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lives, but had long ceased to hope for; invaluable by the Chinese, who are the oldest having found in the works of physiolo-agricultural people we know. Indeed so much gists nothing but contradictory facts and importance is attached to it by these people, baseless theories.
that laws of the state forbid that any should be With reference to the subject of ma- house, in which such matters are collected with
thrown away, and reservoirs are placed in every nures, there are one or two principles the greatest care. No other kind of manure is which appear to us to flow naturally from used for their corn-fields. M. Liebig's researches, and which are * China is the birthplace of the experimental worthy of all attention from agriculturists. art: the incessant striving after experiments The first is, that since every plant ex
conducted the Chinese a thousand years since tracts from the soil, and retains in its admiration of Europeans for centuries--espe
to discoveries which have been the envy and substance, only such inorganic matters as cially in regard to dyeing and painting, and to are essential to its growth, the very best the inanufacture of porcelain, silk, and colours manure for a plant must be the plant for painters. These we were long unable to itself, in the form of straw, or even in imitate; and yet they were discovered by them that of ashes. We have seen how the without the aid of scientific principles--for in ashes of wheat straw are, and must be, directions for use, but never explanations of pro
the books of the Chinese we find recipes and the best manure for wheat ; but the principle must apply universally. Potatoes, Half a century sufficed to Europeans, not for example, will be best manured with only to equal, but to surpass the Chinese in the the ashes of potato-plants, which are sine arts and manufactures, and this was owing gularly rich in phosphate of magnesia, the merely to the application of correct principles characteristic salt of the potato.
deduced from the study of chemistry. But how course in this case, as in all others, any to that of China! The laiter is the most per
infinitely inferior is the agriculture of Europe other ashes containing the same salt, or fect in the world; and there, where the climate any other source of it, may be employed in the most fertile districts differs little from the with equal advantage. We have had the European, very little value is attached to the pleasure of seeing the result of the use (solid) excrements of animals.' of pure phosphate of magnesia as manure for potatoes; and we could not
Were the contents of our previously have imagined such astonish- sewers properly treated—mixed, for exing crops as we then beheld. Now che ample, with ashes containing phosphates mistry can easily produce this salt in suf- and with a slight excess of diluted acids, ficient quantities and at a low price, when and then dried up so as to get rid of the it shall be wanted. Our strata of magne- water they contain, without permitting sian limestone, which alone is generally the escape of ammonia--they might reahurtful to plants, will thus furnish us with dily be obtained free from all offensive the means of adding to our crops of pota- odour, and in a form admitting of transtoes almost without expense.
portation to any distance. Such a mix. Again, when we reflect on the vast im- ture would surpass all manures hitherto portance of nitrogen as an ingredient of tried, as it would contain precisely what grain, and on the fact that cow and horse is required to yield the richest crops of dung contain very little of that element, grain. By availing ourselves in such we must see how essential it is not to matters of the means offered by chemis. waste any portion of liquid manure, the try, we feel satisfied that in less than anproper source of that portion of nitrogen other half century we should leave far which must be added to what is derived behind the empirical agriculture of the from the atmosphere before we can obtain Chinese. Some such attempts have been rich crops of grain. But a still more im. made on the continent; and although, portant source of nitrogen is in the con- from ignorance on the part of the manutents of our common sewers, which, from facturer, a great part, nay, in some estaba barbarous ignorance, are commonly lishments, the whole of the ammonia is thrown into the sea.
expelled and lost in the process of prepa
ration, yet the manure so prepared, acting • When it is considered that with every pound by its inorganic constituents alone, has of ammonia which evaporates a loss of 60 lbs. produced amazing effects. of corn is sustained, and that with every pound Our readers, we tru of urine a pound of wheat might be produced, convinced that the principles of rational
are by this time the indifference with which these matters are regarded is quite incomprehensible.'
agriculture are within the domain of sci*The powerful effects of urine as a manure ence, and that from science alone, when are well known in Flanders; but it is considered I called in to aid the zealous agriculturist,
can we hope for real and permanent im- and energetic, often abrupt, but singularly provement. In the present work, M. forcible and impressive. Liebig has pointed out the path to be pursued, and has amply vindicated the claim of science to be considered the best guide, by correcting the erroneous views hitherto prevailing of the sources whence plants derive their nourishment, by deve- Art. III.-Cola di Rienzo und seine Zeit, loping the true causes of fertility in soils, besonders nach ungedruckten Quellen and, finally, by establishing on a firm ba dargestellt, von Dr. Felix Papencordt. sis the true doctrine of manures. We do Hamburg und Gotha, 1841. not, any more than the author himself, Cola di Rienzo and his Times, chiefly from consider his work in the light of a com. unpublished Documents. plete treatise on the chemistry of agriculture ; we look on it merely as an example A Life of Nicholas Rienzi, the hero of hisof the proper method to be followed in tory, biography, tragedy, and romance, from producing such a work, and in this point sources hitherto unpublished, might be supof view we hold Dr. Liebig to be entitled posed, after the labours of Muratori and the to the gratitude of mankind.
other Italian antiquarians, an announcement It is satisfactory to know that, of this rather tending to awaken suspicion than very very valuable work, the second English ardent expectation. We, however, see no edition is already in the press, to be pub- reason to question the authenticity of the lished at a cheaper rate; that two edi- documents brought to light by Dr. Papen. tions have been exhausted in French; cordt—and most curious they are ; as our that a third German edition has lately ap- readers will acknowledge by and by. But peared, and that it has been reprinted in before opening them we must say a few America. The author received the thanks words on the Tribune and his age. For Riof the British Association for his work; enzi can be understood only in conjunction and Dr. Daubeny, the distinguished pro- with his times. fessor of agriculture at Oxford, who had The succession of the popes to Avignon undertaken to report on agricultural che had not merely left an open field for an ad. mistry to the late meeting of the Associa- venturer, like the Tribune, but had called tion at Devonport, candidly acknow- forth and strengthened all those powerful ledged that he had nothing material to sentiments and hopes on which he raised the add to Professor Liebig's report, to which fabric of his power. Rome all at once ceashe referred. Professor Johnston of Dured to be the religious capital of the world. ham has also afforded the best proof of She retained, it is true, the shrines and the the high opinion he entertains of it, by relics of the great apostles ; and pilgrims still giving a valuable and interesting course crowded from all parts of Europe to the city of lectures on the subject, in which he hallowed by these sacred memorials—to that has embodied and strongly urged on the which Petrarch calls the Jerusalem of the attention of our northern agriculturists West. But the tide of homage and of trithe principles established by Professor bute which flowed towards the throne of the Liebeg.
successors of St. Peter, and constituted the The translation before us, although ge- wealth and the influence of Rome, now took nerally accurate, is far from being ele- another course. A mere delegate of the gant, and is occasionally obscure. In a pope, usually the Bishop of Orvieto, occufew instances there are serious errors, pied the chair of the apostle ; all the ecclesiwhich we believe must be attributed to astical causes, with the authority which they haste in printing, as the volume was with tended to confirm, and the riches which they difficulty got ready in time for the Glas- poured into the papal treasury-the constant gow meeting of the Association. We influx of business which could not but be athave no doubt that the second edition, tended with great expenditure-the strangers now in the press, will be free from such from all parts of the world, thus brought toblemishes. "It is, however, a difficult task gether from various motives, either secular or to give in a translation the true character religious-all now thronged the expanding of Professor Liebig's German style, ardent streets of Avignon. Rome thus deserted,
and degraded from her high ecclesiastical po* Mr. Johnston's lectures on this subject are
sition, was thrown back, as it were, upon
her still, we believe, in progress; they are printed as
earlier reminiscences. She had lost her new, they are delivered.
and was ready to welcome whatever might
recall her old supremacy. All the circum- actual commencement of a new period of stances of the times continued to strengthen the dominion of the Holy Ghost, in which this sentiment, which blended with the wide- monasticism was to prevail with all its strictspread impatience and jealousy of the en- est mortifications, its total self-denial, its abcroachments of the ecclesiastical upon the solute estrangement from all secular concivil power. The Ghibelline spirit, which cerns. This new advent had been announchad been sternly suppressed by the alliance ed in visions and prophecies; had been of the popes, first with the Norman, and af- preached in every quarter, and to every rank ; terwards with the Angevin sovereigns of Na- and this religious Ghibellinism in many ples, was still brooding in dangerous secrecy minds was blended with the deepest devotion in every part of Italy. In many it was no to the ecclesiastical supremacy of the Holy attachment to a foreign, a German Emperor; See. The influence of this wide-spread enbut an earnest longing for the re-establish- thusiasm perhaps at the commencement of ment of a supreme imperial power, the resto- his career affected but partially and indirectly ration of a Roman empire. This was inti- the mind or the measures of Rienzi ; though mately connected with splendid visions, he subsequently plunged into it, to outward which crossed all the nobler minds of the appearance, with all the ardour of a fanatic times, such as Dante's and Petrarch's, of the votary. independence of Italy. And Rome might In Rome itself the papal power had conappear thus cleared as it were of the great stantly encountered a resolute resistance. fabric of ecclesiastical rule, in order to leave The days indeed had passed when the fierce room for some new foundation of civil au- and turbulent nobility of the city and of the thority. The first dawn of the revival of neighbourhood appointed and deposed, inclassical tastes and studies which had been sulted, betrayed, and even murdered the sucso publicly and so proudly welcomed in the cessors of St. Peter. But the popes had coronation of Petrarch-the respect for the more than once, even when supported by ancient monuments of Rome, which that the imperial authority, been constrained to great poet had endeavoured to inculcate, and capitulate with the liberties of the Roman which wrought so powerfully on the mind of people. A municipal authority, sometimes a Rienzi-strengthened the same tendencies. senate more or less numerous, sometimes a
At the same time a very strong religious single senator, that senator sometimes a Roreaction was working, especially in the man, sometimes a foreigner, exercised civil minds of the lower orders, against the tempo- authority within the city. To the tyranny ral power of the popes, and of the clergy in of the old nobility had succeeded, indeed, general. The absence of the popes from the tyranny of the new Patriciate the noItaly, the unpopularity of their desertion of bility who took the place of the wild barons their old seat of empire, allowed free scope or counts of Tusculum and Palestrina—the for this new fanaticism. It was immeasura- Colonnas, the Orsini, the Prefetti del Vico, bly strengthened by the rumours of the vices, the Gaetani, the Savelli, who each had their the abominations, the base venality of the fortified castles and domains in the neighbourpapal court at Avignon-vices and abomina- hood of Rome, and their fortress. palaces tions which, even when Rome was in her (often the ruins of some old temple or anhigh ecclesiastical pride, bad obtained her cient building) within the walls. But the name of Babylon ; and that name was though the oppressions of these nobles ground now transferred (without any of the nobler the face of the people, and their strife deland national feelings which still adhered to uged the streets with blood, yet the burgliers Rome) to a foreign French city. The Fran- still claimed and asserted a kind of independciscan order, at least an active and very pow- ence. At one period we find the Capi di erful branch of it (the Fratricelli or Spiritu. Rioni (the magistrates of the several quaralists, with whom we shall hereafter find ters) in possession of the municipal power. Rienzi in intimate connexion), not merely However plunged in ignorance, however with their bare feet, and macerated forms, taught to venerate the holy names of saints with their strict adherence to their vows of and martyrs, rather than those of the consuls poverty, and their monastic retreat to the and the dictators, it was impossible but that wildesi recesses of the Apennines, afforded dim and obscure traditions of their older liba striking, and no doubt widely effective, erties and older glories must have lurked in contrast to the wealth, the pride, and the the hearts of the meanest of the Roman peomagnificence of the papal court : but they ple. Though they could not read the lanlikewise openly denounced the unapostolic, guage ; though they felt no awe at the stuunevangelic union of temporal with spiritual pendous monuments; though they built the power ; proclaimed the advent, if not the inscriptions of past glories into the mud walls
of their hovels, or worked upon the sites of the empire, of the spiritual and of the temporal ancient temples, as in a quarry of unhewn head, was again to sway the destinies of the stone--still there was some indescribable world. We shall hereafter see that a reformpride in the name of Roman ; there was a ation of this kind, a reformation which should latent fire which was ready to be kindled; touch no point of doctrine, which should and even with them the comparative deser-abstain entirely from any sacrilegious intertion and stillness of the city, from the cessa- ference with the faith, but which should con. tion of all papal business, and the withdrawal fine the papal power to its legitimate object, of papal pomp, the diminished magnificence spiritual dominion, was constantly and actively of the religious ceremonial, and the cooling present to the mind of Rienzi. That mind we of religious excitement, must have left other can now contemplate in its real designs and minds besides Rienzi's to meditate, however objects, at least in those which he thought fit vaguely, on former days. At this period, it after his first fall, and when evidently he had seems, from a passage in Petrarch's Latin po- not abandoned all hope of restoration to power, etry, quoted by Dr. Papencordt, that the to represent as the lofty motives and incentives churches were neglected and falling to dila- of his ambition. pidation; and the remarkable want of Chris. The original documents produced by Dr. tian churches of the highest and richest ec- Papencordt relate to the period of Rienzi's clesiastical character in Rome, he would at- residence in Bohemia after his first downfall tribute with much probability to the absence and retirement from Italy. The most important of the popes from Rome at this particular of them are letters from Rienzi to Charles IV., time, in which, in other parts of Europe, Emperor, and King of Bohemia, and to the commenced the great period of Christian ar.
Archbishop of Prague: they enter into the chitecture.
whole history of his adventurous career, and At all events this was the moment for a
throw a strong, if not a clear and steady light, Rienzi. Earlier or later he would have been upon his extraordinary character. These crushed by the united power of the pope and documents were first discovered, and made use of the nobility, which, however jealous or hos- of as far as his own purpose required, by Pelzel tile, would have entered into an irresistible the historian of Bohemia. The original manualliance against an assertor of Roman indepen; Pelzel caused to be made for his own use was
scripts cannot be found; but the copy which dence. At no other time probably would purely Roman sentiments of liberty have struck discovered in the library of Count Thun at so forcibly upon the minds of the people. Not Terschen, and, by the liberality of that accomthat Rienzi at any time contemplated the plished Bohemian nobleman, placed at the independence of Rome upon the religious command of Dr. Papencordt. authority of the pope; his return to the seat of been rather carelessly made, and some passages St. Peter was earnesily invited and desired: can only be restored by conjecture.
Dr. Papen. but it was to resume his ecclesiastical functions cordt has printed the whole in the original alone-while the civil power, in its perfect Latin, amongst his “Urkunde;' with the exindependence, or rather unquestioned supreception of one too lengthy paper, of which he macy, should administer the temporal concerns
gives an abstract.
It is singular that these of Rome—of Italy—or of the world. This
carry us up even to the cradle of was the vision which had expanded on the
Rienzi. mind of Petrarch, and with his admiration, habited only by mechanics and Jews, the
'In a quarter of the city which was in. from personal acquaintance with the man, explains his splendid poetic gratulations to the marriage of an innkeeper and a washerwoman Tribune, when at the height of his power.
produced the future deliverer of Rome. Thus But the patriotic ambition of the poet would wrote Gibbon, from the best authorities extant have been content with the independence and
in his day. But what says Rjenzi of his own supremacy of Italy on any terms.
Whether parentage ?
He asserts hir:self, and the it was an emperor who made Rome the centre assertion is made in a letter addressed to of his sovereignty, or a young and vigorous
Charles IV., to have been a bastard son of his republic, his hopes would have been satisfied; preiecessor, the emperor Henry VII. Rienzi and this probably was the general sentiinent of might have used the language of Fauconbridge all who wished io see a sirong government in
to his mother:Italy, and looked, as the only means of accomplishment of that great end, to the re-establish
• Now, by this light, were I to get again,
Madam, I would not wish a better father;' ment and redintegration of a Roman power. The pope was still to hold his high court in and nothing can be more strangely minute Rome, to draw respect, wealth, influence, than the account of the whole transaction, as authority to the twice-hallowed city; and the given by the Tribune. co-ordinate supremacy of the church and of vent up to be crowned (May, 1312) at Rome.
When Henry VII.
the church of St. Peter, in which the corona-observe, must have heard it sub sigillo confestion ought to have taken place, was in the sionis, but perhaps the Roman priests in those power of the adverse party, the Roman Guelfs days were not very strict in such matters. and the king of Apulia. Strong barricades Out of respect to his mother's memory, Rienzi, and defences separated the two parts of the he says, was always impatient of the scandal, city. Henry was therefore compelled to hold and denied it in public, but he believed it in his coronation in the church of St.John Lateran. his heart; and, the imperial blood stirring in He was extremely anxious, however, before his veins, he began to disdain his plebeian life he left Rome, to pay his devotions at the shrine --10 dream of honours and glories far above of Si. Peter, and to see the church in which his lowly condition. He sought every kind of the coronation of the emperors usually took instruction—began to read and to study hisplace. He put on the dress of a pilgrim, and tory, and the lives of great and good men, till in this disguise, with a single attendant, he he became impatient to realise in his actions passed into the church of St. Peter. A report the lofty lessons which he read.* spread abroad that the emperor had passed This strange story of his parentage, we have the barriers in secret; the gates and barricades said, Rienzi relates in his address to the empewere instantly closed, and a herald was sent ror. He states further, that at the period of out to put the whole Guelfish faction on their his greatness he endeavoured to suppress it guard, and to offer a large reward for his because any kind of German connexion would capture. As soon as the emperor and his at- have been highly unpopular in Rome ; but tendant perceived this, they stole hastily along that the rumour prevailed among persons a street by the bank of the river, and, finding of both sexes and all ages. The emperor all the passages shut, under pretence of going might even find some traces of it in Germany. in to drink, they took refuge in the house or He appeals to a certain Roman noble, Onufrius small inn kept by the elder Rienzi and his de Ilpinis, who had fled from the justice of the wife. There they got possession of a small Tribune to the court of Lewis of Bavaria, and chamber, and lay concealed for ten or fifteen resided there ever since. Onufrius had been days. The emperor's attendant went out to his friend and the friend of his Father, and, procure provisions; in the mean time the land- as he understood, had spoken freely of the lady, who was young and handsome, minister. Tribune's birth.†— His age,' Rienzi himself ed to the emperor (we use Rienzi's words), proceeds, 'to judge from his outward appear'as their handmaids did to the holy David and ance, would tally with the period at which the righteous Abraham.'* The emperor after. Henry VII. was in Rome. This statement wards escaped to the Aventine, retired from of his age does not precisely correspond with Rome, and died in the August of that year. what he asserts in another place, though there 'But, as there is nothing hidden that does not is not above the difference of a year. Once come to light, when his mother found out the he says, that, as he was haranguing the peohigh rank of her lover, she could not help, like ple in an unpremeditated speech, he broke out a very woman, telling the secret of her preg- in what certainly to our ears would sound a nancy by him to her particular female friend; most irreverent comparison,-'As Christ, in this particular friend, like a woman, told the bis thirty-third year, having overthrown the secret to another particular friend, and so on, tyrants of hell, and delivered the souls of men, till the rumour got abroad. His mother, too, went up crowned into heaven, so God willed on her death-bed, confessed the whole, as it that in the same year of my life, I, having conwas her duty, to her priest.’t Nicholas, after quered the tyrants of the city without a blow his mother's death, was sent by the innkeeper and alone given liberty to the people, should be 10 Anagni, where he remained until his promoted to the laurel crown of the tribune.'I iwentieth year. On his return this marvellous Henry VII. was in Rome in May and June, story was related to him by some of his 1312; Rienzi, if his son, would have been mother's friends, and by the priest who at. born in February or March, 1313. In 1347, tended her death bed ;-the priest, we may the year of his tribunate, he would have been
in his thirty-fourth or thirty-fifth year.
Dr. Papencordt objects 10 the truth of the Et præfata inater mea, quæ juvencula erat et non ivhole story, the total silence of the imminus forsitan quam sancto David et justo Abrahe perial historians on this adventure of Henry per dilectas extitit ministratum.'-Urkunde, p. XXXII.
† Muliebri ac juvenili more subducta, cuidam sua amicæ se de imperatore pregnantem secreto, ut cre. * . Nihil actum fore putavi, si, quæ legendo didididir, revelavit; amica vero ipaa muliebri more se. 'ceram, non aggrederer exercendo. creta, invenit aliam amicam insecretam, cui tanquam ť • Tam sibi, quam suis, ut audivi, domesticis hanc secreta, ut mulier negotium secretavit; et sic de conditionem meam sibi consciam revelavit.' anre al anren negotium secretando suit diebus illis # Letter to the Archbishop of Prague, Urkunde, non modicum sniziliratim, -Ibid.