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day are of the most ample description ; as, un- land, as long as Providence shall allow it to der the present laws regulating literary proper- exist. ty, authors of ordinary talent have acquired both • Another clause asserts “that the proposed fame and opulence.' The petitioners, if they law would, if carried into effect, destroy all had looked with care no further than their own those useful and hitherto-considered necessary neighbourhood, could not have made this un- compilations for the instruction of the young, qualified assertion. The late Mr. Coleridge re- which have been so eminently useful in exciting sided many years among the Lakes, where his in the youthful mind a taste for literature and son now resides. It will hardly be disputed science." Now, so lar from there being just that the father was a man of first-rate genius reason for apprehending this consequence, the and attainments. Fame, indeed, he acquired, direct contrary would ensue, inasmuch as, by but not till many years after he deserved it; extending the term of copyright, authors would but as to his opulence, if the income tax had be under less temptation to prevent copious ex. continued till the day of his death, the collectors tracts being made from their works. For even of it would have had a sorry recompense for the supposing, which we are not warranted to do, trouble of calling upon him for his return. His that they would deem it injurious to their interson, whose powers and knowledge are the ad- ests during their lifetime, they would be more miration of all who know him, though not in- willing to put up with the loss, if the law alclined, perhaps, lo dispute that gold may have lowed it to be possible, at least for their childabounded in ihe sands of Pactolus, will have no ren or grandchildren to derive an equivalent hesitation in affirming that, if he were 10 judge from their labours, when they themselves shall from his own experience only, the waters of be no more. Helicon can make no such boast. Has even “ Still confining our views to this neighbourMr. Southey, a most laborious writer, and one of hood, what is the fact? There is lying before high distinction, attained “ opulence” by his me a book entitled “ Gleanings in Poetry," the works, or anything like it?' Yet much the preface to which compilation is sigoed - Richgreatest part of these works would become pub- ard Batt," and dated “Friends' School, Lancaslic property instantly upon the death of the au- ter.” This book extends with its notes 10 612 thor, or within less than half-a-dozen years. pages, of which 25 are from the poems of Mr. And what, till very lately, have been the gains Wordsworth. Did Mr. Wordsworth ever comof another author who was born, educated, and plain of these extracts, which were made withhas grown old in the neighbourhood of the peti- out application for his consent? Or did any tioners? The humblest of the band would blush other writer, from whom copious extracts are to hear them enumerated. I forbear to speak taken, utter such a complaint? Again-there of other highly-distinguished authors who have was lately published by Mr. Housman, of Lune honoured, or do honour, this beautiful country Bank, near Lancaster, a Collection of Sonnets, by choosing it for their residence. Not one of from different authors, filling 300 pages, of them but is 100 high-minded to repine; but the which pages not less than 57 are from the sense of justice is, I doubt not, sufficiently strong same author. Did Mr. Wordsworth complain in them all to make them resent the denial to of this liberty being taken? On the contrary, their posterity or their heirs of that moderate when the editor informed Mr. Wordsworth that compensation which a rational view of their the publisher of his works had threatened him interests would lead them to aim at, and which with an application to the Court of Chancery the public might be ready to bestow.

for an injunction, Mr. Wordsworth's immediate * But the next clause of the petition implies reply was that he found no fault whatever, and that it would be unreasonable and unjust for the thing was dropped. Now, the petitioners authors to look for such posthumous remunera- might have known this, for the fact was pubtion, the words running thus :—" that every lished in your paper at the time it happened, book, after its author has received from the probably by the editor or some of his friends ; public an equitable remuneration, becomes the and what is thus true of one individual, it may property of the public, who, by affording such be confidently affirmed, would have been equally remuneration, have purchased it.” An equitable so, if a like liberty had been taken with the remuneration. Here is the Gordian knot of the works of any other distinguished author, who question, which the petitioners cut without cere- resides, or has resided in this neighbourhood. mony. A more than adequate remuneration To conclude. The objections against the comes in the course of a season to thousands of proposed bill rest upon the presumption that it works intended only for the season. But can would tend to check the circulation of literature, the profit of one season, or ten seasons, or twen- and by so doing would prove injurious to the ty-eight (the utmost term now allowed by law, public. Strong reasons have been given above unless when the author is still alive), be justly for believing that these fears are groundless deemed a sufficient return for two works (I still and that such an extension of copyright would confine myself to the productions of this neigh-cause the reprinting of many good works, which bourhood) by Mr. Southey-his “Life of Nel- otherwise, to give back the petitioners their son” and his “ Book of the Church ?" They own words, would nearly remain a “dead let, are both of interest, eminently national; the ter.” But what we want in these times, and one will animate our youth to heroic enterprise, are likely to want still more, is not the circulastrengthen their patriotism, and tend to form tion of books, but of good books, and above all, and fix their principles, as long as the English the production of works, the authors of which navy shall endure, and the other maintain an look beyond the passing day, and are desirous of enlightened attachment 10 the Church of Eng- pleasing and instructing future generations.

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Now there cannot be a question that the pro-| time of the year, without the labour of tillage, posed bill would greatly strengthen such desire. without the expense of seed or manure, without A conscientious author, who had a family to the payment of rent or taxes. Every acre of maintain, and a prospect of descendants, would those seas is far more productive of wholesome, regard the additional labour bestowed upon any palatable, and nutritious food than the same considerable work he might have in hand, in quantity of the richest land ; they are fields the light of an insurance of money upon his own which, perpetually“ white to harvest,” require life for the benefit of his issue ; and he would only the labourer's willing hand to reap that be animated in his efforts accordingly, and never-failing crop which the bounty of Proviwould cheerfully undergo preseni privations for dence has kindly bestowed. Had it not been such future recompense. Deny it to him, and ascertained by actual experiment, it would have you unfeelingly leave a weight upon his spirits, been considered as fabulous to assigu to the fewhich must deaden his exertions; or you force male cod from three io four millions of eggs.' him 10 turn his faculties (unless he is unjust to those whom both nature and law require that So said we (Q. R., vol. ix., p. 266) fivehe should provide for) to inferior employments. and-twenty years ago ;--but our statements And lastly, you violate a fundamental right, by have seldom, we believe, been found extraleaving that species of property which has the highest claim to protection, with the least share vagant, and in this case the result of subseof it; for as to ihe analogy, which has been quent experiments is that nine millions of ova elsewhere much dwelt upon, between literary are comprised occasionally in the roe of one property and mechanical inventions and cheni- codfish. cal discoveries, it is, as might be shown in a few Nor is it from the deeps alone that this words, altogether fallacious.

plentiful harvest may be secured. 'I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,

• A. B.'

'The law of Nature,' says Mr. Yarrell,' which obliges mackerel and many others to visit the shallower water of the shores at a particular season, appears to be one of those wise and beautiful provisions of the Creator by which not

only is the species perpetuated with the greatest Árt. VII.-1. Report from the Select Com- mals are thus brought within the reach of man,

certainty, but a large portion of the parent animittee on British Channel Fisheries ; who, but for the action of this law, would be with Minutes of Evidence ard Appendix. deprived of many of those species most valuable 1933.

to him as food. For the mackerel dispersed 2. A Treatise on the Management of Fresh. over the immense surface of the deep, no effec

water Fish, with a View to making them live fishery could be carried on; but approaching a Source of Profit to Landed Propri-tors

. roving along the coast collected in immense

the shore as they do from all directions, and By Gottlieb Boccius. London. 8vo.

shoals, millions are caught, which yet form but 1841.

a very small portion compared with the myriads BUTCHERS' meat has risen of late considerably in price, and it is still rising. House

The harvest, then, is everywhere ready. keepers are now paying 9d. or 10d. a pound, But where are the labourers to gather it where last year they paid 6d. or 7d. The in? It is with us an old subject of lamen. Scotch and Irish steam-vessels unremittingly tation, that the Celtic tribes still retain pour their living freight upon the banks of those prejudices against fish and fishing the Thames in addition to the contributions which almost characterized the incivilizthat the railroads are constantly dispatching ed ancient Grecian ; and true it is that to the London shambles; yet the gigantic they cannot be casily made deep seametropolis has stomach for them all; and, fishers: but the difficulty, though great, like Vathek's "Giaour,' incessantly mutiers is far from an impossibility, and we hope *more-more!'--In truth, were it not for the the time will yet arrive when the Irish supplies that steam regularly contributes in

peasant will diligently search for treasure aid of those which formerly fed the great where he will be sure to find it. city, its flesh-markets, now that it is grown But we shall look in vain for this desigreater than the greatest, would, so to speak, rable change of character, to any great not be furnished at all ; and as it is, the poor extent at least, till there is such a steady people do not think of meat as they did two demand for the article as will insure a con. or three years ago. This is a bad state of stant and lucrative employment for the things ; and in looking for a remedy we na- poor, and a satisfactory return for the inturally turn first to the ocean which embraces vestment of capital by the rich. Now our isles; there, indeed, is

fish, with the exception of some of the A harvest ripe for the gathering at every more common kinds, such as sprats, her: YOL LXIX

16

that escape.'

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rings, and mackerel, is looked upon by days and consisting principally of fish,
all classes at present as a luxury, and not whilst those for flesh-days are no more
as e necessary of lifc, as it once was. In than fifty-eight. In the Rolls of Provi.
some of our inland counties the peasantry sions expended by Sir John Nevile of
know not the taste of fresh sea-fish, their Chete, Knight, on occasion of the mar-
ideas upon the subject being for the most riage of Roger Rockley with his daughter
part limited to the flavour of red herring, Elizabeth Nevile 'the 14th of January, in
which, by the is
way,

the 17th
them more
among

yeare of the reigne of our Sovefrequently used as a sovereign remedy to raigne Lord King Henry VIII,' we find restore the healthy function of digestion the following bill of fare :to their horned cattle, than as a solace for For Frydays and Saturdays. their own palates; or, as they say-for a

• First, leich brayne.* Item, frometye potcow that has lost her quid. To bring this tage.

Item, whole ling: liem, great goils back they administer a portion of red her- (jowls] of salt sammon. Item, great salt eels

. ring, and mostly find that the power of Item, great salt sturgeon goils. Item, fresh

ling. Item, fresh turbut. Item, great pike. chewing the cud is restored to the animal. Item, great goils of fresh sammon. Item, great But if the taste of fresh fish is unknown ruds. Item, baken turbuis. Item, tarts. to the poor in some central localities, they • Second Course.-Martens to pottage. Item, too commonly despise it on the sea-coast. a great fresh sturgeon goil. Item, fresh eel A duke does not scorn a dish of crimped roasted. Item, great brett. Item, sammon skate, yet we have seen those fish thrown chines broil'd. Item, roasted eels. Item, roastfrom the seine and left to decay on the

ed lampreys. Item, roasted lamprons. Item,

great burbutts. Item, sammon baken. Item, shore in the west of England as worthless, fresh eel baken. Item, fresh lampreys baken. when some of the neighbouring poor want. Item, clear jilly. Item, gingerbread.' ed a dinner.*

Again, at the Lammas assizes, in the Time was when fish formed a great part 20th year of Henry the Eighth, the same of the diet of the people of this country, Sir John Nevile provided thus for and when religious observances lent their aid to enforce a system which operated

* Friday and Saturday. beneficially both on body and mind. Ab- dine [Aberdeen ling.] Salt sammon (20s.

“3 couple of great ling. 40 couple of heberstinence from flesh on certain days and at worth.) Fresh sammon and great (31. 6s. 8d.) certain seasons was rigidly prescribed by 6 great pike. 80 pickerings. 300 great breams. the Roman Catholic ritual; and it seems 40'tenches. 80 touling eels and brevet eels, to have been considered almost an article and 15 ruds. A firkin of sturgeon. In fresh of faith, the breach of which was unpar- seals, 13s. 4d. 8 seame of fresh fish. 2 bretts' – donable. When Cardinal Wolsey was dy- the only flesh among these items being ing at Leicester Abbey, “after he had eat- that of the seal, which, from its amphibien of a cullace made of chicken a spoon- ous nature, was one of those mammiferfull or two, at the laste quoth he, “ Where- ous animals which the church allowed to of was this cullace made ?" “Forsothe, be eaten on fast-days. sir, of a chicken.” “Why," quoth he, All this, be it remembered, was at a pe. “it is fasting day!” (being St. Andrew's riod when our gentry lived almost entireEven). “What though it be?” quoth his ly in the open air as long as daylight lastconfessor, "ye be excused by reason of ed, and sometimes longer, liking better your sickness.” “ Yea,” quoth he, “what “tó hear the lark sing than the mouse though? I will eate no more.” Then was squeak.' The fish fare did not prove inhe in confession the space of an hour.'t sufficient for people who led that healthy

In The Forme of Cury compiled about life ; but how beneficial would it be with 1390 by the chief master cooks of our seco our lazier habits! Sumptuary laws are ond Richard, whose merit as the best now out of the question; but if we were and ryallest vyand' of all Christian kings all obliged to keep the old fasts, none but is duly set forth, there are no less than invalids--and not many of them-would twenty-five receipts for dressing fish-to be the worse for the regimen. Let any say nothing of Furmente with Porpeys and one who is not in a course of strong outPorpeys in brothe, &c., for the porpoise is door exercise, and is beginning to be hipa mammal, and no true fish. Again, the ped, as the phrase goes, confine himself to Servicium de Piscibus (1381) gives thirty. fish two days in the week, and he will soon three formulæ for dishes applicable to fish- find that he has a much clearer head, and Sce Q. R. vol. Iviii., p. 369.

This seems to have been a jelly composed of + Cavendish's Life of Wolsey.

cream, isinglass, and other gentle ingredients.

a much lighter heart. There is no arti We are sorry for the poor hawkers of cle of food that requires less extensive London, but still it is to the railroads we preparation. The pot, the gridiron, the must look in great measure for carfrying-pan, and the oven, may be brought rying a taste for fish into the central counto bear upon these sapid esculents, as well ties, and thus assisting to create that as the best mounted batterie de cuisine ; steady demand which will, in our opinion, though upon no viands can the latter be produce a constant and adequate supply, more effectually directed. The Cuisinier and restore fish to the regular place on dos Cuisiniers has nearly a hundred ex- English tables which it once occupied. cellent receipts for fish. How seldom are Neither ought we to forget that railways fish-soups* or cold fish seen on our tables! may bring fish up as well as carry fish yet the former are excellent; and what is down. And, in truth, we believe there better than slices of a fine salmon fried, would be no great want of fish on the as Jewesses only now fry them, served Londoner's board, if the supply to the mecold ? In the Expenditure of the Lord tropolis were but fairly used. Steward of the Royal Household for 1840,' The Select Committee of 1833 say they given in the Times of last October, we have the following items :

have examined the clerk of the fish-market at

Billingsgate, and some salesmen and fishmong. * Butcher's meat

£10,000

ers who frequent it, in reference to the present Poultry

4,260

state of the supply of fish to that market, and Fish

2,188

the regulations under which the market is conBread

2,350.

ducted; with a view to ascertain whether any

improper monopoly or regulations exist affecting The item of fish being the smallest, and the supply of the market, or tending either to that of butcher's meat amounting to more lessen the fair profits of the fishermen; but

increase the price of fish to the consumer, or to

your than the other three together; and in most Committee do not feel that they have fully incases, private households would show a vestigated the subject, although from the evisimilar proportion.

dence which has incidentally come before them Supposing, however, that we were all it has not appeared that any such monopoly or to take to a larger consumption of fish, injurious regulations exist, either in the mode of would, it may be asked, the present sup

supplying the market or in the sale of fish. ply be equal to the wants of the metropo- desirable that a more efficient remedy should

'It appears, however, to your Committee to be lis?

be provided to enable the clerk of the market to

prevent the sale of fish in an improper state; * There is a general complaint prevalent in there being now no other remedy than the forLondon and its environs, thai fish is not so plen- feiture of the fish, and the expensive and dilatory tiful, and consequently not so cheap, as it was proceeding by indictment." Your Committee wont to be some two or three years since, al- therefore recommend that a clause should be though no reason can be assigned for the cause inserted in any Bill which may be introduced of this falling off; nevertheless, the circum- upon this subject, inflicting a pecuniary penalty stance will admit of an explanation. There are for this offence, recoverable by summary promany persons who are in the habit of buying up ceeding before a magistrate.' large stocks of fish at Billingsgate daily, and of exporting them into the interior of the country, The wording of the first of these parawhere they meet with a ready and advanta- graphs is cautious enough. It will not geous sale. This expedient is greatly facilitated be denied that the bulk of the fish sent to by means of railway conveyance, and vans may this great town is so consigned that it be seen in regular attendance at the Gate, waiting to take in the supplies of fish, which are gets into comparatively few hands, or that promptly despatched by the various trains to the dealers place their own value upon the the more central towns and districts of England. article, regulating the supply of cod, &c., This circumstance tends most materially to af- from the well-boats and store-boats lying fect the poor industrious market-women who near Gravesend, and feeding the market are in the habit of hawking their wares about with the stock there accumulated to the the different parts of the metropolis and its sub- profitable point, taking care that there urbs for sale.'-Times, 15th October, 1841.

shall never be such a glut as to lower the

price desirable for the dealer. Nor is * A turtle is not a fish; it is a reptile; and, there. this the worst of it. Quantities of sal. fore, we dare say nothing more of it here than that mon are held back till the ice has no more Professor Owen has lately discovered a în ultitude power over the decomposing animal subof fossil species at Sheppev, and not a single anthropulile among the lot! Turtle without alderinen stance, and the fish are spoiled. Then ecms a strange dispensation ; but so says the Pro- step in the authorities to prevent the sale ; fessor.

and scores of putrid salmon are thrown

into the Thames, where they may be seensince the peace of 1815, and more rapid. and smelt floating about for hours. There ly during the ten years immediately preis no want of display of civic indignation ceding the investigation; that the capital when unwholesome meat or fish---the lat- employed did not yield a profitable re. ter often no worse than a Parisian eats turn ; that the number of vessels and with a relish---is offered for sale; though boats, as well as of men and boys, was much such an exposure might, we incline to be diminished; and that the fishermen's lieve, be safely left to the senses of the families, who formerly paid rates and purchasers; but not a word is uttered taxes, were then, in a greater or less de. condemnatory of this enormous and wick- gree, dependent upon the poor-rates. ed destruction of excellent food. We have Among the causes which, in the opinion had again and again special committees of the Committee, had tended materially on British fisheries, and we hope that some to produce this depression, were :active Member will take up the more lim-; 1. The interference of French fisher. ited inquiry relative to the consumption men. of what is actually supplied. A search 2. The quantity of foreign-caught fish ing investigation as to the state of fish- sold in London. And markets, with their apparatus of middle 3. The decrease and scarcity of fish men or fish-salesmen, &c. &c., and the prac- in the Channel. tices of fishmongers, would disclose curi As to the first of these points, the ous facts. Some of the tricks of the trade Committee rely upon evidence that for a are shown up in the article above referred long time past, and up to the period of to*.--those unpunishable tricks by which their labours, large fleets of fishermen the public are robbed and starved in the from Calais, Boulogne, Dieppe, &c., had midst of plenty---whilst a hungry boy is been accustomed to work off the Kent sent to take his trial for stealing a loaf. and Sussex coasts, often within half a Let any Member of Parliament move for league of the shore, and occasionally an accurate return of the quantity of fish much nearer; and in the bays and shalthrown into the Thames at Billingsgate, low waters, in which it is particularly and below that market, during the last five necessary for the preservation of the years---if he can get it---by way of a be. brood of fish that such as frequent those ginning.

waters, during the breeding season, should Why should there be any restriction at not be disturbed, nor their young destroyall? What would be thought of a set of ed. It appeared that the French fishing. laws passed to regulate graziers and mar- vessels had greatly increased since the ket gardeners in the sale of their produce, peace; there being, at the date of the or to control wholesale grocers or cheese. Report, three hundred sailing out of Boumongers in the disposition of their goods ? logne alone ; and that they were more Look at the last census. Hear the cry of numerous, and of a much larger tonnage, the multitude for food. These are not than those employed by our countrymen times to abuse God's gifts. If there must upon that coast, being generally manned be laws to fetter the diffusion of what with double or triple the number of men, might again be considered a general ne- and furnished with nets and fishing-gear cessary of life, let them not be such as of a description superior to those of our those under which our municipal authori. people. In consequence of this superities raise a hue and cry against the sale ority on the part of the French, it was of bad fish, whilst the monopoly that averred that the English fishermen, comkeeps it up till it is bad is tolerated.

ing in constant competition with their The Committee of 1833 owed its ap- rivals, had sustained so great injury, and pointment to petitions from various pla- such frequent loss and damage of their ces complaining of distress in our Chan- nets, &c., especially in the herring and nel Fisheries; and the Committee, after mackerel seasons, that they had not only an inquiry which took in the coast from been unable to earn a livelihood as they Yarmouth to the Land's End, report. I used to do by their trade, but had, in ed that they found this large portion of some instances, been wholly ruined, or our fisheries, and the various interests' had withdrawn altogether from the occuwith which they were connected, to be pation ; whilst the French fishermen, congenerally in a declining state; that they tinuing upon our coast, and sometimes appeared to have been gradually sinking not returning into their own ports during

the whole period of the seasons Jast * Q. R. vol. ix., pp. 277 et seq.

above mentioned, made a constant prac.

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