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CHAPTER XI.

THE REVOLUTION OF 1688.

Enthusiasm for Charles II. — Reaction from the ideas of

the Commonwealth. - Benefits flowing from the bad char-

CHAPTER XII.

ERA OF PARLIAMENTARY CORRUPTION.

.

Equal responsibility of Whigs and Tories for parliamentary

corruption. — Stooping of honest men to bribery. - Degen-

eracy of the county representation. — Decline of yeomen.

Assumptions of the great land-holders. — Bad condi-

tion of the boroughs. — Destruction of the popular fran-

chise. Rotten boroughs. Their growth under the Tu-

dors and Stuarts. — Large towns unrepresented. Cases

of Buckingham, Bewdley, Oxford, Salisbury, Bath, New

Shoreham, Sudbury. Condition of Scotland. - Case of

the shire of Bute. — Price of seats in Parliament. — The

"nabobs.” — Testimony of Sir Samuel Romilly.

ple unrepresented. - Case of Wilkes. — Mass-meetings.

Rise of the great newspapers. Dangers to freedom 177

The peo-

CHAPTER XIII.

THE COMING ON OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

Condition of the Thirteen Colonies in the first half of

eighteenth century.- The approach of the American Rev-

olution. - The title to the colonies in the Crown, not in

the Parliament. — Inconsistency of Kings and colonists.

The ecclesiastical grievance. — The commercial grievance.

- Selfishness of the trading-spirit. — The Sugar Act. –

The rights and privileges of Englishmen. Effect of the
destruction of French power. Enforcement of customs
regulations. — The Writs of Assistance. — The Stamp Act.

- Debate in Parliament. — Burke, Chatham, Camden,
Mansfield. — The question summed up. — Superior appre-

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French anticipations of England's ruin at close of American

Revolution. - How they were frustrated. — Why Canada

did not join the United States. — Voyages of Cook. — Dis-
tinctions to be made in the present colonial empire of
Britain. — India, the West Indies, Canada, South Africa,
Australia. - Pitt's agitation of parliamentary reform.-
The “Friends of the People.”—General sympathy with
French Revolution in its early stages.

Reaction on ac-
count of the Reign of Terror. — Cessation of the reaction
at Waterloo. — Agitation for reform. — Passage of the
Reform Bill of 1832. - Good effects of passage of the bill.
— Present shape of English polity. - England practically
a republic. – Adequacy of the people to their responsi-
bilities. County Councils of 1888. — Henry George's
scheme of reform. – Flexible and rigid constitutions. —
Pitt's colonial bill of 1791. - Freedom of Greater Britain.

- Colonial Exhibition of 1886.- Extension of Anglo-Saxon

freedom to other countries. — It must be administered by

Anglo-Saxon men

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A FRATERNITY OF ENGLISH-SPEAKING MEN.

The idea of an Anglo-Saxon brotherhood. — Views of J. R.

Seeley, of John Bright, of Sir Henry Parkes, of Sir George
Grey, of J. C. Firth, of the Westminster Review, of
the New Zealand Herald. — Australians especially cordial
to the idea. - Indifference of Americans. — Reasons for
cultivating fraternal feelings among English-speaking
lands. — English readiness to admit and make good past
mistakes. — Sir Edwin Arnold's plan of an International
Council. — Necessity of doing something to prevent Anglo-
Saxon traditions from becoming obscured. — Need to the

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