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and Scottish Fisheries.
before it is allowed to reach the river.'-Report, that of the rivers had declined, even to the exp. vi. ; Evidence, p. 274.
tent of causing the abandonment of the station
in the river. The committee concluded their The committee next-Heaven's blessings labours by instructing their chairman to bring on them for it !-thought of the patient brother in a Bill io alter and amend the Act 9 Geo. of the angle, and recommended that, after the IV., c. 39,* in conformity with their report: of termination of the ordinary fishing-season,
which we now take leave, not without regret, further term of fourteen days should be allowed, for it is useful and entertaining, and illustrated during which it should be lawful, under certain with maps and plates of nets-the pay-sole-net
, restrictions, to fish for salmon and fish of the sal- the bag-net, the sole-net, the fly-net
, the cleekimon kind with the rod. There was, in truth, an net, cruives, and other devices fatal to fish: angler or two among them; but, without allow
so that any one who was not aware of the ing our tendency rod-ward to affect our judg- multitudinous roe of the salmon would wonder ment, we give them full credit for the absence of that salmon-kind is not altogether extinct; the selfish feelings, and are disposed to think with stairs for their accommodation, and the Saturthem that such a privilege will have a material day's slap, notwithstanding, effect in interesting in the improvement of the But Dame Nature is inexhaustible; and fishery the heritors upon the upper parts of the should she ever require a little aid, we beg to rivers, who chiefly possess the opportunity and call the attention of those interested in freshpower of protecting the fish during the breed-water fish and fishing to the following interesting-season.
ing paper, by Sir Francis A. Mackenzie, of But how were these regulations recommend- Conan, Rosshire, containing brief and practied to be enforced ?
cal instructions for the breeding of salmon and •The committee are of opinion that the heri- other fish artificially :tors should have power to appoint and pay inspectors, in addition to the water-bailiffs and
* In the autumn of 1840, having chosen a other officers authorised by existing acts, the brook flowing rapidly into the river Ewe, a duty of all persons so appointed being to see the hollow spot adjoining to it was selected and various provisions and regulations carried into cleared out, of the following dimensionseffect. They further recommend that summary length, 23 yards—breadth, from 12 to 18 feet; powers should be vested in the proper authori. and all large stones having been taken away, ties for enforcing the various regulations, and the bottom was covered, one foot thick, with imposing the penalties which may be annexed
coarse sand and small gravel, the largest stones to the violation of them.'—Report, p. vii.
not exceeding the size of a walnut. A stream
from the brook was then led into this hollow, All these summary powers are wormwood so as to form a pool of about eight inches in to a profession which we hold in the highest depth at the upper and three feet at the lower respect; but which seems occasionally a little end, thus giving it one uniform gentle current too much given to hug its own interests at the over the whole pool: whilst the supply of water expense of the public. The last government was so regulated by a sluice as to have the professed anxiety, to put substantial justice same depth at all times; and a strong stone
wall excluded all eels or trout, so destructive within every man's reach: we all know that both to spawn and fry. law is so expensive a luxury in this land of
On the 13th of November, four pair of salmon, freedom, that an indulgence in litigation is re- male and female, were taken by net from the served for the opulent; but if these reformers Ewe, and carefully placed in the pool; on the 18th were sincere on this point, they found the .con- they showed a disposition to spawn, but on the sequences of having lost the faith of the nation 20th the whole were carried away by some illin general. The men of the gown bestirred disposed persons; and, on examining the pool, themselves boldly and successfully-and the only a small quantity of ova appeared to have sacred cry of trial by jury was profaned by
been deposited. On the 23d of November four raising it as a barrier against the cry of the poor for justice. The number of martyrs is now, we think, complete; and, not withstanding the
* What became of this Bill heaven knows: it obtrusive Jeremiads of some self-seekers— seems to bave been one of the multitudinous good 'Soles melius nitent.'.
intentions with which whiggery is paved. We
have searched the statute-book from 1836 to 1841, But to come back to our committee. The both inclusive, and can find nothing relrting to returns of the produce of river-fishings were, in Scotch salinon.fisheries, except the Acts relating to some instances, withheld from them, whilst the Tweed and the Annan in Dumfries-shire (local
and personal). Whilst we write, however, we see those of the coast-fishings were readily given. that NIr. H. Drummond has brought in a Bill to alter The committee could of course only judge the close-time of the salmon-fisheries in Scotland. from the returns furnished to them. In those The Bill we have not seen, but Mr. Drummond's instances where returns were given the pro. high, and we trust we shall find that he has kept his
reputation for fairness as well as acuteness is very duce of the coast-fishing had increased, while l eye steadily fixed on this Report.
Sutherland Improvements and Scottish Fisheries.
pair of salmon were again caught and placed in could be judged, they succeeded equally well the pool, which were observed to commence with that in the baskets. Perhaps the baskets spawning on the day following: caught them may have a preference over the other methods carefully-squeezed gently about 1200 ova from tried, as affording more certain protection to the a female into a basin of water, and then pressed spawn during winter; and it is proper to state about an equal quantity of milt from a male that the last-described mode of depositing the fish over them; stirred the two about gently ova and milt was most successful. There can but well together with the fingers, and, after be no doubt, from the success which has attend. allowing them rest for an hour, ihe whole was ed these experiments, that the breeding of saldeposited and spread in one of the wicker- mon or other fish in large quantities is, comparabaskets recommended by Professor Agassiz, tively speaking, easy, and that millions may be having about four inches of gravel below them, produced, protected from every danger, and and iwo or three inches of gravel above. A iurned out into their natural element at the prosimilar quantity of ova, treated in the same per age, which Mr. Shaw has proved by repeatway, was also deposited in one of the copper- ed experiments on a small scale to be when wire bags as used by Mr. Shaw; and both were they have attained about two years of age. then immediately placed under water in the When the par marks disappear they assume pool: a liule of the ova was buried in the open the silvery scales of their parents, and distinct. gravel at about three inches in depth. In ly show a strong inclination to escape from another basket, and also in another copper-wire confinement and proceed downwards to the bag, two or three inches of gravel were placed sea. over the bottom of each, and both basket and * Professor Agassiz asserts, and I fully believe bag laid in the pool, covered with about four with truth, that the ova of all fish, when proinches of water. The ova of a female and milt perly impregnated, can be conveyed in water of a male were then successively squeezed from of a proper temperature even across the Atlantwo fish on the gravel in both basket and bag, tic, as safely as if it were naturally deposited by and spread over it regularly with the hand, one the parent fish; so that any quantity of salmon after ihe other; and, after leaving them exposed or oiher spawn can (after impregnation on the in this state to the water for a few minutes, the banks if a river) be carried to other streams, whole was covered with two or three inches of however distant, which may be favourable for gravel, and left in the pool. These four pair of hatching. It may be right to observe, that as fish afterwards emitied voluntarily a small the fry are to remain two years in the artificial quantity of spawn which had been left with pools where hatched, fresh places must be used them; and, on the 1st of December, they were every second year for the spawn, as even oneall turned out into the river. On the 3d of year-old fry will destroy spawn, or their more December, caught three pair of salmon which infantile brethren, if lest together: old spent had already partially spawned in the Ewe: salmon are also destructive both to spawn and used another basket and also another wire-bag, fry. treating the spawn in the same manner as last • It can only be ascertained by experience described; these fish were then also allowed to what kind or quantity of food will be required deposit voluntarily the little spawn of which for the fry. Carrion hung at the top of the pool they had not been deprived, and afterwards in which they are would, in the opinion of Proturned out into the river. On the 19th of Feb- fessor Agassiz and Mr. Shaw, supply them with ruary, examined the ova, and life was plainly maggots; but in this there are difficulties, and observed in the baskets, wire-bags, and unpro- when tried by me this season, a few of the fry tected gravel, both were placed artificially and were found dead round the carrion given to where deposited by the salmon themselves. them. The droppings of cattle allowed to rest
* 191h of March, the fry had increased in size, till half dry, and occupied by worms and the and went on gradually increasing, mueb in pro- ova of insects, appear io suit ihem best. About portion to the temperature of the weather. the first of September last, when on an agricul.
*22d, the eyes were easily visible, and a few tural tour of Belgium, I visited an establish. of the ova had burst, the young fry having a ment belonging to King Leopold, and adjoining small, watery, bladder-like sac attached to the his new palace of Ardennes, on a much more throat.
extensive scale than that now described, where • 18h of April, the baskets and bags were the breeding of trout had been tried for the three all opened; the sacs had become detached from previous seasons, though with but little success. their throats, the fry measured about three- A very few small trout bred 1839-40 were still quarters of an inch in length, and they swam alive, but the ova of 1841 were a complete about easily, all marked distinctly as pár. The failure, chiefly from not properly covering the baskets recommended by Professor Agassiz spawn with gravel, and other errors.
Bread proved superior to the wire-bags of Mr. Shaw. made of brown and white flour mixed was the In the latter only about twenty per cent. came food found best suited to the few living, who, to maturity, whilst in the former not above ten judging from their shape as seen swimming per cent. proved barren, and in the baskets used about in a small pool, were in excellent condi5th December not above five per cent. was un- tion. The trout-breeding establishment of Ar; productive. It is impossible to say exactly the dennes, however, proves that their spawn, if proportion of ova which came to life either of treated in the same way as that of salmon thai artificially impregnated and deposited in above described, will produce the same success. the open gravel, or of what was spawned by ful results, and that any one possessing a conthe fish themselves naturally, but, so far as venient pond or stream may stock it with the
best kinds of trout or other fish in one or two, might be easily introduced into the streams years, and by good feeding have them in high of this country. It is true that this specondition. Where trout already exist of small cies is more tender than the perch, and size and inferior quality, I would recommend will not bear carriage as that fish will; wholly destroying the breed by saturating the water with quick-lime or any other mode more
and this tenderness, Cuvier thought, had advisable, and procuring spawn or fry from prevented its introduction into France. lakes where the best kinds of trout are found, In these days of steam, however, the fish in Scotland or elsewhere. The same may be themselves might with a little care be said of grayling, pike, or any other kind of fish brought to us alive, to say nothing of the suited to ponds or brooks and rivers as may be transportation of the impregnated ova. desired by their owners, which renders the dis. The fish, which is perch-like in its genecovery now made known of value to all, and in all quarters, as well as to salmon-fishing pro
ral appearance and markings, but much prietors. In conclusion, I hope that the above longer in proportion to its depth, grows to brief account may not only be well understood, the length of three or four feet, and somebut that the ease and comparatively trifling ex- times weighs twenty pounds. The flesh pense at which the breeding of fry can be ac- when well cooked fakes out snow-white, complished may induce many this season to try and is rich and sapid. Excellent is the this novel but successful mode of increasing our stocks of salmon and other fish, and conse
pike-perch plain-boiled ; and good any
how. quently adding largely to the wealth of our
Yet, as far as we know,* neither country.'—Annals of Natural History, Nov., Lucullus nor Phagon ever tasted it, al. 1841.
though the latter swallowed almost every
thing; and on one occasion, after discussSir Francis adds that, should any fur-ing a wether and a pig by way of entrées, ther information be wanted, he will gladly ate up an entire boar at a single dinner, reply to inquiries; and he expresses a an accomplishment which would be inhope that those who may be successful in valuable at our modern tables, where that this spring will communicate to him any stubborn piece of resistance so often reaccount of breeding, feeding, &c. Sir mains untouched. The ancients were, Francis, however, has proved enough to however, up to the artificial breeding of put it in the power of anybody infested fish, apparently, for it is related that Ocwith a poor breed of trout to fill their pla- tavius bred giltheads in the sea like corn ces with such fish as glitter on the rustic upon the ground.' dish borne by the lowly but lovely hand. The neglected fish of our own waters maiden in Edwin Landseer's exquisite is the burbot, or eelpout, Lola vulgaris of Bolton Abbey, if he will only attend to authors, Gadus Lota of Linnæus. Our antheir food. We know Sir Francis to be cestors knew its value well. Many of our a practical man, and we consider this ex. readers have doubtless revelled in the periment of no slight importance. Else- matelote prepared from the Lotte of Lake where* we have shown that the principle Lucerne. That is our burbot--confined is not new; but not the less praise is due to a very few rivers (of which the Cam, to the practical experimentalist who has the Trent, the Ouse, and the Derwent are brought it into successful action. We the principal), and now very little known. have also dwelt on the advantages of na. As it is common in the Swiss lakes, where turalising good species in our fresh wa- it is taken in eel-pots, there is no doubt ters, and we cannot close this imperfect that it would thrive equally well in ours, sketch without alluding to two which are and amply repay those who might breed entirely within our reach: one is still an it for the market, where its superiority inhabitant of some of our rivers. We will would soon be recognised. first speak of the foreigner.
No one has ever tasted the Lucioperca Sandra-or in other words visited Berlin -without pronouncing it delicious. This Art. VI.- Arundines Cami.—Collegit atpike-perch is caught in the Danube, the
que edidit Henricus Drury, A.M. 8vo. Elbe, and the Oder. The genus is said to pp. 261. Cantabrigiæ. 1841. be found in the Baltic, Caspian, and Black seas, and to occur abundantly in the Vol- This elegant volume carries us back to ga. There appear to be several species, the days of youth : it awakens recollecone American, and all are desirable for the table : but the Lucioperca Sandru
Such is the opinion of the learned, who have been unable to trace its presence at the tables of
the ancients, notwithstanding its excellence and its • Quarterly Review, vol. Iviii.
wide European range.
tions of cricket-matches in green summerence shows that, in the season of youthful fields, and boatings on blue and quiet wa- imaginativeness, where one boy will laters. We are again roaming among mea- bour to write well in prose, many will be dows by the river side, or loitering in our ambitious of trying their strength in verse, idle skiff along the stream with friends, this form of composition will always awaksome of whom have reached the irrevoca- en the most earnest emulation, and call ble bourn, some wandered far from us forth the powers of the ripening under. along the devious paths of life; some have standing. It is invaluable, considered risen to eminence and fame, others have merely as a key to the learned languages, sunk or retired into peaceful obscurity. as enabling us to comprehend and feel alí It awakens less tender, perhaps, but more the nicer shades of meaning and exprescalmly pleasurable emotions, the dim re- sion, the delicate turns of thought, the miniscences of those days (for they be- curious felicity and harmony of composilong, we think, rather to the public school tions—the writers of which studied numthan the University), when the world of bers even in prose, and in verse are full poetry and of letters opened before us; of the finest metrical artifices, the liquid when, the drudgery of grammatical in- flow, the solemn pause, the alternating struction being over, our minds began to strength and softness. We may not pos. have free intercourse with the poets, ora- sess the accurate pronunciation or into. tors, and historians of Rome and Greece; nation of Greek or Latin verse—we feel when we studied with fresh and unexhaust- nevertheless the exquisite beauty; the ed wonder the inimitable art of Virgil, the rhythm has that correspondence with the fervid passion of Catullus; Lucretius, thought, the modulation is so nicely adapt. with his unrivalled skill in painting with ed to the feeling, that though the great se. words; and Horace, whose grace and art cret of ancient metre be still in some rewe could feel, but whose shrewd views of spects a mystery, to the well-organised human life it requires more mature expe- and disciplined ear it is full of musicrience in life fully to appreciate : when and the best discipline of the ear is the with not less ardent, but, at first, less con- practice of composition in verse. Even fident enthusiasm, we lifted the curtain of where the Greek or Latin verse is a mere the Greek theatre, penetrated awe-struck cento of classical thoughts, images, or exinto the gloom of Æschylus, admired the pressions, it cannot be unprofitable to finely-constructed fables of Sophocles, or sound scholarship to be frequently reproenchanted our ears with the music of ducing in different form and order, if with Aristophanes: when, at length, as our intelligence and propriety, the conceptions minds approached their stature, we could and the language of the great writers. comprehend the majestic simplicity of This is the lowest view. Where the masHomer. To those in whom such remem- tery over the language is more complete, brances either arise not or arise without and our own thoughts and the creations delight and without gratitude, this book of our fancy are embodied in words perwill have no interest, and our pages no fectly true to the genius and idiom of the attraction--let them pass on, we assure ancient tongue, the exercise is at once them, unenvied, to severer or more stir- the discipline, the test, and the triumph ring matters. For our own parts, we can of consummate scholarship. Arguments, look back on the time, wasted, as some however, we conceive, even if conducted would say, on the composition of Greek with the utmost calmness and impartiality, and Latin verse, not merely with these on such a subject, would hare little effect. soft and pleasing admonitions of the past, Those who think with us are already con. but with deliberate and, we are persuaded, firmed in their tastes-they are experi
. rational satisfaction.
mentally convinced of the value of such We are not disposed to argue the point studies: those who are against us may at length, but we have used the expres. perhaps give us credit for ingenuity in sion of gratitude to such pursuits not care- support of a falling cause--but will still lessly or inadvertently, but in perfect sin- smile superior at our antiquated prejudi. cerity. If scholarship be in itself a gift ces. Who would try to convince a deaf and privilege of the highest value, we man into the love of music? or prove sylknow nothing which contributes so pow- logistically to a man who cares not for erfully to this end-nothing which pro- bodily grace and activity, that gymnastic motes this part of the æsthetic cultivation exercise gives strength, and pliancy, and of the mind, so much as composition in dexterity to the limbs? the learned languages; and since experi- An appeal to authority will, perhaps,
meet with no better reception in adverse sitions, they may be treated as trifles, and quarters. Yet it is remarkable how ma- aspire to no loftier praise, there is a skill and ny of our greatest men in every rank and grace in trifling with ease and felicity of lanprofession have, at some period of their guage and of numbers, which to the experilives, sought either an exercise of their enced ear shows at once the well-instructed scholarship, or sometimes a distraction and accomplished scholar. from weightier cares, in the composition The ingenuity of scholarship, the comof Latin verse. This may be attributed mand of purely classical language, the fein a great degree to the importance long licity of expression, and the facility of attached to these studies in our great pub- versification, are perhaps displayed in the lic schools and in our Universities; but highest degree in translations from mod. it would not have been so frequently re- ern poetry: there is the difficulty of seiz. verted to in after life, if it possessed noting the nearest equivalent phrase, of some intrinsic value, something congenial transfusing the full spirit of the concep. with lofty and cultivated minds that tion or the liveliness of the image, withwhich having adorned the youthful elo- out offending against the genius of the quence, and certainly not enfeebled the older tongue; the close adherence to the high and statesmanlike character of men slight departure from the sense—the sublike Fox, Grenville, Canning, and Welles- stitution, where absolutely necessary, of ley, has become the graceful and manly a kindred form of thought or word: all amusement of their declining years, will this puts to the severest test the resourstill, we are persuaded, command the live-ces of the writer; gives the measure at ly interest of many, and justify our devot- once of his fertility, taste, and judgment; ing some pages of our journal to this and--especially in the shorter pieces-somewhat exclusive subject.
seems to demand that perfect polish, that The editor of this volume bears a name blending of the ease of original composilong, intimately, and honourably connect- tion with fidelity of translation, that ed with two of our great public schools ; blameless correctness both in expression and his own compositions show that he and in versification, which invites, and has not degenerated from his race. His even defies the most rigorous criticism : collection consists entirely of translations: it admits no negligence, and but sparingthey are chiefly, we apprehend, contribu- ly poetic licence ; it must be tasteful as ted by young friends, his contemporaries well as scholarlike. at school or in the University. There We confess we have endeavoured, with appears, indeed, some capriciousness in malicious diligence, to detect that great the admission of a few poems by older capital offence against the only laws with men ;-probably the editor has given such which innovation has not yet dared to as he could command: but if Porson's tamper, those of prosody; that high well-known version of "Three children treason, that sin which comprehends all sliding on the ice'is repeated-(we can. sin, a false quantity ; that which discovnot, indeed, have it too often)—and ver- ered in an Etonian copy of verses-(and ses included (certainly among the very we bave before our court no less a person best in the volume) by that excellent scho. than the head-master of Eton, and, as our lar, the late Bishop of Lichfield, Dr. But- ear, we think infallibly informs us, many ler-we naturally look for other names of his pupils)—would disturb departed not less distinguished in the art. One or provosts in their cerements, turn the retwo such we find indeed, but not always fluent Thames upwards towards Surley affixed to things worthy of the signature. Hall, and make the Long Chamber tremWe cannot, for instance, but wish that ble to its foundations. Whether the tall the good Archdeacon Wrangham, instead spire of Harrow would bow in conof condescending to jingling and unme- science-stricken sympathy with an offendtrical versions of some of the least meri. er from its precincts, or the Wykeham. torious effusions of Mr. Haynes Bayley, ists be disturbed by any such awful porwould have adhered to the really classical tents, we presume not to say: lower style of his own youth.
down the Thames such charges, it is said, Some of the copies of verses here are born with greater equanimity. We given, we must confess, are but indifferent, have searched, however, in vain; but we and there is far too large a proportion, as are forced to add that we cannot acquit we shall presently observe, of a certain all our authors of certain minor offences, class; but many are very elegant, and forgery of phrases without the endorsethough on the whole, even as Latin compo- ment of a respectable authority, and the VOL. LXIX.