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that a joint Convention has been very re
NOTE. cently signed by Austria, England, France, Prussia, and Russia, by which each power Concerning the Article on the Order of the agrees—in furtherance of the suppression Garter, &c., in No. CXXXVI. of the slave-trade-to grant to the cruisers of the other powers warrants to search- We have received various letters com. in certain specified cases-and, if slaves plaining of omissions in our account of be found, to send in for adjudication ships the actual representatives of our old bearing its national flag. This great step royal families, in an article of last Number. -the greatest, we believe, yet made to. We did not profess to name all the existwards the suppression of the slave-trade ing representatives of every branch, but on the seas, does infinite honour to all only the chief representative—the per. the contracting parties, and will, we are son to whom, were the succession to confident, be received with such satisfac-open to that branch, the royal inheritance tion throughout Europe as to silence the would go. Thus, in the case of the petty and interested cavils of a party in Prince of Modena : he was mentioned as France, which- from the triple motive of the bead of that particular line of the opposition to M. Guizot, hatred of Eng- House of Savoy in which the blood of land, and zeal for the slave-trade-has Charles I. survives. We did not enubeen very angry at the prospect of this merate more than the two other persons happy arrangement. With Brazil, Den- next included in that line : the Duchess mark, Holland, Naples, Portugal, Sardinia, of Angoulême, her husband, and the Spain, and Sweden, we had already similar children of the late Duke of Berri, are conventions; and thus there is an unani- farther off in that line of Savoy, and theremous concurrence in this great principle fore they, with others, were omitted. of, we may say, the whole civilized world King Louis Philippe comes after them, as -except America ; and we cannot be- Ja descendant from the Stuart family ; but live that she will-long consent to exclude he was mentioned because he represents herself from so honourable an alliance. another line of that blood, namely, the But, whether it is to be done by con- blood of James I. In like manner, when vention, or some special application of the a princess of ancient date had been mar. general principles before stated—we can. ried more than once, we seldom mentioned not bring ourselves to doubt that this more as to her than the representative of question may be easily, and will be speedi- her first marriage. Thus we did not ly arranged.
mention Sir A. Edmonstone, of Dentreath, We conclude with repeating the ex- though this Baronet undoubtedly springs pression of our anxious but respectful from the second marriage of a Scottish hope—we might say our conviction—that, princess; and his house have, ever since taking them altogether, the points of dif- the time of King Robert II., borne the ference existing between England and double tressure on their shield, in token America are so inconsiderable, compared of that high connection. with the vast importance of the common in After these illustrations we need not terests which should unite them, that the explain why we did not state that Lord wise and honest statesınen who now prin- Stourton descends from Thomas de cipally influence the foreign relations of Brotherton through the Howards ;' or the two countries will be enabled to bring that the Duke of Rutland comes from all those differences to an early, honoura. Anne Plantagenet, as well as Lord de ble, and final close, and to give to that Ros. In both cases the prime royalty of community of interests such additional the blood has been dissevered from the cordiality and confidence as may make male representation of the great families our two countries in feeling—what, as that were honoured with the royal allicompared with the rest of mankind, we really are independent but friendly branches of one great family.'
FOR MARCH, 1842.
Art. I.-1. Collection des Chroniques Na, to their modern memoirs. These have been
tionales Françaises. Par M. Buchon. printed in regular succession, and in one 36 vols. Paris, 1826.
uniform and convenient size, affording to the 2. Collection Complète des Mémoires relatifs public a clear and excellent type, combined
à l'Histoire de France. Par M. Petitot. with a moderate price. We do not pretend Première Série, 52 vols. Seconde Série, to have read at any time all or nearly all the par MM. Petitot et Monmerqué, 78 vols. two hundred volumes which our title-page Paris, 1819-1829.
displays. Some of their contents also were 3. Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l' His known to us from former and separate pub
toire de France. Par M. Guizot. 30 vols. lications; but so far as our reading in this Paris, 1823-1835.
edition has extended, we have found the bio4. Archives Curieuses de l'Histoire de graphical introductions clear, critical, and
France. Première Série, 15 vols. Se able, and ihe text, while not overlaid, suffi
conde Série, 12 vols. Paris, 1834-1841. ciently explained with notes. We think 5. Procès de Jeanne d'Arc. Par Jules Qui. very great praise is due to the various edicherat. Premier tome. Paris, 1841. tors, MM. Buchon, Petitot, Monmerque,
and last, not least, that eminent statesman If we compare the progress of historical who now presides over the councils of his publications in France and England during country. And we heartily commend these the last twenty or thirty years we shall find volumes to the purchase and perusal of all but little ground for self-gratulation. Our who value French history-to the emulation Record Commission comprised most able of all who value our own. men: it was animated by the best inten To review in a few pages several hundred tions ; but in its results it has brought forth volumes and several hundred years would be only misshapen and abortive works-alla vain and frivolous attempt. begun apparently without rule or method — fer to single out some one period and some scarce any yet completed, and scarce any de- one subject, which we shall endeavour to il. serving to be so—all of different forms and lustrate, not only from the publications now sizes—and alike only in the enormous before us, but from whatever other sources amount of the expense incurred, and the al- may supply. Let us take one of the most most utter worthlessness of the information remarkable characters in ancient or modern afforded. Never before, according to the times, Joan of Arc, the maid of Orleans. farmer's phrase, was there so much cry and The eighth volume of M. Petitot's Collecso much cost with so little wool. Amongst tion contains many ancient documents referthe French, on the contrary, there have been ring to her history,—an original letter, for -without the need of government grants or example, from the Sire de Laval to his goveroment commissions-some well-com- mother, describing her appearance at Court bined undertakings to collect, arrange, and -and some memoirs written, beyond all publish the most valuable documents in their doubt
, by, a contemporary, since the writer language, from their early chronicles down' refers to information which he received from VOL. LXIX.
We shall pre
the chiefs at the siege of Orleans ; nay, wayfarer whom chance might lead to her vilwritten probably, as M. Petitot conjectures lage. An ardent piety, however, soon made from their abrupt termination, in the very her an object of remark, and perhaps of ridiyear of that siege.
cule. She was sometimes seen to kneel and But these are by no means the only nor pray alone in the fields. She took no pleathe most important documents to be consulted. sure in the pastimes of her young companions ; It is well known that at the trial in 1431, but as soon as her daily work was over she Joan was herself examined at great length, would rush to the church, and throw herself together with many other witnesses. A new prostrate with clasped hands before the altar, trial of • revision,' with the view to clear her directing her devotions especially to the Virgin memory from the stain of the first, was un- and to Saints Catherine and Margaret, in dertaken by order of King Charles in 1456; whose name that church was dedicated. The and at this second trial several of her kins- sacristan declares in his depositions at the men, of her attendants, of her companions in trial that she was wont to rebuke him whenarms, appeared to give their testimony. ever he neglected to ring the bells for the vilNow, manuscript copies of all these remark- lage service, and to promise him a reward if able depositions exist in the public libraries, he would for the future do his duty better. both of Paris and Geneva. They have been Every Saturday, and sometimes oftener, she illustrated by MM. de Laverdy and Lebrun went in pilgrimage to a small chapel, dedicatde Charmettes, and more recently by the ed to the Virgin, at a little distance from the superior skill of De Barante and Sismondi.* village. Another spot to which Joan often reof these last we shall especially avail our- paired was a venerable beech, which spread selves; and by combining and comparing its ancient boughs on the confines of the such original records, many of them descend- neighbouring forest of Bois Chenu. At its ing to the most familiar details, and nearly foot ran a clear streamlet, to whose waters all unknown till more recent times, we hope healing powers were ascribed. The tree bore to make the English reader, at least, better the popular name of 'L'Arbre des Dames,' acquainted than he may hitherto have been or L'Arbre des Fées,' and, according to Joan with the real character and history of the he herself at her trial, several grey-headed crones Toine.
in the village, and amongst the rest her godJoan was the child of Jacques d'Arc, and mother
, pretended to have heard with their own of Isabeau Romée his wife, poor villagers of ears fairies discoursing beneath the mysterious Domremy, on the borders of Lorraine. She shade. But for that very reason the tree was had one sister, who appears to have died in hallowed by Catholie worship, as such spots childhood, and three brothers. When asked have ever been, in the dark ages with the at her trial what had been her age on first view to drive out the evil spirits, in less creducoming to King Charles's Court, she an.lous times to dispel the superstition from the swered, nineteen. The good rule of making public mind. Once every year, the priest of a large addition to a lady's own declaration Domremy, at the head of the elders of the vilof her years does not appear
needful in this lage, walked round the tree in solemn procescase: her own declaration was also confirm- sion, chaunting psalms and prayers, while the ed by other witnesses; and we may without young people were wont to hang garlands on hesitation fix her birth in 1410 or 1411.t the boughs, and to dance beneath them until Her education was such as a peasant-girl re- night with lighter minstrelsy, ceived at that time; she was not taught to read or to write, but she could spin and sew
or legend old, and repeat her Pater-Noster and her Ave
Or song heroically bold.' Maria. From her early childhood she was sent forth to tend her father's flocks or
The times in which the lot of Joan was herds on the hills. Far from giving signs cast were such as to turn an ardent spirit of any extraordinary hardihood or heroism, she towards things of earth as well as towards was so bashful as to be put out of counte- things of heaven. Her young heart beat nance whenever spoken to by a stranger. high with enthusiasm for her native France, She was known to her neighbours only as a now beset and beleaguered by the island. simple-minded and kind-hearted girl, always strangers. Her young fancy loved to dwell ready to nurse the sick, or to relieve any poor on those distanı battles, the din of which
might scarcely reach her quiet village, but De Barante, Histoire des Ducs de Bourgogne, each apparently hastening ihe ruin of her vol. v., pp. 270-360, and vol. vi., pp. 1-140 ; Sis- father-land. We can picture to ourselves mondi, Histoire des Français, vol. xiii., pp: 115-194. how earnestly the destined heroine—the fubook) has altered nineteen to twenty-nine, and this ture leader of armies-might question those error has misled both Hume and Rapin.
chance travellers whom, as we are told, she
delighted to relieve, and for whose use she château, a town safe from aggression, as bewould often resign her own chamber, as to longing to the Duke of Lorraine, where she each fresh report from the changeful scene remained, as she tells us, during fifteen days,* of war. She was ten years of age when the and where she probably may have wrought ignominious treaty of Troyes, signed by a for her living; and such is the only foundamonarch of diseased intellect, yielded the tion for the story given by Monstrelet, a succession to the English. She was twelve chronicler of the Burgundian faction, and years of age when that unhappy monarch adopted by Hume and other later historians, (Charles VI.) expired, when the infant King that Joan had been for several years a serof England was proclaimed King of France vant at an inn. at Paris, at Rouen, and at Bordeaux, when The fiery spirit of Joan, wrought upon by the rightful heir, the Dauphin (but few as the twofold impulse of religious and political yet would term him Charles VII.), could enthusiasm, was not slow in teeming with only hold his little Court in the provinces vivid dreums and ardent aspirations: ere long beyond the Loire. In 1423 came the news of these grew in intensity, and she began to the defeat of Crevant; in 1424 the flower fancy that she saw the visions and heard the of French and Scottish chivalry fell at Ver- voices of her guardian saints calling on her neuil ; in 1425 La Hire and his brave com- to re-establish the throne of France, and expanions were driven from Champagne. pel the foreign invaders. It is probable that A brief respite was indeed afforded to Charles a constitution which, though robust and harby the recall of the Regent Duke of Bedford dy, was in some points imperfect
, may have to quell the factions at home, and by some contributed in no small degree to the phandifference which arose between him and his toms and illusions of her brain.t She said powerful kinsman and ally the Duke of on her trial that she was thirteen years of Burgundy. But all these feuds were now age when these apparitions began. The first, composed, and Bedford had returned, eager according to her own account, took place in to carry the war beyond the Loire, and to her father's garden, and at the hour of noon, crush the last hopes of the · Armagnacs,' as when she suddenly saw a brilliant light shinCharles's adherents were termed, from the ing in her eyes, and heard an unknown voice, prevailing party at his Court. Had Bedford bidding her to continue a good girl, and succeeded-had the diadems of France and promising that God would bless her, The England been permanently united on the second apparition, some time afterwards, same head—it is hard to say which of the when she was alone, tending her flock in two nations would have had the greater rea- the fields, had become much more defined to son for regret.
her view, and precise in its injunctions ; Remote as was the situation of Domremy, some majestic forms floated before her; some it could not wholly escape the strife or the mysterious words reached her ears, of France sufferings of those evil times. All the peo- to be delivered by her aid. I Gradually these ple of that village, with only one exception, forms resolved themselves into those of St. were zealous Armagnacs; some of their Catherine and St. Margaret, while the third, neighbours, on the contrary, were no less from whom the voice seemed to come, and zealous Burgundians. So strong was Joan who looked, as she says, 'un vray preud'of Arc's attachment to the King, that, accord- homme,' announced himself to her as Michael ing to her own avowal, she used to wish for the Archangel. I saw him,' she said to her the death of his one disloyal subject at Domremy. When Charles's lieutenants had * Second Examination of Joan of Arc at Rouen. been driven from Champagne, the fathers of See · Collection des Mémoires,' vol. viii., p. 242. her village had of course like the rest bowed M. Petitot adds, 'Il parait néanmoins certain que
pendant son séjour a Neufchateau elle servit dans their heads beneath the Burgundian yoke, l'hôtellerie où sa famille était Ingée. Il est probable, but the children retained their liule animosi- vu la pauvreté de ses parens, qu'elle et ses frères ties, and the boys were wont to assemble and payaient par leurs services l'hospitalité qu'on leur
donnait' sally forth in a body to fight the tiny Bur
+ Sexûs sui infirmitates semper usque ad mortem gundians of the adjoining village of Maxey. adfuisse constat. (Sismondi, Histoire des Français, Joan says at her trial that she had often seen vol. xiii., p. 117.) her brothers returning bruised and bloody # It is plain, however, that Joan, in the account from these mimic wars.
she gave at her trial of this second apparition, uncon.
sciously transferred to it some circumstances that, On one occasion a more serious inroad of according to her own view of the case, must have a party of Burgundian cavalry compelled the been of several years later date. A promise de villagers of Domremy to take to fight with faire lever le siège d'Orleans' could not be given their families and flocks, and await elsewhere until after the siege had begun, which it was not un
til October, 1428. Now, her second vision, as she the passing of the storm. Joan and her pa states it, must have been about 1424. (Collection, rents sought shelter at an hostelry in Neuf- vol. viii., p. 238.)
judges, with these eyes, as plainly as I see to proceed into France.* Honest Jacques you now. In another part of her trial, when and Isabeau felt no other fear than that their again questioned on the same subject, she daughter's ardent imagination might be answered— Yes; I do believe firmly, as practised upon by some men-at-arms, and she firmly as I believe in the Christian faith, induced to go forth from home, and follow and that God has redeemed us from the pains them to the wars. • Did I think such a of hell, that those voices came from Him, and thing would be,' said her father to one of his by His command.' Her own sincerity and sons, '1 would sooner that you drowned her; strength of belief are indeed beyond doubt and if you did not, I would with my own or cavil; it was this feeling alone that could hands! animate her to such lofty deeds, or support The impulse given by her visions, and the her in such a death.
restraints imposed by her sex and station, It is alleged by Joan herself that she was might long have struggled for mastery in the struck with affright at the first of these visions mind of Joan, had not the former been quick('eut muult paour de ce'), but that the follow- ened and brought into action by a crisis in ing ones filled her with ecstacy and rapture. political affairs. The Duke of Bedford When the Saints were disappearing, I used having returned to France and mustered to weep and beseech I might be borne away large reinforcements from Burgundy, sent with them, and after they had disappeared I forth a mighty army against Charles. used to kiss the earth on which they had command he intrusted to the valiant Earl of rested.' Sometimes she spoke of her celes- Salisbury, under whom fought Sir John Taltial monitors as 'mes Voix,' and sometimes bot, Sir John Fastolf, Sir William Gladsdale, gave them the reverential title of Messire;' captains of high renown. Salisbury, having and, in gratitude for such signs of heavenly first reduced Rambouillet, Pithiviers, Jarfavour, she vowed to herself that she would geau, Sully, and other small towns, which consecrate her maiden state to God.
yielded with slight or no resistance, proceedMeanwhile, however, she was growing ed to the main object of his enterprise, the up in comeliness and beauty, and found favour siege of Orleans-a city commanding the in the sightofan honest yeoman, who sought passage of the Loire and the entrance into her in marriage, and whose suit was warm- the southern provinces, and the most imporly pressed by her parents. Joan steadily re- tant, both from its size and its situation, of fused. The rustic lover, having soon exhaust- any that the French yet retained. Here, ed his scanty stock of rhetoric, had recourse then, it was felt on all sides, must the last to a singular expedient: he pretended that struggle for the French monarchy be made. she had made him a promise of marriage, Orleans once subdued, the troops of Bedford and cited her before the official at Toul to might freely spread over the open country compel her to perform her engagement. beyond the Loire, and the Court of Charles The Maid went herself to Toul and under- must seek shelter in the mountains of took her own defence, when having declared Auvergne or of Dauphiné. To this scene, on oath that she had never made any such then, the eyes not only of France and of promise, the official gave sentence in her England, but of all Europe, were turned ; favour.
on this ground, as on the champ clos' of anHer parents, displeased at her stubborn cient knights and paladins, had been narrefusal, and unable to comprehend-nor did rowed the conflict for sovereignty on the one she dare to reveal to them-her motives, side, for independence on the other. held her, as she says, 'en grant subjection.' It was in the month of October, 1428, that They were also much alarmed at the strange Orleans was first invested by the Earl of hints which she had let fall to others on the Salisbury. But his design had been previmission which she believed had been entrust- ously foreseen, and every exertion made both ed to her from on high. Several of these by the French King and by the inhabitants hints are recorded by the persons to whom themselves to provide for a long and resolute they were addressed, the witnesses in the defence. A brave officer, the Sire de Gautrial of 1456. She said to that inhabitant of court, had been appointed Governor, and two Domremy whose death she had desired to of the principal captains of that age, Pothon see because he did not favour the Dauphin, de Xaintrailles, and Dunois, a bastard of the • Gossip, if you were not a Burgundian, I could tell you something.' To another neigh. * On n'appellait alors France que les provinces bour she exclaimed, .There is now between qui formaient le domaine de la Couronne. Les Colombey and Vaucouleurs a maid who will autres provinces étaient désignées collectivement
sous le nom de Royaume de France.' (Supplément cause the King of France to be crowned !'
aux Mémoires de Jeanne d'Are, Collection, vol. viii., She frequently said that it was needful for her