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rejoices in a domain comprising nearly This sides, especially those of the Spiegel carp eight thousand acres, of which nearly breed.?—p. 14. one-half is forest. On that estate are twenty-two ponds, the largest being about
We have here seen what may be done twenty-seven acres in extent; and the in rural economy with fish-ponds; and ive stock above recommended was calculated, earnestly call the attention of land-ownby this comfortable Saxon, afier forty ers to the subject :years' experience of practical results. Out of this larye pond, Gottlieb-we can agree, that, if a regular supply of live fresh-wa
• The fish salesmen of the London markets all fancy how he devoured them with his ter fish were kept up, good prices and a large eyes-saw, in 1822, the two largest breed. consumption would be ihe result: as it is, what ing carp placed in the scale, and their little is introduced to the markets is readily purunited weight amounted to nearly 100 lbs. chased by the Jews, and, during the season of the male drawing 43 lbs. and the female Lent, by the Roman Catholics. At any rate, 48 lbs., Saxon: noble fish, even taken al
the whole system of stocked fish-ponds, arranged
as I have described in this pamphlet, must be rate of weights : but Saxon productive of profit, tending also to increase the weight is above 7 per cent heavier than quantity of sustenance or food at a cheap rate English. In 1833 this goodly pair had for our fellow-creatures; moreover, producing increased, the male to 52 lbs., Saxon, and a gain from that which now constituies a waste. the female to 55 lbs.! In the same year -p: 17. he was present at the draught of his
* I do not doubt,' says he, that were the friend's second largest pond, covering tise to describe generally adopted, a very great
system which it is the object of this little trea. seventeen acrcs. The produce exceeded demand for fresh-water fish would ensue; for it 4000 lbs. weight of carp, besides tench is a business-like adage, that if you provide for and jack. In this pond the proprietor a market by a regular supply, a market is crehad left several carp for breeding, five of ated, and increased demand follows.'--p. 1. which weighed 103 lbs. Saxon; the largest of the five, a Spiegel carp, aged sixteen
As a gentle stimulus, Gottlieb Boccius years, drew in the scale 3i} lbs. English. administers, in his Appendix, twenty-three The age of the two taken froin the largest German recipes for cooking fresti-water pond could not be correctly stated, as they tite fag, we beg to prescribe the perusal
fish ; and, if any one should find his appewere on the estate when he purchased it: of this supplement about half an hour besome fifty years ago. couple, it seems, continue to fulfil the fore dinner. We must not, however, be divine command, nothing loth. These lured further by the captivating simplicifish,' says our author, they treat as prize ty of tench fried with caper-sauce, or the fish, and consider them infinitely better more elaborate gastronomy manifested in for spawn than younger ones,” (p. 12 ) carp poulpelon, or carp, with oyster forceThe largest English carp known to us meat; but earnestly advising our friends shrink before these dimensions. The
not to overlook the jack cotelettes., we for brace presented by Mr. Ladbroke, from the present take leave with the leonine his park at Gatton, to the late Lord Egre. hexameter, which-Hallordian in seuse mont, weighed 35 lbs. ; nor can we fi id a though Palmerstonian in prosody
-conrecord of a single fish heavier than 194lbs. cludes the vellum MS. of i831– Probably we do not give them time in 'Explicit de coquina quæ est optima medicina.' this country, for the carp lives to a great age :
* At Charlottenburg, the summer palace of the King of Prussia, in the ornamental waters of the domain, are a large number of carp, which Art. VIII.- Letters of John Adams, adare so extremely tame that they come to the surface to be fed at the sound of a bell. The
dressed 10 his Wife. Edited by his keeper has his favourites; and it is said that Grandson, Charles Francis Adams. 2 there are some among them more than a cen- vols. Boston. 1841. tury old. Where carp are well fed they may be seen basking in the sun on the surface of the If we had been aware that the Letters of water during the hot months of August and Mr. Adams would have so soon followed to September, and sometimes rolling about like so the press those of his wife, one article many porpoise. They will scarcely retreat at the approach of any one; and become so ex- might have sufficed for both; and if we tremely fat in stews, that'a 10-1b. fish will fre- shared the opinion which the Editor quently have fat an eighth of an inch thick on seems to have, that this batch of his family papers is less' attractive than the for- derstand that he has exercised this power mer' (Preface, p. xiii.,) we should cer- very sparingly, and rather fears that he tainly have thought that our readers had inay not have sufficiently lopped indishad quite enough of them. But though creet passages (vol. i., p. xi ;) but these these letters fall short of what we might apprehensions seem to us to be superflu. expect froin Mr. Adams, they are in our ous. It is true that Mr. Adams is often judgment much superior-even in the coarse in his expression of a political lighter merits of epistolary writing to difference; and his construction of other those of his lady; and are not without a men's motives and actions is apt to be certain, though not very considerable, habitually uncharitable : but there is litdegree of historical and political interest. tle or nothing which at this day can give They, perhaps, on the whole, lower the pain to anybody, unless, indeed, Mr. opinion we had formed of the scale of Adams's own friends; and it seems to us Mr. Adams's intellect; but they confirm that he was, or at least is presented to us our opinion that he was---bating some in these volumes as, one of the most weaknesses from which the best and the cautious, not to say jejune, corresponablest are not exempt-a good man, and dents that we have ever met with. "Inan honest man; and that his talents and deed, the letters themselves are in nocharacter, though of no striking brillian- thing more abundant than in confessing cy, were respectable in themselves, and their want of interest, and in making exappropriate to the share which he was cuses for telling nothing when a great destined to take in the foundation of the deal might have been told :American Republic. It is remarkable that, though these
'8th September, 1774. volumes were printed before the Editor the scenes I behold, and the characters I con
• It would fill volumes to give you an idea of could have seen our observations on his verse with. We have so much business, so former publication, his new Preface dis. much ceremony, so much company, so many cusses at considerable length, and finally visits to receive and return, that I have not admits the justice of, the main objection time to write. And the times are such as to we had made to that work-namely, that, make it imprudent to write freely.'-vol. i., by selecting particular portions of a cor- p. 20.
18th September, 1774. respondence, and omitting, even in the
• There is so much rascality in the manage. selected portions, such parts as might not ment of letters now come in fashion, that I am be satisfactory to his own feelings or pal- determined to write nothing of consequence, atable to the national taste, an editor di- not even to the friend of my bosom, but by minishes-not to say destroys—our con- conveyances which I can be sure of.'-vol. i., fidence in the evidence and authority of p. 25. the author. But having, most fairly, lo
*10th October, 1775.
“I must be excused from writing a syllable of gically, and laboriously, arrived at our anything of any moment. My letters have been conclusion, it is comical to find that the and will be nothing but trifles.'-vol. i., p. 63. very next thing the editor does is to ac
*28th April, 1776. knowledge-with more candour than con- • There is such a mixture of folly, littleness, sistency--an essential departure from it. and knavery in this world that I am weary of
For he admits that, though he has it; and although I behold it with unutterable made no addition, he has used his discre- contempt and indignation, yet the public good
I it tion in making such omissions as he him- word or by letter.'—vol. i., p. 104. self thought necessary,' and of 'select.
*31st March,1777. ing, not simply'-(which implies that the I believe you will think my letters very selection is made partly)—from personal trifling-indeed they are. I write in trammels. considerations; and of furnishing, not the Accidents have thrown so many letters into the whole evidence, but as much as, in his hands of the enemy, and they take such a maliopinion, the public is desirous to see.'
cious pleasure in exposing them, that I choose
they should have nothing but trifles me This discretion, it is obvious, differs little expose. For this reason I never write anything from that dictatorial power of selection of consequence from Europe, from Philadelphia, and alteration against which he had in the from camp, or anywhere else.' - vol. i., p. 199. hall-dozen preceding pages so
"21st February, 1779. fully argued; and the result is that we
I write you as often and as much as I ought. find ourselves condemned to read the let- Let me entreat you to consider if some of your ters of Vr. Adams with something of the a figure would they have made in a newspaper,
letters had by any accident been taken, what same kind of distrust that we did those to be read by the whole world? Some of them, of his wife. The editor gives us to un- it is true, would have done honour to the most
virtuous and most accomplished Roman matron; appear trite and commonplace to stranbut others of them would have made you and gers, a very different aspect to those who me very ridiculous.'-vol. ii., p. 50.
are better acquainted with the peculiari. 19th December, 1793. • The common movements of ambition every the secret history of American parties.
ties of American society, and, above all, day disclose to me views and hopes and designs that are very diverting, but these I will not com- If the editor had been solicitous for the mit to paper. They make sometimes a very suffrages of the European public, he pretty farce for amusement after the great would no doubt—or at least we think tragedy or comedy is over. What I write to should have given us more explanatory you must be in sacred confidence and strict
notes, and elucidated many passages discretion.'- vol. ii., p. 134.
which in their present state are obscure, This last solemn recommendation of and, for that reason perhaps, very unintesacred confidence and strict discretion,' as
resting to a European reader. But with to the very diverting' stories he will not the largest allowance we can make on this tell her, has at least the merit of remind-score, we are still surprised how little this ing us of Hotspur's pleasantry :
mass of correspondence contributes to po
litical history, or even to Mr. Adams's •Constant you are,
own biography. The latter must still be But yet a woman; and for secresy
gathered from other and very imperfect No lady closer; for I will believe Thou wilt not utter what thou dost not know.'
Mr. Adams was born in October, 1735. But after all, we are surprised that these The account of his family given by Dr. reiterated apologies for silence on the Allen has some curious touches of that most interesting subjects and during the
fond desire, most important periods of his life-(there
That longing after aristocracy! are but two short letters from 1778 to 1793, during the first vice-presidency)- which pervades the whole human race, but did not awaken some misgiving in the edi- none, we believe, in a stronger degree tor's mind that letters so cautiously writ- than the republican citizens of America. ten were not likely to fulfil the noble historical objects' for which he professes His father, John, was a deacon of the Church, to publish them.
a farmer, and a mechanic, and died May 25, We cannot, however, but suspect that 1737, aged 82; his great-grandfather, Joseph,
1761; his grandfather, Joseph, died Feb. 12, the more immediate motive for printing was born in England, and died at Braintree, Dec. these and the former volumes was, that 6, 1697, aged 63; the father of this ancestor was the publication of the lives and corres- Henry, who, as the inscription on his monument, pondence of Washington, Jefferson, Jay, erected by John Adams, says, took his flight from Morris, and other worthies of the era of in- the Dragon persecution, in Devonshire, in Eng. dependence, awakened an emulative and land, and alighted with eight sons, at Mount very natural desire in Mr. Adams's family Braintree-now Quincy-is not known, but is
Wollaston. The year of Henry's arrival at that He too should have his literary monu- supposed to be 1632. He died October 8, 1646.' ment. It was announced in Allen's American Biography' (1832) that his eldest It is quite clear that all these details son, “ John Quincy Adams, was preparing must have been furnished to Dr. Allen by memoirs of his father's life.' We have the family; and our readers will smile at heard no more of that work, and we sup- a minute accuracy of pedigree which Nor. pose that these volumes and Mrs. Adams's roy and Clarencieux are seldom able to letters are intended as a substitute. We attain. The farmer' and mechanic' could have so often expressed our dissatisfac- not be denied, but the pain of the contion at biographies from the pens of near fession is alleviated by the addition of relatives, that we are far from blaming the dignity of deacon'—which if transMr. Quincy Adams's silence, though we lated into English, would sound as if . Farcertainly wish we had a more adequate mer' Adams had also been Church warden substitute than one of the least interest of his parish. Then, please to observe ing collections of private letters that we the choice of words. These farmers and have ever met with. It is, however, only mechanics are 'ancestors ;' – Gray was fair to admit that we do not consider our content to call them the rude forefathers selves as very competent judges in this par of the hamlet.' Then Braintree-the name *<ular point: for there are a thousand de- of a pretty village in old Essex-is not tails of the times, the localities, and the good enough to be connected, in any way, persons, which may give to passages that I with this illustrious house of Adams: it
is now Quincy: Why ?-our readers will that we either ridicule or deprecate such easily guess, when they recollect that a result—'tis the natural course of human Mrs. Adams was the grand-daughter of a events; and few ennobled families could Mr. Quincy, that she had some wealthy have a more respectable stock or a deeprelatives of that name, and that she found, er root of public services than the descendin her travels in England, that there had ants of John Adams: but we cannot help been, in the time of Edward I., a de Quin- smiling at the inconsistency which fosters cy, Earl of Winchester, whose race, she such natural and laudable feelings under a rather believed, was not extinct!' (Let- sour parade of republican simplicity. ters of Mrs. Adams, ii., 181.) And then John Adams, we are told, graduated at Mr. Adams erects a monument to his great- Harvard College in 1755, and studied great-grandfather-Imagine any man in law under Colonel Putnam, an able lawyer aristocratical England erecting a monu- in extensive practice, from 1755 to 1758, ment to his great-great-grandfather! Let during which time he instructed pupils in the Duke of Somerset blush-the Pro- Greek and Latin, as a means of subsisttector has no monument ! And then ence. Here several doubts arise. First, again, Mr. Adams pens an inscription on we suspect that, as was said of a still
ancestor about whom he knows lit-greater man, there was little Latin and tle, concerning a Dragon persecution of less Greek.' Though we see in his · Dewhich, we suspect, he knows nothing at fence of the American Constitution' a all: but this Dragon persecution is the good deal about the ancient republics, and Rouge Dragon of his heraldry; and we some references to classical authors, they cannot but think that, considering the cir- are such as might be, and we think were, cumstances, any boast of heraldry' im- borrowed from translations; and we have puted to Howards and Seymours could in this correspondence little that indicates hardly exceed the ancestral pride that any acquaintance with the learned lantranspires through every line of this la- guages, save here and there a hackneyed boured pedigree.
phrase, such as "dulce est desipere' and Such is the preliminary absurdity of the "non tali auxilio:' and there is one allubiography of Mr. John Adams, whose real sion to Greek and Roman literature, and higher claims to consideration are which seems to negative any very famuch more simply and more honourably miliar acquaintance with either. He told. He--the son of a “farmer and me writes, February 3, 1777– chanic'-was one of the founders of the American nation; of which he and his son • It was said of Ulysses, I think, that he saw were successively chief magistrates, by
the manners of many men and many cities.'-
i., 182. the free selection of their fellow-citizens. “Can Bourbon or Nassau go higher ?" We think that he who penned this had
Yet, with all this real illustration, Mrs. either never read or strangely forgotten Adams sighs—and her children record both Homer and Horace-two pretty conand, we suppose, participate her anxiety- siderable ingredients in a classical edufor a bit of lying parchment, which should cation. connect them with some old Front-de. The extent of the scholastic acquirebæuf Earl of Winchester.
ments of Mr. Adams is of very little im. These trivial indications, however, are portance, nor would it lower—but indeed pregnant with important considerations. rather enhance-his personal merit, if it America is, we believe, in personal feel. were proved that he knew no more Greek ing, the most aristocratic country on the than Franklin, and no more Latin than his face of the earth-each man's rude asser- own · Diana solus. (Mrs. Adams's Lettion of equality is no better than a disguis. ters, vol. i., p. 7.) But biography, to ed assumption of superiority; and when- be worth anything, should be true in such ever the pressure of condensated society matters; and it would be satisfactory to shall force the more consistent particles know whether the parade of a high classi. to the surface, there will emerge some cal education be not like the pride of anform of aristocracy, probably as decided cestry'-one of those pretensions which the and distinctive as anything which we have Americans laugh at in us, but value rather in Europe ; and perhaps some future exorbitantly amongst themselves. Adams may shine in future red books, as But it is said that, 'while he was studyDuke of Massachusetts, Earl De Quincy, ing the law, from 1755 to 1758, he inViscount Braintree, and Baron Adam of the structed pupils. This seems to be a form Garden of Eden! Let it not be supposed of words adapted to veil the fact, which we have always understood to be notorious! ence to religion itself; but, on the other and admitted, of his having been a pro- hand, his language always was, and his fessed, and it has been said a severe, school- feelings appear to have been, respectful masler--but the very next sentence states and even reverential to religion in the abthat he was long in doubt as to the choice stract, and to Christianity in particular. of a profession, between the church and the A phrase in a letter of the 9th of February, law, but that towards the end of 1756 he 1793, which seems to put on an equality decided for the law.' He was, therefore, the consolations of stoicism and Christinot studying the law while he was instruct- anity,' is evilently a mere familiar locu. ing pupils in 1755. This inclination to tion, which the sincerest Christian might sink the schoolmaster is another of those i have used on such an occasion. In his indications of the aristocratical suscepti. Thoughts on Government,' (1776,) after bility of our American cousins: but Nr. referring, foolishly enough, to the moral Adams's biographer need not be ashamed authorities of Confucius, Zoroaster, So. of a circumstance which must so strongly crates, and Mahomel,' he adds, 'not to remind his readers of one of the most re- mention authorities REALLY sacred.' So, markable and honourable traits in the also, in his inaugural address as President, eventful life of the king of the French. 4th March, 1797, he asserts “his humble
At this period of Mr. Adams's life he is reverence and veneration for the religion said to have fallen into infidel opinions, of a people that profess and call themand never to have recovered from the de- selves Christians,' and pledyes himself plorable aberration. Dr. Allen opens this (with perhaps a sly allusion to the known important matter rather ambiguously. infidelity of his antagonist Jefferson) to
consider a devoit respect for Christianity * At this early period he had imbibed a pre- as one of the best recommendations for judice against the prevailing religious opinions public employment. But what we conof New England, and becane attached to spe- sider more satisfactory than all the forculations hostile to those opinions. Nor were his views afterwards changed.'
mer, because it is purely accidental, is his
allusion to the self-called philosophers :--This might imply merely, and we heartily wish it did, that Mr. Adams was a dis
Philadelphia, 141h December, 1794.–1 fear senter from the prevailing sect of dissent. the atheistical and theistical philosophers. lately ers—but from what follows it appears that into receptacles of visionaries, enlumivées
turned politicians, will drive the common people Dr. Allen means that those speculations' minées, &c. &c. &c., for the common people will were hostile to Christianity. Scepti- undoubtedly insist upon the risk of being damncism would, at first sight, surprise us in a ed, rather than give up the hope of being sav. person connected by so many ties with ed, in a future state. The people will have a the Puritan churches; but on a closer life to come, and so will 1.'-vol. ij., p. 172. view it seems natural enough that the
And on various other unpremeditated Congregational system which erects each congregation into an independent church, do of Christian' benevolence and Chris
occasions he talks as a Christian would and subjects both doctrine and discipline tian' virtues---though we do not recollect to the choice--that is, the caprice-of a that he makes any direct profession of his voluntary association, without any respect
own individual faith. He was constant, to anthority, or any control on individual speculations---should be very often found
but somewhat promiscuous, in his attend. to produce schism, and to lead, particular
ance at public worship. ly in warm and presumptuous tempers, to 9th October, 1774.–This day I went to Dr. infidelity. But we are glad to say we do Allison's meeting in the forenoon, and heard the not find in these volumes any trace of such Doctor; a good discourse upon the Lord's sup. a rejection of Christianity as Dr. Allen per. This is a Presbyterian meeting. I confess hints at. We do not look for a confession I am not fond of the Presbyterian meetings in of faith in familiar letters; and if our at. ! this town. I had rather go to Church. We have tention had not been directed to the sub
better sermons, better prayers, better speakers,
softer, sweeter music, and genteeler company. ject by the previous suspicion, we should And I must confess that the Episcopal church is have seen nothing—and, as it is, we see quite as agreeable to my laste as the Presbyter but little--to excite any doubt that he was rian. They are both slaves to the domination of inwardly, as he certainly was outwardly, the priesthood. I like the Congregational way a Chri tian. He professes, indeed, a great best; next to that the Independent. -- vol. i., pp. indifference about what he calls sects, and 34, 35. this pretty generally implies an indiffer. Congregational way!
Congregational way! What important