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frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction cver us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do in the name, and by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the State of Great Britain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as free and independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace,
contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honour.
Massachusetts Bay. Rhode Island and Providence, Saml. Adams.
&c. John Adams.
Step. Hopkins. Robt. Treat Paine.
William Ellery. Elbridge Gerry.
Connecticut. Roger Sherman.
Wm. Williams. Saml Huntington.
JANUARY 18, 1777. ) Ordered:
That an authenticated copy of the Declaration of Independency, with the names of the Members of Congress subscribing the same, be sent to each of the United States, and that they be desired to have the same put on record. By order of Congress.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
(Went into operation first Wednesday in March, 1789.)
Sec. 2. House of Representatives, how and by whom chosen Qualifications of a Representative Representatives and direct taxes, how apportioned — Enumeration - Vacancies to be filled — Power of choosing officers, and of impeachment.
Sec. 3. Senators, how and by whom chosen - How classified State Executive, when to make temporary appointments, in case, etc.— Qualifications of a Senator - President of the Senate, his right to vote — President pro tem., and other officers of the Senate, how chosen — Power to try impeachments When President is tried, Chief Justice to preside — Sentence.
Sec. 4. Times, etc., of holding elections, how prescribed At least one Session in each year.
Sec. 5. Membership Quorum Adjournments Rules Power to punish or expel - Journal - Time of adjournments, how limited, etc.
Sec. 6. Compensation Privileges — Disqualification in certain cases. SEC. 7. House to originate all revenue bills
Bill may be passed by two-thirds of each house, notwithstanding, etc.— Bill, not returned in ten days, to become a law Provisions as to orders, concurrent resolutions, etc.
Sec. 8. Powers of Congress.
Sec. 9. Provision as to migration or importation of certain per sons — Habeas Corpus — Bills of attainder, etc.— Taxes, how apportioned — No export duty — No commercial preference – Money, how drawn from treasury, etc.— No titular nobility — Officers not to receive presents, ete.
SEC. 10. States prohibited from the exercise of certain powers.