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and learning, disposed to high ecclesiasti-l emperor or by you—before the Whitsuntide cal views, well read in the canon-law, and next ensuing I will surrender up all Italy in not likely to be favourable to the wild pre- the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica, &c.
peaceable allegiance to the emperor, exceptiog dictions, or to the adventurous schemes of Rienzi; yet to him Rienzi fearlessly
For the accomplishment of this be offeraddressed a long “libel,' in which he re ed hostages, whose heads were to be cut peated all his charges against the pope, of off if his scheme was not fulfilled within abandoning his spiritual duties, leaving his the prescribed time; and if he failed, he sheep to be torn by wolves, and of divid. I promised and vowed to return to prison, ing, rending, and severing the church, the to be dealt with as the emperor might devery body of Christ, by scandals and cide! He repeats that his mission, an. schisms. The pope violated every pre: nounced by the prophetic hermit, is to cept of Christian charity, while Rienzi
way for the peaceful entrance alone maintained no dreamy or insane of the emperor; to bind the tyrants in doctrine, but the pure, true, sound, apos- chains, and the nobles in links of iron :tolic and evangelic faith. It was the pope who abandoned Italy to her tyrants, or ra- So that Cæsar, advancing without bloodshed, ther armed those tyrants with his power. not with the din of arms and German fury, but
Rienzi contrasts his own peaceful, or- with psalteries and sweet-sounding cymbals, derly, and just administration with the may arrive at the feast of the Holy Ghost, and wild anarchy, thus not merely unsuppres- occupy his Jerusalem, a more peaceful and se
curer Solomon. For I wish ihis Cæsar, not sed but encouraged by the pope : he as
secretly or as an adulterer, like his ancestor of serts his own more powerful protection of old, to enter the chamber of my mother, the the church, his enforcement of sound mo-city of Rome, but gladly and publicly, like a rals :
bridegroom! not to be introduced into the * And for these works of love the pastor of the chamber of my mother by a single attendant, in flock calls me a schismatic, a heretic, a diseased disguise and ihrough guarded barriers; noi' as sheep, a blasphemer of the church, a man of his ancestor, by Stephen Colonna, by whom he sacrilege, a deceiver, who deals with unclean was betrayed and abandoned, but by the whole spirits kept in the cross of the Lord ;* an adul- exulting people
. Finally, that the bridegroom terator of the holy body of Christ; a rebel and ble hostess and handmaid, but a free woman
shall not find his bride and my nioiber an huma persecutor of the church. “ But whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth." As naked I en
and a queen; and the house of my mother shall tered into power, so naked I went out of power,
not be a tavern, but the church! the people resisting and lamenting my de
The tribune goes on to relate many of parture.
the wonderful interferences of Divine A little farther on he gives us this piece Providence in his behalf. He alludes to of history
the changeable decrees of the pope. Bon.
iface imprisoned and put to death Celes• We read in the Chronicles that Julius, the tine, whom his successor
canonised: first Cæsar, angry at the loss of some battle, was Benedict XII. punished his seneschal, and so mad as to raise his sword against his own denied him Christian burial; and that life; but Octavianus, his grandson, the first
same seneschal had been taken up from Augustus, violently wrested the sword from his hand, and saved Cæsar from his own frantic the shore of the Rhine, and interred with sword. Cæsar, returning to his senses, imme- the most splendid funeral rites. diately adopteil Octavianus as his son, whom The reply of the archbishop was short the Roman people afterwards appointed his and dry. He could not but wonder at successor in the empire. Thus, when I have his correspondent's protestations of huwrested the frantic sword from his hand, the mility, so little in accordance with the supreme pontiff, when his madness is passed, magnificent titles which he had assumed will call me his faithful son.'
as Tribune ; or with his assertion that he He reiterates his magnificent offers to the was under the special guidance of the emperor for the subjugation of Italy :- Holy Ghost. By what authority,' he
demands, 'did Rienzi assert for the RoIf on the day of the exaltation of the holy man people the right of electing the emcross I ascend up into Italy, unimpeded by the peror ?' He wondered that Rienzi, in
stead of the authentic prophecies of the
Holy Scriptures, should consult the wild *We have already had an allusion to an evil spirit which Rienzi was said to consult, called
and unauthorised prophets, Methodius Fiorino, and which he kept in the cross on one of and Cyril. The archbishop ends with his insignia of office.
the words of Gamaliel,—that if the Tri.
bune's schenies are of God they will suc- ought: for among men of the world humility ceed, however men may oppose them.'
is becoine a rare virtue: since the days of St. There are several more letters from Francis it has been gradually wearing out, and Rienzi to the Archbishop in the same seed is not now found upon the earth.'
no one has ventured to sow it again, so that its tone and spirit, the Tribune indefatigably urging his cause, and answering the ob- We add one further extract from this jections of the prelate : he acknowledges correspondence, because it relates to the that, like Moses and David, he had sinned person of Rienzi, and the imprisonment through pride, and that God had visited to which he was subjected, which does him for his offence; he asserts that he not seem to have been wantonly severe. does not ground his great work of love It appears that he was subject to fainting to mankind on the prophecies which he fits; for which he says that, even under alleges; the work itself is the evidence the warmer climate of Italy, a fire was a of its divine sanction, and he was only necessary with him-how much more in encouraged in its accomplishment by these this cold northerly region! He requests inspired visions; he is not the first who therefore to be indulged with a fire by has run the danger of being stoned for a night as well as by day, and with the visit good work !-or who has been accused of of a priest, in case his disorder should working good works through the devil!'
turn out dangerous. “I have endeavoured
long enough to mitigate my malady by * Finally you conclude that, if my plans are of God, they cannot be prevented by the counsels feigned cheerfulness, which now avails
He also entreats that his of men. By your favour, you tempt God in me no longer.' this, as though you said, if I am acceptable to servants may be clad more warmly at his God I shall be freed from prison by his power. expense. For the rest, I turn to Him, I know that not only I, who am a very great who by the will of the Father was sent sinner, but even the prophets of God, appointed into the world to atone for the sins of by God himself, even in Jerusalem the city of God, were taken and slain. Yet
, although that men, to redeem the afflicted, to free the evil was permitted, the authors of that evil captives, to console the afflicted and the were not without sin. But ye perhaps derive mourners, to gather together the dispersglory from my captivity, and expect a reward ed, to heal the contrite hearts, and to from another, not from God. I know, if I had answer for all who suffer wrong and viocome with two or three thousand horsemen, and lence.' with a gift in my hand of a good squadron of Besides this correspondence with the cavalry; if I had come to salute the emperor, Emperor and the Archbishop of Prague, not as a poor man, but as a very rich one, IDr. Papencordt's collection of original a prison; nor would these defenders of the faith, documents contains copies of one or two if I had been gorgeous in gold or steel, have letters which show that Rienzi still really entered upon an examination of my belief; no, kept up_his connection with leading pernot even had I created an anti-pope, as did these sons at Rome. There is a copy of a very Roman nobles, who are received on such good curious one, addressed to the prophet terms by the emperor, and promoted by the Fra Angelo. It not merely leaves a strong pope himself.'
impression of Rienzi's sincere belief in He proceeds to inveigh against the the strange prophecies of Angelo and the vices of the ecclesiastics, which he had other monkish seers, but enters into some rigidly repressed
details about his family.
In one passage there is a strange enig• When, as tribune of Rome, out of my ven- 'matic allusion to his domestic Luna eration for the holy body of Christ, by rigorous (Moon) i. e. his wife. We insert the but just punishments I put down their concu- Latin for the benefit of those who can bines with whom they lived in sin, a cry was
construe it: raised against me to the pope, that I was an oppressor of the clergy! Oh angel, expected by all just men, by whose glory the earth shall Britannico (sc. Merlino) seriem ab ipsa bestia
*Quam. ...inveni juxta prenunciatam à be illumined, come quickly, scatter the clouds. furtiva dolosissimè ac nefandissimè maculatam; from on high, for ihou wilt find, when thou quam sine crimine meorum et mei audivi nuper wouldst scatter the clouds, strong and mighty rià defecisse.'
juxta eandem seriem miserabiliter in suâ gloadversaries.
Finally, I will in no way put an end to my life, for my soul is prepared for everything, and by the blessing of God, in
The prophecy and its fulfilment seem stead of being cast down, rejoices rather. And equally obscure. It seems to intimate since I am wont to use strong language, bear that his wife had really been corrupted with me if I have not spoke so humbly as I by some of his enemies among the Ro. man clergy, and had lost her glory: but, was attended, it is said, by the whole Roman as we find that she had put on the dress people and the chief men of the cities of Italy, of a sister of Santa Clara, we will hope all the people crowding out and eager to see
now appeared between two guards, and with for the best.
the face of him of whose name they had heard
so much.' “My son, whom I lest, if he has not been corrupted by the bad manners of others, chaste, humble, and well-instructed, I pray you to
Petrarch proceeds to state that a comwithdraw from the perils of the world into the mission of three ecclesiastics was imlight, and, since his disposition is like mine, al. mediately appointed to examine what low him not to drink of the stream which I punishment should be inflicted on Rienzi. have drunk. All my books, except those on That he deserved the utmost punishment, Theology, (Ecclesiasticos); my arms, and the the poet declares, for having basely abanrest of my property, which are in a place well doned his enterprise when he bad conof my uncle, and when some one of the breth- ducted it with so much success--for hav. ren shall visit the sepulchre at Jerusalem, let ing betrayed the cause of liberty by not him take the money to complete an oratory, crushing the enemies of liberty when in which a certain queen began to build there. If his power. Part of this passage we have the Infidels prevent this, let him divide the mo- already quoted, as an illustration of the ney among the priests and the other Christians general sentiment of Europe concerning resident at Jerusalem. My Moon has taken the ! the Tribune. Petrarch's whole letter is dress of St. Clara; I would wish both my daughters and my sisters 10 enter the same re- a singular mixture of his old admiration, ligious Order. Let all this be secret to others: and even affection, for Rienzi, with bitter to you and to the brethren, farewell.'
disappointment at the failure of his mag
nificent and poetic hopes; not without During all this time the pope had been some wounded vanity, and more timidity, in constant communication with the em- at having associated his own name with peror, and demanded the surrender of one who, however formerly glorious, had this 'Son of Belial,' to be dealt with as a sunk to a condition so contemptible. suspected heretic, and a rebel against the One of the first acts of Rienzi on his arholy see. The emperor at last complied rival at Avignon was to inquire if his old with this demand.
friend and admirer was in the city. 'PerRienzi's arrival at Avignon is thus strik- haps,' says Petrarch, ‘he supposed that I ingly described in a letter of Petrarch : could be of service to him; he knew not
how totally this was out of my power : * There came lately to the court-! should perhaps it was only a feeling of our fornot say came, but was brought as a prisonerNicolas Laurentius, the once formidable tribune mer friendship.' of Rome, who, when he might have died in the
But, after all, as everything in this ex. Capitol with so much glory, endured imprison- traordinary man's life seemed destined to ment, first by a Bohemian (the emperor], after- be strange and unexpected, Rienzi owed wards by a Limousin (the Pope Clement VI.); his safety chiefly to the influence of Peso as to make himself, as well as the name and trarch; and of Petrarch, as a poet. He the Republic of Rome, a laughing-stock It is could scarcely look for any sentence but perhaps more generally known than I should wish how much my pen was employed in laud- that of death or perpetual imprisonment. ing and exhorting this man. I loved his virtue, He had few friends and many enemies at I praised his design, I congratulated Italy; 1 Avignon. He was even denied the as. looked forward to the dominion of the beloved sistance of an advocate. His trial, howcity and the peace of the world..... Some of ever-it does not seem clear for what my epistles are extant, of which I am not altogether ashamed, for I had no gift of prophecy, vity. The most dangerous charge, that
reason-was not pursued with great actinot of prophecy; but at the time I wrote, that of heresy, seems to have dropped quietly whích he was doing, and appeared about to do, to the ground. Petrarch began to feel was not only worthy of my praise but that of increasing interest in his fate: he even all mankind.' Are these letters, then, to be can- ventured to write to Rome to urge the incelled for one thing alone, because he chose to tereession of the people in his behalf. live basely rather than die with honour?. But We translate from Dr. Papencordt, of there is no use in discussing impossibilities: I could not destroy them if I would ; they are
whose style of composition we have as published, and no longer in my power. But to yet given no fair example, the close of my story: Humble and despicable that man this act in the drama :entered the court, who, throughout the world, bad made the wicked tremble, and filled the • We know not whether the Romans did anygood with joyful hope and expectation : he who thing in favour of the tribune. Cola himself
had acknowledged himself guilty of the crimes | anarchy. Sometimes two senators chosimputed to him, and was condemned to death. en out of the nobles—for a short period Nothing, it seemed, could save him from execu
a popular leader named Cerroni-held the tion or a perpetual and ignominious imprisonment, when a movement in his favour began to government. show itself in Avignon. The greatest passion
A second tribune had arisen, named for poetry and for poets, prevailed in the papal Baroncelli, who had attempted to found a court and in the whole city. Petrarch applies new republic on the model of that of Flo. the passage in Horace, “Scribimus indocti rence; but the fall of Baroncelli had been doctique poemata," to the whole place, and almost as rapid as his rise. Plague and complains of his melancholy lot in having so earthquake had visited the city; and, many acquaintances who rained poems and letters upon him every day from all sides : law- though the jubilee had drawn thousands yers, physicians, husbandmen, and builders of pilgrims from all parts of the world, neglecied their work to make verses; he was and poured wealth into her bosom, this followed home, and could scarcely set his foot wealth had been but a new object of strife, in the street without being environed with peo- faction and violence. Innocent delegated ple, asking him questions about poetry. As the the affairs of Italy to Cardinal Ægidius Alfumour spread abroad that Rienzi was a cele. bornoz, Archbishop of Toledo. Albornoz brated poet, a general clamour arose, that it would be a sin to put to death such a man, who descended into Italy to re-establish the was skilled in that sacred art. Petrarch, indeed, temporal dominion of the popes; he was says that Cola had read all the poets, but he a man of great ability and experience. was not aware that he had written a single Rieuzi had been released from prison ; poem ; yet this report saved the prisoner's life. and the papal court considered that, under He was imprisoned in a tower, and fettered with the judicious guidance of Albornoz, Rien. a single chain, fastened into the vault of the dun- zi's advice and knowledge of Italy and geon ; in other respects kept in honourable tody, and had his meals from the remnants of Rome might be of use to the papal cause. the papal table, which were distributed to the He seems to have embraced the offer poor. He could pursue his beloved studies: without reluctance. The more immediate the Bible, and the history of the ancient Ro- object appears to have been to employ him mans, particularly the books of Livy, were his as an opponent to Baroncelli, who had companions in his prison, as formerly at the usurped his office and title of tribune. height of his prosperiiy.'-pp. 259, 260.
The vice-legate in Rome, Hugo Harpagon, Who could have supposed that this represented that sufferings had no doubt man, hardly escaped from death as a dan- taught Rienzi wisdom, that he had abangerous usurper of the papal authority, doned his old fantastic dreams of innova. suspected as a heretic, the assertor of the tion, and might be of service to counteract liberties of Rome, and who had endea- by his activity and prudence the dominant voured to incite the emperor to reduce impiety and evil. He requested that he the papal power to the strict limits of might be sent to Rome. So,' observes spiritual jurisdiction—the writer of those Dr. Papencordt, ' was the tribune now to stern and uncompromising invectives share in that work which he had said in against the desertion of Italy by the one of his addresses to Charles IV.would popes--this unsparing castigator of the be much more easy, more safe, and more vices of the clergy—this heaven-appoint- congenial with his disposition, to reduce ed reformer, as he declared, of the church distracted Italy to unity and peace in the —this harbinger of the new kingdom of name of the Holy Mother the Church, the Holy Ghost-should emerge from his rather than in the interests of the Empire. prison, to reappear in Italy as the follower on the fall of Baroncelli, however, Alborof the papal legate, and reassume the su- noz, who perhaps had formed a sounder preme government Rome with the ex. estimate of Rienzi's character, retained press sanction of the pope. Such, how- him in his own camp. There Rienzi cast ever, were the unparalleled vicissitudes the spell of his eloquence over two distinin the life of Rienzi. On this last act of guished youths, Arimboldo, a lawyer, and his life, the researches of Dr. Papencordt Brettone, knight, brothers of the celebrathave not furnished much original matter; ed and formidable Fra Morcale, the capwe hasten therefore to the close. A new tain of the great Free Company. Out of the pope, Innocent VI., had succeeded to the Bible and out of Livy he filled them with pontificate ; he was the best perhaps, of lofty notions of the greatness of Rome, and the prelates who ruled at Avignon. The allured them by splendid promises of adaffairs of Italy called imperatively for his vancement. They lent him considerable interference. Since the fall of ihe Tri- sums of money, and they enabled him to bune, Rome had returned to its miserable borrow more. He appeared, accompanied
by these youths, and in a magnificent enzi!' His body was treated with the dress,* before the legate, and requested most shameful indignities. to be invested in the dignity of senator of There is much good sense in Dr. Papen. Rome. At that time the papal authority cordt's simple expression, that Rienzi in Rome was still unacknowledged by the was an extraordinary rather than a great factious nobles. It seemed a favourable op- man. His vigour of action fell short of portunity; and in the name of the Church his vigour of conception. He was a lofty Albornoz appointed Rienzi senator of idealist. That he could not accomplish Rome. With a few troops Rienzi advan. his glorious visions, his times were partly ced; and in a short time was once more in fault, and partly his own character. As master of the scene of his former power long as his career was brilliant, imagi. and glory. But Rienzi had not learned native, theatrical, he played his part with wisdom. The intoxication of power again majesty; and even his magnificence might, bewildered his reason ; he returned to his as we observed, not have been impolitic; old pomp, his old luxury. He extorted but when he hail to strive with the rough the restoration of his confiscated proper- realities of faction, to act on unimagined ty, and wasted it in idle expenditure. emergencies with vigour and promptitude, He was constantly encircled by his armed his mind seemed to give way-dignus guard; he passed his time in drunken imperii nisi imperâsset. In a warlike banquets.t Again called on to show his age, his want of military skill, and even military prowess against the refractory of a soldier's courage, was a fatal defiColonnas, he was again found wanting. ciency. But if in action thus occasionally The stern and equal vigour which had be- pusillanimous, his imaginative resources fore given an imposing majesty to his were inexhaustible. To his visions of po. wild justice, now seemed to turn to ca- litical freedom, the supremacy of the do. price and wantonness of power. His great minion of Rome, and the independence of measure, by which he seemed determined, Italy, succeeded his religious dreamery, this time at least, to escape the imputa- the predicted kingdom of the Holy Ghost. tion of pusillanimity as shrinking from And we may give him the benefit of supthe extermination of his enemies, was posing that, even in his latter enterprise, tainted with treachery and ingratitude. when an instrument of the ecclesiastical The execution of Fra Morcale, the bro- power, he might honestly conceive him. ther of the youths to whom he had been self labouring in the only practicable so deeply indebted, revolted rather than scheme for the peace and prosperity of awed the public mind. The second Italy. Dazzling as was the course of government of Rienzi was an unmitigated Rienzi, and awakening all the generous tyranny; and ended by his murder in a sympathies, especially at the commence. popular insurrection. With the cry of ment of his career, even now arresting Long live the people,' was now mingled our attention amid the tumult and conDeath to the tribune, to the traitor Ri- fusion of the dark ages in Italy, he bursts
upon us, in our youth perhaps, even as he
did upon his own age, as a hero and a • The Roman biographer, who might appear to patriot. And like his own age, and like have been an eye-witness, describes his splendid Petrarch, the voice of that age, we are inattire with the most minute particularity.
clined to revenge, as it were, our disap| The Roman biographer is again our authority. Before,” he says, "he was sober, temperate, ab: pointment at the failure of the hopes stemious; he was now become an inordinate drunk- which he has excited by injustice to the ard. ** He was always eating confectionery and lofty parts of his character. We do not drinking. It was a terrible thing to be forced to see allow him credit for what he did achieve him— horribile cosa era potere patire de vederlo, – under such adverse circumstances, from they said that in person he was formerly quite meagre, he had become enormously fat (grasso ster- a kind of resentment that he achieved no minatamente); he had a belly like a tun, jovial, more. We depreciate the good, the very like an Asiatic abbot !- habea una rentresca ton- transitory good which he did, because we na, trionfale, a modo de uno abbate Asiano” justly feel that he was not a man who will not allow us to translate. He was full of produced any permanent effect on the shining flesh (carbuncles ?) like a peacock. Red, condition or destinies of man, but a fleetand with a long beard, his face was always chang- ing and ephemeral pageant. ing; his eyes would suddenly kindle like fire. It Of the merits of Dr. Papencordt's work was as changeable as his opinions. His understanding lightened in filful flashes like fire-cosi we have not yet spoken. The expres. se mutava son intellecto come fuoco. Apud Mu- sions of our praise, we are sorry to say, rator. Antiq. Ital. iii., p. 524.
must be mingled with those of regret.