and edu. common eyes could not discern—not do- cation of souls at hoine-more blessings ing small benefit to the Church of God frorn heaven to rain down its dew upon by disputing with them according unto the us, and bring out in full perfection all the finest parts of their dark conveyances, seeds of holiness and power which are ly. and suffering that sense of their doctrine ing in the womb of our Church ready to to go uncontrolled, wherein by the com. spring forth. mon sort it is ordinarily received and Still less did they condemn the Church practised ;'(3) nor yet presumptuously, for the faults of her individual members, from their own private passion, but as
or for the evils of the times with which men set in authority and answerable for she had to struggle. If such a principle the souls which might be lost, either by of judgment be once admitted-if the exblinding papists to their danger, or offend- istence of sin, and anarchy, and dissening weak brothers by provoking their sus- sion, be an argument against the goodpicion. And they might add, what in this ness of that government under which day of weak indulgence would be heard they may break out—let men look to the with most excuse, that to speak with very grounds of their faith, and think how words of the utmost severity of the sys. they can stand to defend (with all revertem, but in the spirit of charity to indi. ence let us venture to speak) the govern. viduals, is found, by experience, the sur-ment of God bimself. (5) est mode of awaking attention without If anything could have tempted them provoking bitterness. To speak softly is to waver in their faith and allegiance, it to exasperate the more, because, if there must have been the state into which Eng. is little evil in Popery why needlessly op
(1) Icon Basil., II. There is another remarkable fea (2) Troubles, pp. 115, 208. ture in this body of divines. It is their (3) Prayers, Monday, Intercession.
(4) This word “defectus' has been sometimes re
ferred to as if it implied in the mind of Bishop An See a noble passage in Sanderson's VI. Serm. drewes distrust and dissatisfaction at the system of ad Pop. s. 17, quoted by Stillingfleet, Works, vol. the Church of England. How far this was from vi. p. 51. Hooker, book iii. s. i.; and Life of his meaning may be seen in the concluding passage, Hooker, by I. Walton. See also Usher's Sermon too long to be quoted, in his Concio in Discessu on the Universality of the Church of Christ. Palatini, 1613.  Bishop Hall, Christ. Mod. Works, vol. vi. (5) See this whole question admirably argued in
Hickes' Apologetical Vindication of the Church of  Hooker, b. iii. s. 7.