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right-don't look about you--straight on-Hur- down, is liable to "flogging and fine.” Whora! Juch!” -Ibid. p. 89.
ever drives over him, even without hurting These istvostchiks scarcely ever enter a him, is liable to "flogging, confiscation of house. Their own few wants are supplied the whole equipage, and Siberia.” ? by the bread, kvass, and tea sellers in the destrian, consequently, if he possess the restreets; hay for their horses is furnished bun. quisite nerve, will insolently cross the street dle-wise in the markets and shops; and the at a leisurely pace, through the most crowded nearest canal gives water. Speaking of the whirl of carriages. "Take care,' shouts a great gaiety of this class, he says, that wher- driver, coming at full speed • Take care of erer a number meet together, generally at yourself --Siberia, Istvostchik!' retorts the the corner of a street, all kinds of play, snow- pedestrian. balling, wrestling, and practical jokes go for- And now a few words upon the istvostward, till the 'Davai' of the pedestrian con- chik's other, if not better half
, his horse : verts them in a moment into the most zealous “The Russian horse, of which thousands may rivals. It has a singular effect, he says, to be seen in the Petersburg horse-market, is the hear the istvostchiks singing the songs which truest representative of the nation. Like his they learned in their native woods and master, neither very tall nor slender, but pliable
and dexterous in his movements-wearing a long steppes unconcernedly beneath the windows
mane, as his master does a long beard-like him, of the St. Petersburg palaces; and it is tough'in constitution, though delicate in form worthy of remark that on great public occa- lazy in the stable, but active and willing in harness sions, and in presence of the emperor and his -untiring in the course, and playful and frisky nobles, the jokes, songs, and witticisms of the with the hardest work--hardy as possible-carlower classes are indulged in with greater ing neither for wind nor weather
, heat nor cold, freedom than they would be with us. There hunger nor thirst, and happier upon mouldy can be no doubt that the Petersburg police oats: it must at the same time be admitted that,
straw ihan his German brother upon golden is strict, annoying, and despotic; but in the like his master also, he puts but little real enerfirst place it is not so in the degree, and gy into his labour, overcomes no difficulties secondly not in the manner, which we sup- which he cannot carry by storm, and sticks fast pose.'
in the mud if the hill cannot be mounted at full Nothing, he says, is more striking to a gallop. No one can say that a Russian uses his foreigner who at all mingles with the lower his temper, and spends niore persuasions and ca
horse cruelly: on the contrary, be rarely loses classes, than the delicate, biting, and ready resses than menaces and blows upon him; but he wit they display on all occasions :
tends him little, and indulges him less-just as “The merest boy and the lowest peasant is litile as he himself is tended and indulged by never at a loss for an answer; and in this re- those under whose rein and curb he stands.' – 1b. spect offers a striking contrast to the awkward, p. 143. embarrassed, and boorish manners of the Ger- Speaking of the enormous consumption of man peasantry. The Russian detects in a brandy among the Russians, from the sturdy moment the weak side of another, and no one old fellow of a century's standing down to can with fewer words turn it to ridicule. If, on the cne hand, there is no country where fewer his great-great-grandchild in the cradle, M. bons-mots are perpetrated than in our good Ger- Kohl remarks, that so entirely does it seem many, there is certainly none where they occur adapted to the constitution of the people that more frequently than in Russia. In the streets in no country does less drunkenness appearand market-places, no less than in the highest in no country are men healthier, stronger, society,* a number of bons-mots, old and new, and with fewer bodily deformities--and in of Russian origin, are perpetually circulating.'Ibid. p. 167.
no country do the inhabitants attain to such an
enormous age with fewer attendant infirmi. But to return to the istvostchik. In spite ties. He then gives the following striking of the freedom of his life, he is subjected, like table of longevity. In the whole Russian every other being who mounts the box, pub- empire there die annually 20,000 men above lic or private, in the empire, to severe laws. 80 years of age (i. e. the third part of the In consequence of the universal rage for yearly obituary), 900 above 100 years of driving, and the reckless rate at which they age, 50 to 55 above 120 years old, 20 above indulge it, all the laws of the street and 130, 8 above 135; while, upon the average, chaussée tend to favour the pedestrian. two or three may be annually reckoned to • Whoever touches a foot-passenger with car-attain the age of 145 to 155, and upwards ! riage or horse, even without throwing him In this calculation only men are included,
but the ladies appear to be no less tough.
This extraordinary longevity he ascribes not . The late Emperor Paul, and his son the present Grand Duke Michael, are celebrated for their so much to the simplicity of their diet and
healthiness of their climate, as to the inher.
ent strength and durability of the Russian- Art. V.-1. An Account of the ImproveSclavonic race.
ments on the Estates of the Marquess of The reader has by this time observed that Stafford in the Counties of Stafford and M. Kohl is peculiarly fond of backing his Salop, and on the Estate of Suiherlund ; assertions by incontrovertible figures, and with Remarks. By James Loch, Esq. accordingly we generally find his quaint lit- 8vo. London. 1820. tle calculations introduced at the close of 2. The New Statistical Account of Scot. some lively scene, like the painter's mono- land. No. XXX. 8vo. Edinburgh and gram at the corner of a picture. In this spirit London. 1841. he demonstrates that, reckoning the whole 3. Report from the Select Committee of area of St. Petersburg, inclusive of the second Salmon Fisheries, Scotland ; together stories of the houses, (few have more than with the Minutes of Evidence, Appentwo), at 600,000,000 square feet, there re- dir, and Index. 1836. mains for each of its 500,000 inhabitantsman, woman, and child-no less a space We resume, according to promise, a subthan 1200 square feet, or a square of 36 feet. ject which, dry as it may seem in some of
Speaking also of the great manual dexter. its details, is one of paramount importity which characterizes the commonest Rus- ance, affecting most materially the gensian, he proposes, by way of experiment, to eral prosperity of the kingdom, and the take so many Russian peasants, and as many comfort of all classes. German, and give them each the contents of The success of any scheme for enlarg. a glass shop to pack up and transport to a ing the sphere of our fisheries must dedistance, in order, from the mean difference pend, as we observed, upon the steady deof breakage, to give to a fraction (as Cap- mand for the article to be supplied, so as to tain Jesse would say) the respective dexter- secure the flow of skill and capital into the ity of either nation.
channels through which the supply is to Either from his not recognising in them be increased. And there is reason to be. any national qualities, or from the conviction lieve that the demand for fish is becoming that rogues are peculiar to no country, M. more general. During the past winter a Kohl has devoted no particular attention to very great portion of the food of the poorthe Chinovniks: nevertheless, one little fable er classes of the metropolis was furnished among a few he translates from Kruilloff— from the sea. Sprats were never finer deservedly called the Æsop of Russia-ex- nor in greater abundance, and they were cellently illustrates their system of magnify- often sold in the streets at the rate of a ing trifles and overlooking essentials:-- halfpenny for as many as would fill a plate.
Devonshire pilchards, cured dry, and look• A Chinovnik, who had been looking through ing most invitingly plump and silvery, a museum of natural history, was giving a friend were to be seen in the shops ticketed, an account of what he had seen. derful things!” he exclaimed ; " birds of the four-pence a dozen. Nor has the supply most exquisite colours-foreign butterflies
of other sorts been wanting. Haddocks, moths, gnats, and beetles of every possible co- in particular, never were larger, better-fed, lour-but so small! so small! you can hardly nor more plentiful. In our early walks see them with the naked eye. “ But what did through the by ways of this great modern you think of the great elephant and the enor- Babel--for he who would study the annals mous mammoth ?” asked his friend.
Ele of the poor with anything like success phant! mammoth! why, bless my heart, I
and er observed them at all!” -Ibid. p. 168.
see-we have not seldom
during this last season observed really If the thing were not a national impossi- good fresh fish, especially plaice, skate, bility, one would say that the sharpest arrow
and soles—better than falls to the lot of of this sarcasm was levelled at the highest at some of the clubs-brought to very
those who are rash enough to order fish head in the empire, who, though quick humble dwellings, and there sold at very enough to detect a straw's-breadth error, too often lets the gaunt form of public corrup
low prices; and few sights could have tion stalk past him unperceived. But the given us more satisfaction. diadem of Russia is a galling crown—who
But in this paper we would beg the ato shall envy it him?
tention of our readers to the Scotch fishWith this parting thrust at the Chinovniks eries, to the union of agriculture with we must draw to a close-an extent of for- fishing, and to the removal of the people bearance which none, without having read
from the inland to the maritime districts, M. Kohl's book, can appreciate.
where circumstances make such removal necessary. This last experiment has been
made on the northern estates of the Duke felt for its inhabitants of all orders, as of Sutherland upon a great scale.
was natural after a connection lost in the That the coast of Sutherland abounded night of ages, during which her house with fish of different species, not only had enjoyed the support of their clanssufficient for the home consumption, but men and vassals in many a struggle and ready to yield a supply to any extent for danger. She had the spirit and heart of a more distant markets, or even for export- genuine chieftainess; and the name of the ation in a cured state, had long been Ban Mhoir-fhear Chaltaibh-the Great known. Sir Robert Gordon, in his "His- Lady of the Country of the Clan-Chattan tory of the Earldom of Sutherland,' thus - will be proudly and affectionately rewrites in 1630:
membered in the Highlands of Scotland,
many a year after the graceful Countess • The country is fitter for pasturage and store and Duchess is forgotten in the courts and than for cornes, by reason there is little manured palaces of which she was for a long periland there. The principal commodities of od one of the most brilliant ornaments. Strathnaver are cattle and fishing, not only sal- To her English alliance, however, her mond (whereof they have great store) but also they have abundance of other kynd of fishes in lasting fame in her own district will be the ocean, that they apprehend great numbers mainly due. Her lord inherited one very of all sorts at their verie doores; yea, in the great fortune in this part of the kingdom, winter seasone, among the rocks, without much and ultimately wielded the resources of trouble, they take and apprehend every day so another not less productive ; and though, much fish onlie as will suffice them for the tyme, as Mr. Loch’s book records, no English and do care for no great provision or store.
nobleman ever did more for the improveIf the inhabitants were industrious, they might gane much by these fishes, but the people of ment of his English estates, he also enterthat country are so far naturallie given to idle-ed with the warmest zeal into his lady's ness, that they cannot applie themselves to la- feelings as to her ancient heritage: he bour, which they esteem a disparagement and added to it, by purchase, various conside derogation unto their gentilitie. There is no rable adjoining estates, which fell from doubi but that country might be much bettered time to time into the market, and finally, by laborious and painfull inhabitants.'
in 1829, one neighbouring mass of land,
the whole estate or country of Lord Reay, The candid manager and historian of which alone comprised not much less than the recent experiment states that though 500,000 acres. It appears that from 1829 these observations are applied by Sir Ro- the whole northern territory of the Duke bert exclusively to the inhabitants of must have amounted to nearly, if not Strathnaver, they are equally true of the quite, 1,500,000 acres--a single estate whole country, except that the people on certainly not in these days equalled in the the Moray Firth never made any exertion British empire, and this in the hands of of any sort to avail themselves of those the same peer who enjoyed also the Engsupplies which the ocean conveyed to lish estates of the Gowers and the Levetheir very thresholds. (Loch, p. 72.) sons, with the canal property of the
This disdain of labour, exquisitely Bridgewaters. It was in consequence of portrayed in Rob Roy's dignified con- the Scotch estates being connected with tempt for weavers and spinners, present this command of English capital, that ed a formidable obstacle to those who felt those northern regions have been, wiihin that it was become a matter of necessity living memory, advanced in prodnctiveto bring the people to industrious habits. ness beyond, we may safely say, any other But let as take a glance at the theatre of example that could be pointed out in the the experiment.
history of British territorial administraThe estate attached to the earldom of tion; but no command of capital could Sutherland (one of the oldest dignities in have insured results so beneficial to this empire) was supposed, at the time the Sutherland family without inflicting when the late Countess married Lord terrible evils on the mass of the populaGower, afterwards Marquis of Stafford, tion, unless there had been a most rare and finally created Duke of Sutherland, to combination of prudence and courage, comprise no less than 800,000 acres—a with generosity and tenderness, in the vast possession, but from which its own. conduct of the affair. No woman, in all ers had never derived more than a very likelihood, could ever have had nerves for small revenue. The Countess, a woman the deliberate adherence to a fixed pur. of remarkable talents, was enthusiastically pose, in spite of clamour and prejudice attached to her ancestral district ; and from without, such as alone sufficed for the successful accomplishment of the was, in the first place, to render this mountainSutherland experiment; for it involved ous districi contributory, as far as it was possithe alteration of the whole business and ble, to the general wealth and industry of the habits of a great Highland population, re situation and peculiar circumstances; this was
country, and in the manner most suitable to its moving them from their accustomed hills to be effected by making it produce a large supin the interior, and converting them into ply of wool for the staple manufactory of Eng. agriculturists and fishermen, or both com land, while, at the same time, it would support bined, upon the coast ; and there was no as numerous and a far more laborious and useregion of the North in which, down to the ful population than it hitherto had done at date of this experiment, the old feelings inhabitants of those districts to habits of regular and customs seemed to be more firmly and continued industry, and to enable them to rooted, than throughout this then savage bring to market a very considerable surplus and poverty-stricken wilderness of moun- quantity of provisions for the supply of the large tain, lake, and morass.
towns in the southern parts of the island, or for Those who had to temper the perfer- the purpose of exportation. A policy well calvidum ingenium of such a race, and to culated to raise the importance and increase the lead it to arts of industry and peace, had happiness of the individuals themselves who no easy task to perform. Perversion and to whom these extensive but hitherto unpro
were the objects of the change, to benefit those misrepresentation eagerly availed them- ductive possessions belonged, and to promote selves of the interest with which the most the general prosperity of the nation. Such was popular author of our time had invested the system which was adopted. In carrying it the Highlanders—a people whose altera- into effect, every care was taken to explain the tion of condition and manners could not object proposed to be accomplished to those indeed be viewed without natural regret them the ultimate advantages thai would ne
who were to be removed, and to point out to even by those who felt that the change cessarily accrue to them from their completion. was for the advantage of the individual
It was distinctly admitted, that it was not and the general prosperity of the country. to be expected that the people would be immeThe most unfounded and unwarrantable diately reconciled to them. Such was to expect statements were put forth to create a pre- more than it was possible to hope for. But it judice against the improvements in this was represented that, if this was so fully felt
, district, and in some small degree they have been strongly and conscientiously impress
and so clearly admitted, the landlords must succeeded. These efforts, however, were ed with the necessity and propriety of the mea. wisely left to time, for though the people sures adopted, as tending directly to the happiare liable to be led away for a period by ness of those placed under their protection. artful and designing agitators, who thrive These representations had the desired effect,
gullibility, and leave them to and nothing can deserve more to be applauded bear the consequences of any outbreak, than the conduct of the people on quitting their the said people have, in the main, a them with much regret, they did so in the most shrewd notion of their own interest; and quiet, orderly and peaceable manner: fortunately for society, the spread of edu- *If, upon one occasion, in the earlier years of cation and the diffusion of sound know these arrangements, a momentary feeling of a ledge is rendering the demagogue's contrary nature was exhibited, it arose entirely ' noisy hate' more powerless every day. from the misconduct of persons whose duty it The improvements went on, through evil dience to the laws, in place of infusing into
the report and good report, guided by Mr. minds of the people feelings of a contrary Loch, and supported by the calm, cool description. As soon, however, as the interjudgment and unflinching justice of the ference of these persons was withdrawn, the late Duke of Sutherland; and the result poor people returned to their usual state of quiethas been a large addition not only to the ness and repose. All the statements giving a revenues of the noble family, but to the different account of their conduct are absolutely sum of human comfort and happiness.
false, and a libel upon their conduct and charac
ter.'-Loch, p. 75. It seemed,' said Mr. Loch, as if it had been This is great praise. Nowhere is the love pointed out by nature, that the system for this of country more ardent than in a Scotchman's remote district, in order that it might bear its bosom ; his heart warms at the sight of the suitable importance in contributing its share to tartan. Is it to be wondered at that the the general stock of the country, was to convert Highlander should have felt this uprooting to remove the inhabitants 10 the coast or to the severely, or that when the plough-share valleys near the sea.
passed over the site of the cottage of his sires, Ii will be seen that the object to be ob- the iron entered into his soul--that he, with tained by this arrangement was two-fold: all his manhood,
'Every pleasure past,
'1. The whole of the population of Strathnaver, Hung round the bowers, and fondly look'd his last, from Altnaharrow to Invernaver, with a smali And shudd'ring still to face the distant deep, exception, have been settled on the sea-shore, Return'd and wept, and still return'd to weep?' extending from the mouth of the Naver to the
But, in truth, the misery to which the boundary of the estate near Bighouse. They old system led was hideous--and would soon
are settled in small towns as near to the various have become intolerable.
creeks as it was possible to arrange. These
people are in general of most excellent character, • These arrangements commenced in 1807, and have begun to cultivate their lots with much and have been carried on from that period, as industry. Many of them, having been accustomthe different tacks expired, and afforded an ed to the herring-fishery, have with great boldopportunity of doing so; bad years and the ness taken to catch cod and ling, under the failure of crops continuing to produce the same guidance of the fishermen of Armadale and Portmiserable effects they had constantly occasioned skerra. These latter had been removed some to that portion of the population which still years previous to this period, by the former continued to reside among the mountains. This proprietor of this estate, from whom it was purcalamity fell with great severity upon them in chased by Lord Stafford in 1812. They have the seasons of 1812-13 and 1816-17.
become as expert boatmen as any in the world. • During the latter period they suffered the This example tempted many young men who extreme of want and of human misery, notwith- had never been before at sea to engage, with standing every aid that could be given to them success, in this daring occupation. ibrough the bounty of their landlords. Their 62. The people of ihe Strath of Kildonan, and wretchedness was so great, that after pawning of the other valleys connected with Strath everything to the fishermen on the coast, such Helmsdale, are settled on the coast near to the as had no cattle were reduced to come down thriving village of Helmsdale, with the exception from the hills in hundreds for the purpose of of those people who have emigrated from the gathering cockles on the shore. Those who heights into Caithness. lived in the more remote situations of the country * 3. The people of Strathbrora, and such of were obliged to subsist upon broth made of those of the parish of Loth as were inovel, have nettles, thicke w a litile oatmeal. Those been fixed upon lots in the vicinity of Brora, who had cattle had recourse to the sull more where a harbour with every convenience for wretched expedient of bleeding them and mix- carrying on an extensive fishery had been coning the blood with oatmeal, which they after- structed. From vicinity, besides, to the coal wards cut into slices and fried. Those who had and salt works, and being in the centre of the a little money came down and slept all night great agricultural improvements, these people upon the beach in order to watch the boats have the means of constant and immediate returning from the fishing, that they might be employment, whether they become fishermen in time to obtain a part of what had been or not. caught. . . . . In order to alleviate this misery *4. In Assynt the lots for the removed people every exertion was made by Lord Stafford. To have been placed along the shores between Rhuthose who had cattle he advanced money to the store and Loch Inver, amidst a population amount of above three thousand pounds. To brought up to fishing within the lasi fifteen supply those who had no cattle he sent meal into years, and in one of the best situations for the the country to the amount of nearly nine thou- prosecution of that occupation in the west Highsand pounds. Besides which Lady Stafford distri- lands of Scotland. This extensive barony bas, buted money to each parish on the estate.'-p. 76. with the exception of the small districts of
This was princely; and we are happy Knockin and Elphin, been arranged.—p. 99. to be able to add from the best authority, Mr. Loch's volume was published in 1820. that no relief of the sort has since been Let us now see what the state of things is required. Similar means were taken by after the lapse of another score of years. That Lord Reay to alleviate the distresses of there should be partial failures in so widely his people. But now mark :-'
spread an experiment was perhaps inevitable. While such was the distress of those who Thus, in Clyne, the people have taken less to still remained among the hills, it was hardly felt the sea than was expected, probably from being by those who had been settled upon the coast. rather too much up the firth : they annually Their new occupation as fishermen rendered send hands to Helmsdale and Caithriess, and them not only independent of that which pro- a few boats; but the deep-sea fishing they as duced the misery of their neighbours, but enabled them at the same time in some degree to become ye eschew. Their lots, however, are capitally contributors towards their support, both by the cultivated, and they have done wonders in fish they were able to sell to them and also by bringing the muirland into culture, largely takthe regular payment of their rents; while it ing advantage of the supply of sea-weed.' But need hardly be stated that these wretched in Loth the experiment has succeeded to the sufferers not only required to be relieved, but utmost. Here all are herring.fishers—many, failed entirely, in the payment of what they deep-sea fishers—and the Leith and Dundee owed the landlord.'-p. 78.
curers have left, or are leaving, the thriving The result of the arrangements, down town of Flelmsdale-their place being supplied to 1820, is thus stated :
by the sons of those brought from the hills, who,