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the territory between 34 deg. and 41 deg. N.lat. was called the first colony, and granted to the London Company. The northern was styled the second colony, and comprised all lands between 38 deg. and 45 deg. N. ; this was granted to the Plymouth Company. Each of these colonies was governed by a council of thirteen persons ; and, to prevent disputes relative to property in land, the companies were prohibited from settling within a hundred miles of each other. There seems, however, to have been an important error in the grants; as the space between the 38th and 41st degree is included in both patents.
In pursuance of the above grants, the London Company sent over Mr. Percy, brother to the Earl of Northumberland, with a colony to South Virginia, where he discovered Powhatan, now called James River.-About the same time, Captain Challons was sent by the Plymouth Company to fix a colony in North Virginia ; but on his passage he was captured by the Spaniards, and carried into Spain.
In 1607, the London Company sent three vessels laden with adventurers to South Virginia, under the command of Captain Newport. In April he landed in Chesapeak Bay, the most southerly point of which he called Cape Henry, a name which still it retains.-On the 13th of May, they commenced a settlement on James River, appointed Mr. Edward Wingfield their presi. dent for that year, and named the place James Town. This was the first town settled by the English in North America. A month after, Captain Newport returned to England, leaving in the colony 105 persons. In August died Captain Gosnold, who had failed in his attempt to settle on Elizabeth Island in 1602. He was the original projector of this settlement, and a member of the council. The following winter James Town was destroyed by fire.
On the 31st of May this year, the Plymouth Company sent out two ships with a hundred planters, and
Captain Popham for their President, under the command of Admiral Gilbert. They arrived in August, and formed a settlement about thirty miles south of Sagadahok in the district of Maine. The severity of the ensuing winter having discouraged the greater part of the colony, they returned to England, leaving only their president and forty five men. In autumn this year, the celebrated Mr. Robinson, with part of his congregation, who thirteen years afterwards settled at Plymouth, in Massachusetts, removed from the north of England to Holland, to avoid religious persecution, and to enjoy liberty of conscience. It was in this year also, that Quebec was founded by a colony sent out by a few French merchants. The adventurers built a few huts on the spot ; but it did not assume the form or name of a town until many years after, in the reign of Louis XIV.
In the year 1608, the small colony which had been left at Sagadahok, in the preceding summer, suffered intolerable distress.
The discouraging accounts given by these and other unfortunate adventurers, prevented any further attempts to colonize North Virginia for a great number of years afterwards.
In the year 1610, the London Company having obtained a new commission from the crown, appointed the following persons officers of their colony in South Virginia, viz. Lord De la War, General ; Sir Thomas Gates, his Lieutenant ; Sir George Somers, Admiral ; Sir Thomas Dale, High Marshal ; Sir F. Wainman, Commander of the Horse ; and Captain Newport, Vice Admiral. This year, five hundred men, women, and children, under the direction of Gates, Newport, and Somers, sailed for South Virginia in nine vessels. In crossing the Bahama Gulf, the fleet was separated by a violent storm, and Sir George Somers' ship, containing 130 passengers, wrecked on one of the Bermuda Islands, which have ever since been called the Somer Islands.
The people having been all safely landed, remained there for nine months; and were employed during most of that time in constructing a vessel to convey them to the continent. The remainder of the fleet arrived safe at Virginia, and increased the colony to five hundred men. At this period, Captain Smith was president, but having received considerable bodily injury, from an accidental explosion of gunpowder, and experiencing much opposition from the last arrived settlers, he returned to England, and was followed soon after by his successor, Francis West, upon which George Percy was elected president.
In March, 1610, Lord De la War being appointed governer over South Virginia, embarked for that country, accompanied by Captain Argal and a hundred and fifty men; in three ships. In the mean time, the people who had been wrecked on the Bermudas the year before, having built a vessel, sailed for Virginia on the 12th of May, with about 150 persons on buard, leaving two men behind who chose to remain on the Island. Upon their arrival they found that the number of their countrymen, which at the time of Captain Smith's departure amounted to five hundred was now reduced to sixty, and even those were in a very wretched and hopeless state. Under these circumstances, they unanimously determined on returning to England; and on the 7th of June dissolved the colony, embarked on board their vessels, and preceded down James River on their return home. On the day after, they were happily met by Lord De la War, who had just arrived on the coast, and who persuaded them to return with him to James Town. The government of the colony now devolved upon Lord De la War, and from thence may be dated the effectual settlement of Virginia.
In 1613, the South Virginian colony sent Captain Argal to dispossess the French of some forts, which had been erected within their limits. He accordingly sailed to Sagadahok, and captured the forts at Mount
Mansel, St. Croix, and Port Royal, with their Ships, warlike stores, cattle, provisions, &c. and carried then to James Town in Virginia.
In the year 1614, Captain John Smith sailed to North Virginia, with two ships and forty-five men. he arrived at the Island of Monahigan, in N. lat. 43 deg. 30 min. and attempted whale-fishing, which proving abortive, he despatched most of his men in seven boats, who where very fortunate in taking a large quantity of fish of different kinds. During the absence of the boats, the captain himself, with only eight men, coasted in a small vessel from Penobscot to Cape Cod, and from thence returned to Monahigan. In this voyage he found two French ships in Massachusetts Bay, who for six weeks had carried on a very advantageous trade with the natives. In July Captain Smith sailed for England in one of his vessels, leaving the other under Captain Hunt, with orders to prepare for a trading voyage to Spain. Instead of obeying these instructions, Hunt treacherously inveigled twenty-seven Indians, (one of whom was Squanto, afterwards so friendly to the English) on board his vessel, and carried them to Malaga, where he sold them to be slaves for life, at the rate of twenty pounds per head.
Between the years 1614 and 1620, great exertions were made by the Plymouth Company to colonize New England ; but every attempt proved ineffectual, though at the same time a lucrative trade was carried on with the native Indians. In the latter year, a part of Mr. Robinson's congregation, who, with their pastor, had long resolved on removing to America, sailed from Holland for that country, and established a colony at Plymouth in Massachusetts. At this time commenced the settlement of New England. A further account of the early emigrations to that country, and the progressof the adventurers, will be given in the history of New England.
In the year 1627, a colony of Swedes landed in America, and purchased from the natives all the land from Cape Henlopen, at the mouth of Delaware Bay, to the falls on the Delaware on both sides of that river, a distance of more than 70 miles. On this river, which they named New Swedeland Stream, they formed settlements, and built several forts.
In March, 1628, Sir Henry Roswell, and others, purchased from the New England council a considerable tract of land, lying round Massachusetts Bay.
Four months after, Captain Endicot, his wife, and several other persons, arrived in the country, and settled at Naumkeag ; now the flourishing town of Salem, fifteen miles from Boston. This was the first English settlement made in Massachusetts.
In the year 1633, Lord Baltimore, a Roman catholic nobleman, obtained from King Charles I. a grant of land on the Bay of Chesapeak, one hundred and forty miles in length, and one hundred and thirty in breadth. In a short time after this, the severity of the English laws against Roman Catholics, compelled a number of them with Lord Baltimore at their head, to take refuge in his lordship’s new possession ; which, in honour of Charles's Queen, Henrietta Maria, they called Marylund.
In 1630, the council of the Plymouth Company, made the first grant of Connecticut to Robert Earl of Warwick; who, the year following, transferred his grant to Lord Brook, Lord Say and Sele, and several others. These patentees afterwards made several grants to different persons, in consequence of which Mr. Fenwick, in 1634, formed a settlement at the mouth of Connecticut River, thirty-seven miles from the present city of Hartford. Here he built a fort, and called the place Saybrook, which name it still retains. In October of the following year, a considerable number of persons came from Massachusetts Bay, and established themselves at Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor, on the same river. Thus commenced the English settlement of Connecticut.