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The winter was passed by Joan chiefly at the woman of La Rochelle. She, therefore, the King's Court in Bourges, or Mehun-sur- strongly counselled the King to send the preYevre, in the neighbourhood of Bourges. In tended prophetess home, to keep her houseDecember the King granted letters patent of hold and to nurse her children.' It does not nobility to her family and herself, with the appear how far either the King or the lady privilege of bearing the Lily of France for followed this good advice. The further fortheir arms.* At the same inclement season, tunes of Catherine are nowhere to be found she again distinguished herself in assaults recorded.* upon the citadels of St. Pierre Le Moutier At the return of spring, Charles, still preand La Charité.

ferring pleasure to glory, could not be induced But the most singular event of this period to take the field in person. But, like the was the appearance at Court of another holy captain who fled full soon,' in Mr. Canning's woman, declaring herself, like Joan, to be in- ballad, 'he bade the rest keep fighting !' His spired. Her name was Catherine, and she troops passed the Loire, and marched into came from La Rochelle with a mission, she the northern provinces, but in diminished said, not of war but of wealth. For her ob. numbers, with no prince of the blood or chief ject was, by preaching to the people, to per- of high name to lead them, and aiming appasuade them to offer their money to the King; rently at no object of importance. In some and she alleged that she was able to distin- desultory skirmishes the Maid displayed her guish those who kept their treasures conceal- wonted valour, and struck the enemy with ed. She, too, like the Maid of Orleans, had the same terror as before. The Duke of her visions; often seeing in them, as she Gloucester found it necessary to issue a prostated, a white lady clothed all in gold—the clamation to reassure his troops: it is dated dress being certainly no unfit emblem of the May 3, 1430, and is still preserved, denoting, mission! To a King, with craving courtiers in its very title, the barbarous Latin of the and an empty exchequer, such a mission middle ages :-Contra capitaneos et soldacould not be otherwise than welcome. But rios tergiversantes, incantationibus Puelle we may remark, that Joan, from the first, en terrificatos. tertained a strong distrust - a professional On leaving Picardy in the preceding jealousy it might perhaps be called-of her year, Charles had confided his newly acquired sister-prophetess. She asked to be shown fortress of Compiegne to the charge of Guilthe white lady. Catherine replied, that her laume de Flavy, a captain of tried bravery, visions came only in the hours of darkness, but even beyond his compeers in that age; and that Joan might be a witness to them by harsh and pitiless. He was now besieged remaining with her at that time. All night, by the Duke of Burgundy, at the head of accordingly, the Maid of Orleans watched by a powerful army. Joan, hearing of his dan her side, in fruitless expectation of the pro-ger, courageously resolved to share his formised sight; but having fallen asleep towards tunes, and threw herself into the place on the morning, Catherine declared that the white 24th of May, accompanied by Xaintrailles, lady had appeared in that very interval. De- Chabannes, Valperga, and other knights of termined not to be baffled in this manner, renown.

The very evening of her arrival Joan lay down to sleep the whole of the next she headed the garrison in a sally on the side day, that she might be sure to be wakeful at of the bridge across the Oise. She found night; and wakeful she was accordingly, al- the Burgundians scattered and unprepared ; ways urging Catherine with the question-twice she drove them from their entrench• Is she coming soon ?' and always answered ments, but seeing their numbers increase - Soon, soon. But nothing appeared.

every moment, she gave the signal to retreat, The argument drawn from these facts did not appear altogether conclusive, even in by De Barante, vol. vi., p. 69–71.

* The story of Catherine is circumstantially told that superstitious age, since Joan was not able, ť. Charles VII., loin de prendre lui même le any more than Catherine, to display her vi. commandement de son armée, n'y envoya pas même sions to others. Several persons stated this un des princes du sang ou quelqu'un des grands objection to Joan herself—but she readily nétable de s’y rendre. La Pucelle s'y trouva donc

seigneurs de sa cour, et ne permit point au Conreplied, that they were not sufficiently right- associée uniquement avec des aventuriers brutaux, eous and holy to see what she had seen. mal pourvus d'argent ou de munitions, et qui ne Nevertheless, to end this controversy, she de voulaient se soumettre à aucune discipline.'-(Sisclared, that she had consulted her saints, Ca- mondi, vol. xiii., p. 159 therine and Margaret, who had told her, that le plus thirant, et faisant plus de thirannies et hor

Flavy etoit vaillant homme de guerre, mais there was nothing but folly and falsehood in ribles qu'on

pust faire, comme prendre filles, mal

gré tous ceulx qui en vouloient parler, les violer, These letters patent are printed in M. Petitot's faire mourir gens sans pitié et les rouer, Mémoires Collection, vol. viii., p. 333,

de Duclercq

herself maintaining the post of honour, the from the summit of her prison tower, but was last of the rear-guard. Never had she shown taken up senseless on the ground. She aftergreater intrepidity: but as she approached wards declared, in her examinations, that her the town-gate she found it partly closed, so Voices' had dissuaded her from this attempt, that but few could press in together; confu- but had consoled her under its failure. sion spread amongst her friends, less eager The English were however impatient to to succour her than to save themselves, and hold the prisoner in their own hands; and in she found herself surrounded by her enemies. the month of November, 1430, she was purStill she made those before her recoil, and chased from John of Luxemburg for a sum of might have effected her retreat, when an ten thousand livres. Her cruel treatment in archer from Picardy, coming up from behind, the new captivity is well described by M. de seized her by her coat of crimson velvet, and Barante:drew her from her horse to the ground. She Jeanne fut conduite à Rouen où se trouvait struggled to rise again and reached the outer le jeune Roi Henri et toute le gouvernement des fosse : there, however, she was overpowered, Anglais. Elle fut menée dans la grosse tour and compelled to surrender to Lionel, a bas- fer, et on lui mit les fers aux pieds. Les archers

du château; on fit forger pour elle une cage de tard of Vendone, * and a soldier in the com- Anglais qui la gardaient l'insultaient grossièrepany of John of Luxemburg. The battle- ment, et parfois essayerent de lui faire violence. ments of Compiegne have long since moul. Ce n'était pas seulement les gens du commun dered away; choked by the fallen fragments, qui se montraient cruels et violens envers elle. the fosse is once more level with the plain ; Le Sire de Luxembourg, dont elle avait été prieven the old bridge has been replaced by sonnière, passant à Rouen, alla la voir dans sa another higher up the stream—yet, amidst prison avec le Comte de Warwick et le Comte

de Strafford. "Jeanne," dit-il, en plaisantant, all these manifold changes, the precise spot" je suis venu te mettre à rançon ; mais il faut of the catastrophe—we gazed upon it but a promettre de ne t’armer jamais contre nous.” few weeks since-is still pointed out by popu Ah, mon Dieu, vous vous riez de moi," ditlar tradition to the passing stranger.

elle, “ vous n'en avez ni le vouloir ni le pouvoir. The news of Joan's captivity struck the Je sais bien que les Anglais me feront mourir, English and their partizans with a joy pro France, mais fussent-ils cent mille Goddam de

croyant après ma mort gagner le royaume de portionate to their former terrors. The ser- plus qu'à present, ils n'auront pas ce royaume.” vice of · Te Deum' was celebrated at Paris, Irrité de ces parolles, le Comte de Strafford tira by order of the Duke of Bedford, and in token sa dague pour la frapper, et ne fut arrêté que of general thanksgiving. Meanwhile the de par le Comte de Warwick.' jection of the French soldiery was not un The forebodings of the unhappy woman mingled with whispered suspicions that their were but too true; her doom was indeed officers--and especially Guillaume de Flavy already sealed. Had she been put to death

- had knowingly and willingly exposed her as a prisoner of war, the act, however repugto danger, from envy of her superior renown. nant to every dictate of justice and humanity, For a long time there was no positive proof would not have been without precedent or against Flavy: but at length he was mur- palliation, according to the manners of that dered by his own wife, who, when put upon age. Thus, as we have seen, the English her trial, pleaded and proved that he had re- captives at Jargeau had been deliberately solved to betray Joan of Arc to the enemy; and put to the sword after their surrender, to avert this defence, though wholly irrelevant to the some disputes as to their ransom. Thus also question at issue, was in that barbarous age there is still extant a letter from an English admitted by the judges.

admiral, Winnington, stating his determinaThe captive heroine was first conducted to tion to kill or drown the crews of one hundred the quarters of John of Luxemburg, and trans- merchantmen which he had taken, unless the ferred in succession to the prisons of Beau- council should deem it better to preserve their revoir, Arras, and Le Crotoy, at the mouth lives.* Nay, Joan herself was charged, of the Somme. She made two intrepid at- although unjustly, with having sanctioned tempts at escape. Once she had broken a this practice in the case of Franquet, a Burpassage through the wall, but was arrested gundian freebooter, who fell into ber hands, on her way, and still more closely confined. and was hanged shortly before her own captiAnother time she threw herself headlong vity. But the conduct of Joan's enemies has

not even the wretched excuse which such Not Vendome, as most writers have supposed. The place meant is now called Wandomme, in the past inhumanities might supply. Their obDépartement du Pas de Calais. (Quicherat, Procès de Jeanne d'Arc, vol. i., p. 13.)

• Fenn's Collection of Letters, vol. i., p. 213. † Supplément aux Mémoires (Collection, vol. Dr. Lingard has pointed out this passage in his viii., p. 287).

History of England,

was the

ject was not only to wreak their vengeance It will, we trust, be acknowledged that, in upon the Maid for their former losses, but to our statement of this trial, we have neither dediscredit her in popular opinion, to brand her nied nor palliated its evil deeds. But when we (we quote the very words of Bedford) as 'a find them urged by some French writers, even disciple and lymbe of the fiende that used at the present day, as an eternal blot upon false enchauntments and sorcerie,' and to the English name-as a still subsisting cause lower and taint the cause of Charles VII. by of national resentment-we may perhaps be connecting it with such unhallowed means. allowed to observe, in self-defence, that the They therefore renounced any rights of war worst wrongs of Joan were dealt upon her by which they possessed over her as their pri- the hands of her own countrymen. Her most soner, to claim those of sovereignty and juris- bitter enemy, the Bishop of Beauvais, was a diction as their subject, which she never had Frenchman ; 80 was his colleague, the vicarbeen, and resolved to try her before an eccle- general of the inquisition; so were both the siastical tribunal on the charge of witchcraft. malignant Estivet and the perfidious L'Oise. They found a fitting tool for their purpose in leur—the judges, the accuser, and the spy! Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, who was Even after this large deduction, there will wholly devoted to their interest, and who pre- still remain a heavy responsibility against the sented a petition for the trial on the frivolous English authorities—both civil and religious pretext that she had been made prisoner with-|-against the Duke of Bedford and the Cardiin his diocese. The University of Paris nal of Winchester. was so far misled by party views as to join in On the 21st of February, 1431, Joan was the same request. The Bishop himself was brought for the first time before her judges. appointed the first judge; the second was She underwent, nearly on successive days, Jean Lemaitre, vicar-general of the inquisi- fifteen examinations. The scene tion; and the office of public advocate or ac- castle-chapel at Rouen; and she appeared cuser devolved upon Estivet, a canon of Beau- clad, as of yore, in military attire, but loaded vais. The tribunal thus formed, and directed with hains. Undepressed, either by her to hold its sittings at Rouen, was also attended fallen fortunes or by her long and cruel capby nearly one hundred doctors of theology, tivity, she displayed in her answers the same who had not, like the Bishop and vicar-gen- courageous spirit with which she had defended eral, votes in the decision, but who gave their Orleans and stormed Jargeau. Nor was it counsel and assistance when required, under courage only ; her plain and clear good sense the title of assessors.

often seemed to retrieve her want of education, Unjustifiable as this trial appears in its gen- and to pierce through the subtle wiles and eral scope and design, it was further darkened artifices elaborately prepared to ensnare her. in its progress by many acts of fraud and vio- Thus, for example, she was asked whether lence, and an evident predetermination to she knew herself to be in the grace of God? condemn. A private investigation, similar to Had she answered in the affirmative, then arthose at Poitiers, and with the same result, rogance and presumption would forthwith have having been appointed, the Duke of Bedford been charged upon her; if in the negative, is said to have concealed himself in a neigh- she would have been treated as guilty by her bouring apartment, and looked on through a own confession. It is a great matter,' she rent in the wall. A priest, named Nicolas said, “to reply to such a question.' •So great L'Oiseleur, was instructed to enter the prison a matter,' interposed one of the assessors, of Joan, to represent himself as her country- touched with pity-his name deserves to be man from Lorraine, and as a sufferer in the recorded, it was Jean Fabry—that the pricause of King Charles ; thus, it was hoped, soner is not bound in law to answer it.' “You gaining upon her confidence, giving her false had better be silent,' said the Bishop of Beaucounsels, and betraying her under the seal of vais fiercely to Fabry: and he repeated the confession into some unguarded disclosures. question to Joan. 'If I am not in the grace A burgher of Rouen was sent to Domremy of God,' she said, 'I pray God that it may to gather some accounts of her early life; but, be vouchsafed to me; if I am, I pray as these proved uniformly favourable, they that I may be preserved in it.' were suppressed at the trial. In like manner, Thus again she was asked whether the many answers tending to her vindication Saints of her visions, Margaret and Catherine, were garbled or omitted in the written re- hated the English nation? If the answer ports. She was allowed neither counsel nor was that they did, such partiality would ill adviser. In short, every artifice was used to beseem the glorified spirits of heaven, and entrap, every threat to overawe, an untaught the imputation of it might be punished as and helpless girl.

blasphemy: but if Joan should reply that Rymer's Federa, vol. X., p. 408. they did not, the retort was ready :- Why

God

then did they send you forth to fight against declares that she herself was this angel; in us ?? She answered, “They love whatever others again, she appears to confound the imGod loves, and hate whatever he hates.? aginary crown of the vision with the real one • Does God then hate the English ?' pursued at Rheims.* In short, this was clearly one the inexorable Bishop of Beauvais.Whe- main-spring of her enthusiasm, or a morbid ther God may love or may hate the English, point in her mind, where judgment and memoI know not; but I know that they shall be ry had been overpowered by imagination. driven forth from this realm by the King of No proof or presumption, however, to conFrance—all but those who shall die in the firm the charges of sorcery could be deduced field.'

from her own examinations or from any other. The two points on which Joan's enemies So plain and candid had been the general tenand judges (the terms are here synonymous) our of her answers, that it being referred to the mainly relied were —first, the Tree of the assessors whether or not she should be put to Fairies,' near Domremy: and, secondly, the the rack, in hopes of extorting further revelabanner borne by herself in battle. Both tions, only two were found to vote in favour of these it was attempted to connect with of this atrocious proposal, and of these two evil spirits or magical spells. As to the first, one was the traitor-priest L'Oiseleur! It is Joan replied, clearly and simply, that she said that one of our country!nen present at had often been round the tree in procession the trial was so much struck with the evident with the other maidens of the village, but good faith of her replies, that he could not had never bebeld any of her visions at that forbear exclaiming, A worthy woman—if spot. With regard to the banner, she de- she were only English !'+ clared that she had assumed it in battle Her judges, however, heedless of her in. on purpose to spare the lance and the sword ; nocence, or perhaps only the more inflamed that she wished not to kill any one with her by it, drew up twelve articles of accusation own hand, and that she never had. But she upon the grounds of sorcery and heresy, was closely pressed with many other ques- which articles were eagerly confirmed by the tions :

University of Paris. On the 24th of May, · When you first took this banner, did

1431—the very day on which Joan had been

you ask whether it would make you viciorious in taken prisoner the year before—she was led every battle?' • The voices,' answered she, to the churchyard before Saint Ouen, where *told me to take it without fear, and that God two scaffolds had been raised; on the one would help me.'

stood the Cardinal of Winchester, the Bishop Which gave the most help; you to the ban- of Beauvais, and several prelates; the other ner, or the banner to you ?' iWhether victory came from the banner or from me, it belonged to

was designed for the Maid, and for a preachour Lord alone.'

er named Erard. The preacher then began Was the hope of victory founded on the ban- his sermon, which was filled with the most ner or on yourself? It was founded on God vehement invectives against herself; these and on naught besides.'

she bore with perfect patience, but when he * If another person had borne it

, would the came to the words, ' Your King, that heretic same success have followed ?' 'I cannot tell; and that schismatic,' she could not forbear I refer myself to God.'

Why were you chosen sooner than another?' exclaiming aloud, 'Speak of me, but do not 'It was the pleasure of God that thus a simple speak of the King; he is a good Christian. . maid should put the foes of the King to flight.'

... By my faith, sir, I can swear to you, "Were not you wont to say, to encourage as my life shall answer for it, that he is the the soldiers, that all the standards made in sem- noblest of all Christians, and not such as you blance of your own would be fortunate ?' : I say.' The Bishop of Beauvais, much incensused to say to them, “Rush in boldly among the ed, directed the guards to stop her voice, and English ;" and then I used to rush in myself.'

the preacher proceeded. At his conclusion, The clearness and precision of her replies a formula of abjuration was presented to Joan on these points stand forth in strange con- for her signature. It was necessary in the trast to the vague and contradictory accounts first place, to explain to her what was the which she gives of her first interview with meaning of the word abjuration ; she then the King. On this topic she at first refuses to answer altogether, saying that she is for

* De Barante, vol. vi., p. 121; and Quicherat, bidden by her Voices. But afterwards she Procès de Jeanne d'Arc, vol. i., passim. This is a drops mysterious hints of an angel bringing recent and well-edited collection of the original doca crown to Charles from heaven; sometimes aments referring to the trial. The second volume saying tbat the King alone had beheld this bas not yet appeared.

tC'est une bonne femme—si elle était Anglaise !! vision, and sometimes that it had been before (Supplément aux Mémoires, Collection, vol. viii., many witnesses. In other examinations she p. 294.)

exclaimed that she had nothing to abjure, for But whether the means employed in this that whatever she had done was at the com- infamous transaction were of fraud or of force. mand of God. But she was eagerly pressed the object was clearly the same—to find a with arguments and with entreaties to sign. pretext for further rigour. For, according to At the same time the prelates pointed to the the rules of the Inquisition, it was not heresy public hangman, who stood close by in his in the first instance, but only a relapse into car, ready to bear her away to instant death if heresy, that could be punished with death. she refused. Thus urged, Joan said at length, No sooner then was the Bishop of Beauvais 'I would rather sign than burn,' and put her apprised of Joan's change of dress, than he mark to the paper.* The object

, however, hastened to the prison to convict her of the was to sink her in public estimation ; and fact. He asked her whether she had heard with that view, by another most unworthyher Voices' again ? 'I have,' answered artifice, a much fuller and more explicit con- Joan; “St. Catherine and St. Margaret have fession of her errors was afterwards made reproved me for my weakness in signing the public, instead of the one which had been abjuration, and commanded me to resume the read to her, and which she had really signed. dress which I wore by the appointment of

The submission of Joan having been thus God.' This was enough; the Bishop and extorted, the Bishop of Beauvais proceeded to his compeers straightway pronounced her a pass sentence in the name of the tribunal. He heretic relapsed; no pardon could now be announced to her, that out of grace and mod granted-scarce any delay allowed. eration' her life should be spared, but that At daybreak, on the 30th of May, her conthe remainder of it must be passed in prison fessor, Martin l’Advenu, was directed to en.

with the bread of grief and the water of an. ter her cell, and prepare her for her coming guish for her food.'t Joan heard the sen-doom-to be burned alive that very day in the tence unmoved, saying only, "Well, then, market-place of Rouen. At first hearing this ye men of the church, lead me to your own barbarous sentence, the Maid's firmness forprisons, and let me no longer remain in the sook her for some moments; she burst into pitehands of these English. But she was taken ous cries, and tore her hair in agony, loudly back to the same dungeon as before. appealing to God, “the great Judge,' against the

Nor was it designed that her life should in- wrongs and cruelties done her. But ere long deed be spared. Her enemies only hoped, regaining her serene demeanour, she made by a short delay and a pretended lenity, to her last confession to the priest, and received palliate the guilt of her murder, or to heap a the Holy Sacrament from his hands. At heavier load upon her memory. She had nine o'clock, having been ordered to array promised to resume a female dress; and it herself for the last time in female attire, she is related that a suit of men's apparel was was placed in the hangman's car, with her placed in her cell, and her own removed du- confessor and some other persons,

and was ring the night, so that she had no other escorted to the place of execution by a parchoice next morning but to clothe herself ty of English soldiers. As she passed, there again in the forbidden garments. Such is happened another touching incident to this the common version of the story. But we touching story: the forsworn priest, the greatly fear that a darker and a sadder tale wretched L'Oiseleur, who had falsely sought remains bebind. A priest, named Martin her confidence, and betrayed her confession, l'Advenu, who was allowed to receive her now moved by deep remorse, threw himself confession at this period, and to shrive her in her way to own his guilt and implore her in her dying moments, was afterwards exam- forgiveness.* At the market-place (it is now ined at the trial of revision, and declared that adorned by a statue to her memory) she an English lord (un millourt d'Angleterre) found the wood ready piled, and the Bishop had entered her prison and attempted vio- of Beauvais, with the Cardinal of Wincheslence ; that on his departure she was found ter and other prelates, awaiting their victim. with her face disfigured and in tears; and First a sermon was read, and then her senthat she had resumed men's apparel as a more tence: at this her tears flowed afresh, but she effectual safeguard to her honour. I

knelt down to pray with her confessor, and asked for a cross.

There was none at hand, Deposition, at the trial of Revision, of Massieu, and one was sent for to a neighbouring a priest and rural dean, who had stood by her side church; meanwhile an English soldier made on the scaffold. (Quicherat, Procès, vol. i., p. 8.), another by breaking his staff asunder, and

• Au pain de douleurs et à l'eau d'angoisse. this cross she devoutly clasped to her breast. (Collection des Mémoires, vol. viii., p. 304.)

| Compare Sismondi, vol. xiii., p. 190, with the Supplement aux Mémoires (Collection, vol. viii., ** Depuis il s'enfuit a Balc, où il mourut subitep. 304.)

ment.' (Quicherat, Proces, vol. i., p. 6.)

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