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with great fury by rushing on the Mussulmans; however, after a heavy discharge of musketry, which lasted about an hour, the fire of the Hellenes was perceived to slacken. They soon gave way and fled, for they were unable to withstand the firmness of the Turkish troops. The loss of the Hellenes in the fight at Volo was estimated at fifty dead, and a nearly equal number of wounded and prisoners. After this check the insurgents retired to the mountains, leaving their arms and horses behind. It was not anticipated that they would soon form again and try the chances of battle. Their soldiers, who were entrenched at Old Volo, set fire to that place before retiring, and a great number of families sought refuge on board vessels, which lay at no great distance from the scene of the engagement. During the fight, the Austrian corvette La Carolina had protected the new magazines of the Scale. The commander of the corvette had sent on shore twenty-five well-armed and resolute men, in order to assert the active interference of his nation.

The battle near Armiro was still more considerable and sanguinary than that at Volo. On this occasion the Hellenes had displayed a resistance and a knowledge of tactics which was not anticipated from them. They had attacked the Turks repeatedly, with most brilliant energy and courage. The leaders themselves seized a musket, and placed themselves in the ranks of the soldiers. Spite of their exertions and their numerous acts of valour, they had been compelled to retreat before the Mussulman troops, who pursued them furiously, and prevented them from concentrating behind a wood, where they hoped they could reunite and recommence the engagement the next day. The troops of the Sultan took a great number of prisoners. The banner of the rebels was found on the field of battle beneath the corpses. We may say that these two combats at Volo and Armiro gave a fatal blow to the Thessalian insurrection.

At the commencement of April, it was an evident fact that the insurrection, far from extending through the whole of the Græco-Turkish provinces, was confined to a district growing daily more limited, and losing all the advantages it had previously obtained. Still, at the moment when it appeared suppressed and conquered in the Thessalian provinces, it broke out again with considerable intensity in Epirus, which was supposed to be utterly pacified. Reinforcements of good Mussulman troops were considered necessary, unless the insurrection should be allowed to regain the whole extent of ground which it had lost.

No great amount of value, however, could be placed on the actual services which the irregulars could furnish on a given day. In addition, new bands of Hellenes were said to be daily swelling the number of combatants already spread over the country. Karaïskaky, Hervas, and Grivas, more resolute than ever, and full of confidence in the future of the cause they were defending, had ended by forming among themselves a species of alliance solely based on their word and the fancy of the moment, but which was sufficient to establish some agreement and unanimity in their operations. Their corps d'armée, composed of at least 5000 men, were only two or three hours distant from Janina, and although they had suffered a severe check by a sally made by the garrisons, they held their ground firmly, and did not appear disposed to give way, at least unless attacked by superior forces. The communication between Janina and Salonichi was entirely interrupted ; letters and despatches no longer arrived by the regular route, for the terrible Zapopoulo, at the

head of 1000 insurgents, occupied the whole of the mountains of Mezzovo, which separate Thessaly from Epirus.

Papacosta, another very extraordinary chief, had established his headquarters at Platano, with 600 men, who were prepared to die with him. A corps of Albanians, who fancied they could despise this little band, went to attack them, without taking any precautions or the necessary ammunition. A very lively action took place, and on this occasion the victory was not on the side of the Mussulmans, who found themselves in want of powder and bullets in the middle of the combat. They were compelled to retreat, after having suffered considerable loss, and leaving many prisoners in the hands of the insurgents.

At the same time mention was made of several bodies of insurgents, of whom some amounted to 500 or 600 men. They traversed the villages, killed or carried off by force all the inhabitants who attempted to resist them, plundered the houses, and ended by burning them. The insurgents were generally armed with Russian muskets, and some wore the eagle; considerable sums of money were also noticed in their possession, without any difficulty about discovering the source whence it was derived. It was also known, that in the direction of Almiro 4000 Greeks had formed themselves into battalions with a gun, with the intention of attempting a coup-de-main upon this town, which was considered an important position. At Kalifari

, in the neighbourhood of Garditza and Tricala, several very serious combats had taken place, occasioning great loss to both parties ; and the insurgents in this direction, when recruited by those who had recently arrived from the village of Agraffa, formed a corps of about 3000 men, while the Turks could only oppose 1300 to them, among whom there were not more than 600 regulars.

Thus the Greek insurrection went on with various results upon a number of points, checked in one place only to break out further off; threatening to occupy for some time a part of the Turkish force, which, if small, was sadly wanted elsewhere, when that country required all its resources to struggle against her powerful antagonist. The moment at length arrived when the Ottoman government was driven to ask of the Greek government for official and decisive explanations as to the attitude it had assumed, and the part it played in the insurrection of the Epirote and Thessalian provinces. Nechet Bey, the Ottoman chargé d'affaires at Athens, was ordered to draw up a note, conceived in very firm and energetic language, complaining of the conduct of Greece, and demanding satisfaction. The answer of M. Païcos was truly worthy of the cause he served ; it was full of vague generalities and special pleading. At the same time, too, Russia made her appearance on the scene of contest, in the person of the celebrated M. de Nesselrode, who drew up a circular note addressed to the Russian diplomatic agents abroad.

It now remains for us to follow the insurrection in its period of definitive decrease, which commences at the end of April, and announces that, with the exception of partial risings, the general revolt can never break out again with the character and development it originally assumed.

It was stated that the insurrection, confined to a few districts of Thessaly, had commenced its retrograde movement, and unless some unexpected event endowed it with fresh strength, it might be asserted that it would never regain its old footing. It was discovered, even in Greece, that many villages had been burned, much blood shed, and families rendered wretched—and all this an utter loss—without any definitive advantage being derived from it. With the exception of two villages on the frontiers, no movement had taken place in consequence of the last engagements fought by the Russian troops. It was seen, too, at Athens that the majority of the volunteers had been enrolled under the direct influence of the Russian party ; for, with the exception of General Grivas (who had gone without authority), Hadji Petros, and Colonel Karatano, it was proved that all the other troops were maintained, equipped, and paid by Russia. The money was stated to be sent by Greeks domiciled in different parts of Europe ; it had come from Marseilles, Trieste, Vienna, Constantinople, and Smyrna. Sums of money were also stated to have been forwarded by the Greeks in Russia, until it was proved that the greater quantity arrived from the Tsar, who represented the principal exchequer of the revolutionary movement.

The expedition of Grivas, and certain advantages he obtained at the commencement of the revolt, had led the Hellenic ministry to send General Tzavellas into Epirus. All the agents received orders not to give subsidies or ammunition to any one but him; a desire was felt to concentrate all the means of action in the hands of Tzavellas, and this measure was fatal to the rebels. Tzavellas, a lieutenant-general, a senator, and possessed of a considerable private fortune, did not display that promptitude and vigour in his movements which are essential for an expedition of this nature; he took nearly a month to go from Athens to the frontiers, and he was only followed by about one hundred soldiers, collected with much difficulty. On arriving at Petra, he found himself in the centre of a swarm of insurgents who slackened and paralysed his means of action. Hervas had pushed on towards Albania, after coming to an understanding with Karaiskaky and Zikos; Grivas was on the road to Janina ; Tzavellas, therefore, whom we may add no one was willing to obey, was alone with a few Suliotes. He remained in the camp of Petra in a state of complete inaction, although the Peloponnesians sent by Colocotronis and Plassontas, under the command of their sons, had come in to join him. The divisions which had existed among the chiefs, and which had in some degree disappeared, now broke out with fresh vigour ; all wished to augment their troops at the expense of those commanded by the other captains. In Thessaly, General Hadji Petros wished to become commander-in-chief-the only method, in fact, by which unity could be maintained ; but no one would consent to such a step. The consequence was that the rebels, divided into several columns, acted independently and each on their own account. We must add that plunder was the principal object of these bands, and in this regard, they were naturally not very desirous to associate with others, and have to share with them the fruits of their plunder.

Among all the chieftains, Grivas was the one who was specially distinguished by the boldness of his movements, and the gloomy energy, mixed with ferocity, which he displayed both before and after a fight. He had, however, lately received a severe cheek. His troops had marched on Janina, committing terrible disorders on their route, and spreading everywhere terror and confusion. They were on the point of taking possession of Mezzovo. The inhabitants, justly alarmed by the arrangements of the terrible assailants who were marching upon them, had immediately called the Mussulman troops to their assistance, who, however,


could not aid them, through their inadequate numbers. Grivas immediately took possession of the town. The plundering commenced in various quarters ; the houses were set on fire while the soldiers entrenched themselves in others. The Pacha of Janina marched his whole garrison against Grivas; and was only able to drive his troops out of their positions after unparalleled efforts and a struggle which did the greatest honour. to the courage of both parties. Grivas defended himself like a lion during forty-eight hours. There were literally streams of blood around him. Several times he was supposed to be killed; once even he was seen to fall, and his troops uttered a yell as a signal of despair. But he rose again directly, brandishing his sword in the air to prove that he was alive and still ready to fight. Still the moment at length arrived when he understood that resistance was no longer possible. All the houses he occupied. had been destroyed in succession by the artillery, and were converted into heaps of ruins filled with corpses. His troops were decimated, and he found himself almost alone with a few combatants who had sworn to die with him. He had made a sortie in the night, and succeeded in reaching the mountains with the débris of his column. Many of his soldiers hastened to join him. It is said that before retreating, Grivas desired to kill all the wounded lest they might fall into the hands of the conquerors. One of his most devoted soldiers begged him to take the initiative with him. Stretched at the feet of his general

, with his left thigh shattered by a bullet, he wished that an end should be put to his sufferings, and offered his own sabre. The day after this obstinate struggle, so terrible in its details, the Pacha of Janina set out in pursuit of Grivas, but was not able to come up with him. It was soon found that he had passed by Agraffa and Aspropotamo, to seek a refuge in Thessaly, but he soon returned and was once again within two hours' distance of the frontier

The plenipotentiaries of the chiefs of the expedition were continually proceeding to Athens and soliciting audiences from the king, in order to make known their demands and their complaints. It was proposed to M. Metaxas, the former ambassador, that he should place himself at the head of the insurrection, in order to give a certain direction to the popular movement, and establish a supreme command which should put down these little chiefs ; but Metaxas refused. The same proposition was made to General Gardikiotis Grivas; but he also declined. The next mentioned were Spiro-Miho, Soutzo, minister of war, and Plapoutas ; but nothing could be arranged. It was proposed to send 60,000 drachmæ to Theodore Grivas, in order that he might return to the neighbourhood of Mezzovo and renew the attack which he had so brilliantly commenced ; but it was apprehended that, by sending him this sum, the jealousy of the other chiefs would be aroused, and Grivas be exposed to the poignard of some assassin.

The enrolments, momentarily suspended in consequence of the representations made by the diplomatic agents of France and England, were resumed with fresh activity. A deputy of Attica enrolled men almost publicly and sent the volunteers to Thessaly, with his brother at their head. Two companies of troops of the line under the orders of Lieutenant-colonel Kyprianos, were said to have deserted with their arms and baggage. It appeared, in fact, as if affairs had returned to the first days of February, that is, to the commencement of the insurrection. Turkey, besides, did not fail to point out to the representatives of England and France the progress daily made by Greek pirates against the merchant vessels of the whole world. The insurgent bands continued to spread and plunder in the neighbourhood of Armiro and Telestria, fighting against the Turkish troops that attacked and pursued them, without being able to annihilate them. All the proclamations in the villages gave a most pompous eulogium of the Great Emperor Nicholas, called the Chief by divine right of the great orthodox Christian family of the East, and announced the speedy arrival of fresh assistance sent by him. The inhabitants who had seen, on the passage of the insurgents, their villages burnt, their flocks carried off by those who called themselves their protectors, began to form the most unfavourable opinion with reference to the revolution.

The moment at length arrived when England and France recognised the necessity of putting a stop to this dangerous insurrection, by going directly to the fountain head, and appealing to the government which fomented it. A letter was written on the 12th of last May from Athens to the “ Observateur de Trieste,” containing the following passage : " It is certain that the four great powers who signed the protocol of Vienna are losing patience ; they desire to put a stop to the indecision and tergiversation of the Greek government with reference to the insurrection of Epirus." The Moniteur also received from Janina news of the 7th of May, confirming the numerous defeats sustained by the insurgents, and announcing that the revolt, in spite of all efforts and changes of fortune, could no longer carry on the struggle, and was at its last gasp. The following is the extract from the Moniteur:

• The principal Hetærist corps d'armée in Epirus, commanded by General Tzavellas, has been beaten and dispersed by the Ottoman troops. Attacked at Petra, on the 28th of the last month, by a corps

under the orders of Omar Pacha, the Hellenes only offered a short resistance, disbanded and retired in great disorder on the frontier, abandoning to the Turks their chest, ammunition, and nearly all their matériel of war. Tzavellas succeeded in escaping ; and the Hellenic Tagmatarque, Antonaki-Kalagmodarti of Patras was made prisoner. In the baggage captured at Tzavellas' head-quarters was found a secret correspondence between this leader and the Greek ministry, more especially with M. Soutzo, the minister of war ; this correspondence is in the hands of Fuad Effendi. The communication has been restored between Janina and Arta. The only insurgents left are at Radovitzi; the rest of the country has returned to its duty, and has only curses to bestow on the Greek chieftains who tried to make them serve the interests of Russia.”


The active interference of the allies soon put an entire stop to the revolutionary movements, and the Greeks are now in a state of tranquillity; but we think that the lesson which may be derived from the events we have detailed, will serve as a warning for the future. Never was the doctrine of non-interference more plainly taught than by the experience we have of Greece as an independent nation. May we hope that our statesmen may take warning by it, and in the settlement of the Eastern question—whenever that happy day may arrive--- let them bear in mind the magnificent results of the battle of Navarino.

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