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ARTICLE VI - Continued. seventy years of age. Vacancies occurring in the office of County Judge or Surrogate shall be filled in the same manner as like vacancies occurring in the Supreme Court. The compensation of any County Judge or Surrogate shall not be increased or diminished during his term of office. For the relief of Surrogates' Courts the Legislature may confer upon the Supreme Court in any county having a population exceeding four hundred thousand, the powers and jurisdiction of Surrogates, with authority to try issues of fact by jury in probate cases.

Local judicial officers.— 16. The Legislature may, on application of the board of supervisors, provide for the election of local officers, not to exceed two in any county, to discharge the duties of County Judge and of Surrogate, in cases of their inability or of a vacancy, and in such other cases as may be provided by law, and to exercise such other powers in special cases as are or may be provided by law.

Justices of the peace; district court justices.- § 17. The electors of the several towns shall, at their annual town meetings, or at such other time and in such manner as the Legislature may direct, elect Justices of the Peace, whose term of office shall be four years. In case of an election to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of a full term, they shall hold for the residue of the unexpired term. Their number and classification may be regulated by law. Justices of the Peace and judges or justices of inferior courts not of record, and their clerks, may be removed for cause, after due notice and an opportunity of being heard by such courts as are or may be prescribed by law. Justices of the Peace and District Court Justices may be elected in the different cities of this State in such manner and with such powers, and for such terms, respectively, as are or shall be prescribed by law;

ARTICLE VI — Continued. all other judicial officers in cities, whose election or appointment is not otherwise provided for in this article, shall be chosen by the electors of such cities, or appointed by some local authorities thereof.

Inferior local courts, children's courts, courts of domestic relations.— *8 18. Inferior local courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction may be established by the Legislature, but no inferior local court hereafter created shall be a court of record. Except as herein provided the Legislature shall not hereafter confer upon any inferior or local court of its creation, any equity jurisdiction or any greater jurisdiction in other respects than is conferred upon County Courts by or under this article. The legislature may establish children's courts, and courts of domestic relations, as separate courts, or as parts of existing courts or courts hereafter to be created, and may confer upon them such jurisdiction as may be necessary for the correction, protection, guardianship and disposition of delinquent, neglected or dependent minors, and for the punishment and correction of adults responsible for or contributing to such delinquency, neglect or dependency, and to compel the support of a wife, child or poor relative by persons legally chargeable therewith who abandon or neglect to support any of them. In conferring such jurisdiction the legislature shall provide that whenever a child is committed to an institution or is placed in the custody of any person by parole, placing out, adoption or guardianship, it shall be so committed or placed, when practicable, to an institution governed by persons, or in the custody of a person, of the same religious persuasion as the child. In the exercise of such jurisdiction such courts may hear and determine such causes, with or without a jury, except those involving a felony. Except as herein otherwise provided, all

* As amended November 8, 1921.

ARTICLE VI — Continued. judicial officers shall be elected or appointed at such times and in such manner as the Legislature may direct.

Clerks of courts.- § 19. Clerks of the several counties shall be clerks of the Supreme Court, with such powers and duties as shall be prescribed by law. The Justices of the Appellate Division in each department shall have power to appoint and to remove a clerk, who shall keep his office at a place to be designated by said Justices. The Clerk of the Court of Appeals shall keep his office at the seat of government. The Clerk of the Court of Appeals and the Clerks of the Appellate Division shall receive compensation to be established by law and paid out of the public treasury.

No judicial officer, except justice of the peace, to receive fees; not to act as attorney or counselor. § 20. No judicial officer, except Justices of the Peace, shall receive to his own use any fees or perquisites of office; nor shall any Judge of the Court of Appeals, or Justice of the Supreme Court, or any County Judge or Surrogate hereafter elected in a county having a population exceeding one hundred and twenty thousand, practice as an attorney or counselor in any court of record in this State, or act as referee. The Legislature may impose a similar prohibition upon County Judges and Surrogates in other counties. No one shall be eligible to the office of Judge of the Court of Appeals, Justice of the Supreme Court, or, except in the county of Hamilton, to the office of County Judge or Surrogate, who is not an attorney and counselor of this State.

Publication of statutes.- $ 21. The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of all statutes, and shall regulate the reporting of the decisions of the courts; but all laws and judicial decisions shall be free for publication by any person.

ARTICLE VI — Continued. Terms of office of present justices of the peace and local judicial officers.- $ 22. Justices of the Peace and other local judicial officers provided for in sections seventeen and eighteen in office when this article takes effect, shall hold their offices until the expiration of their respective terms.

Courts of special sessions.-8 23. Courts of Special Sessions shall have such jurisdiction of offenses of the grade of misdemeanors as may be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE VII. State credit not to be given.-- Section 1. The credit of the State shall not any manner be given or loaned to or in aid of any individual, association or corporation.

State debts, power to contract.— *§ 2. The state may contract debts in anticipation of the receipt of taxes and revenues, direct or indirect, for the purposes and within the amounts of appropriations theretofore made; bonds or other obligations for the moneys so borrowed shall be issued as may be provided by law, and shall with the interest thereon be paid from such taxes and revenues within one year from the date of issue.

State debts to repel invasions.- $ 3. In addition to the above limited power to contract debts the State may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend the State in war; but the money arising from the contracting of such debts shall be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts, and to no other purpose whatever.

Limitation of legislative power to create debts.- *8 4. Except the debts specified in sections two and three of this

* As amended November 2, 1920.

ARTICLE VII - Continued. article, no debt shall be hereafter contracted by or in behalf of this state, unless such debt shall be authorized by law, for some single work or object, to be distinctly specified therein. On the final passage of such bill in either house of the legislature, the question shall be taken by ayes and noes, to be duly entered on the journals thereof, and shall be: “Shall this bill pass and ought the same to receive the sanction of the people? No such law shall take effect until it shall, at a general election, have been submitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election nor shall it be submitted to be voted on within three months after its passage nor at any general election when any other law, or any bill shall be submitted to be voted for or against. The legislature may, at any time after the approval of such law by the people, if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance thereof, repeal the same; and may at any time, by law, forbid the contracting of any further debt or liability under such law.

Except the debts specified in sections two and three of this article, all debts contracted by the state after January first, nineteen hundred and twenty, pursuant to an authorization therefor, heretofore or hereafter made and each portion of any such debt from time to time so contracted irrespective of the terms of such authorization, shall be paid in equal annual instalments, the first of which shall be payable not more than one year, and the last of which shall be payable not more than fifty years, after such debt or portion thereof shall have been contracted. No such debt hereafter authorized shall be contracted for a period longer than that of the probable life of the work or object for which the debt is to be contracted, to be determined by general laws, which determination shall be conclusive.

The legislature may from time to time alter the rate of

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