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tinople for some time, that the traveller learned to distinguish the baysesteens, a species of superior bazaar, from those of the common sort. In the former case, dye-stuffs, drugs, and rare cosmetics, are deposited for sale, and, amongst other articles of the latter kind, the famous khennah, for tincturing the skin, is sold at these places.. From a Greek lady, who confessed a long acquaintance in early life with the use of this cosmetic, the author obtained some particulars respecting the mode of its application. The khennah is steeped in wine for several days, and is then applied in its wet state around the fingers and toes, where it is secured by a wrapper of vine-leaves. . The patient, for 60 she may be called, is then put to bed, and on the following morning the dressings are removed, and the operation is finished is This attempt to alter and improve what nature has already made beautiful, like the long nails of the Chinese, or the gloves of Europeans, is intended, no doubt, to convey the idea that the hands, thus artifi: cially distinguished, have never been degraded by manual labour. In Constantinople the palms of little children are thus discoloured, in addition to the ordinary finger and toe marks. · The maximum of beauty is supposed to be attained when the nails are about halfgrown. i At this period the contrast between the discoloured por: tion of the nail and the new.part, forms the peculiar distinctive characteristic of the oriental fashionable lady. The khennah, used with a mordant, is also extensively used as an excellent dye for woollens and cottons. Another cosmetic, which is called soord may, a composition of antimony and gall-nuts, is used to enlarge .and lengthen thereyebrows. Although the effect is singular, yet it certainly gives additional brilliancy and lustre to the eyes, for which it is no doubt intended.

At Scutari, which our author infinitely prefers as a residence to Constantinople, he made particular inquiries about the silk manufactures, the far-famed produce of this place. The silk em ployed by the manufacturers is derived from the regions bordering on the eastern and southern shores of the sea of Marmora, and the eggs of the worms are collected in these regions, and are brought to Brusa in the month of April. They are spread upon Jinen cloths, or kept under the arms, or in the bosom, until hatched, which takes place in a few days. The room is then strewed with branches of the mulberry; first feeding them with the tenderest leaves, and as they grow older they continue to add branches every day until they reach nearly to the top of the room. In the course of ten or twelve days they become torpid, or fall asleep, and continue" in this state three or four days; they then awake, and continue 'to eat and sleep alternately for about six weeks, when they begin to climb.: Dry .oak branches, properly trimmed and prepared for this purpose, are then set upright on the pile; they ascend these, and commence, making their cocoons. Those intended for seed are permitted to remain twenty days, when they are laid on a

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cloth; a butterfly then issues forth, lays its eggs, and dies: the eggs are kept in a cool place until the following spring, when they are sent to market for sale. The cocoons intended for use are merely exposed to the sun, although in Syria they are thrown into hot water: the object of both operations is to destroy the animal within. During the season of rearing the silk-worm, it is almost impossible to obtain in these districts any shelter' or accommodation. Every part of the house, even to the bed-rooms and garrets, is filled with these animals and their requisite food. The business of unwinding these cocoons is chiefly in the hands of Jews and Armenians. Turkish silk is considered to be superior in quality to the Italian ; and this is attributed to the different mode in which the worms are fed. In Italy the leaves are stripped off, while in Turkey the worms are supplied with entire branches from the trees.

In the suburb, called Therapaia, the author had the opportunity of inspecting the imperial printing office, where the first number of the Ottoman Moniteur was just being struck off. This paper, it appears, has had the most extraordinary success, and it was so curiously fashioned in its composition, as to perform the miracle of pleasing every body, the government as well as the people. We forbear following the author through the details of the history of the Turks, and the development of the tenets of their religion. These are subjects upon which the British public are already well informed. But the same thing cannot be predicated with respect to our knowledge of the functions exercised by the officers upon whom the duties of the civil government devolve. As it is by no means improbable that Constantinople will sooner or later become an object of interest to this country, it may not be superfluous briefly to sum up the catalogue of the state officers of Turkey, with a specification of their duties respectively.

The following three classes embrace every description of public officer, civil, military, or ecclesiastical; Ulemah, men of the law; El Sayif, of the sword; El Kalem, men of the pen. To use the common language of classification, we should say, that each of these classes is divided into orders; thus Ulemah embraces the Iman, or ministers of religion; Mufti, or doctors of civil and ecclesiastical law; and Cadi, or ministers of justice. There are five disținet characters included in the priesthood; 1. the Sheiks, who are attached to each mosque, to read a sermon there every

Friday after the mid-day prayers. These sermons are always written out, and, being intended as moral lectures merely, are read without any action or any effort at gesticulation. The second sort of functionaries are the Katibs, or readers, who read the five daily prayers on Fridays alone; the third are the Imans, answering to our curates; the fourth are the Muzzeims, or parish elerks, who mount the minarets and call the faithful to prayers.

The highest law authority in the kingdom is the Grand Mufti.

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Although at the head of the magistracy, he has no separate tribus nal. He announces, by order of the sultan, all decrees, decisions, and laws. If he happen to agree with the grand vizier, every thing goes on smoothly; but should there be a difference of opinion between them, one is compelled to retire. He has several officers and bureaus under him. His opinion is of course frequently required. If a person, previous to commencing a lawsuit, has doubts, he makes a statement of his case in writing, under a fictitious name. This statement is handed to the Grand Mufti, who replies in the shortest possible terms, such as yes, or no, it is lawful, it is not lawful, &c. The answer is termed a fetwa, and is produced upon the trial, The other judicial officers are, Cazeskeer of Roumelia. This title means military judge. Cazeskeer of Anatolia. These two, with the Sadreh Ahzem, or grand vizier, form a court, which is open every Friday. This is a court of final appeal. All petitions addressed to the sultan are decided here. The business of this court is very extensive, and there are twelve substitutes, with their respective bureaus attached. Sadreh Rouma takes cognizance of the laws of inheritanoe, and of every question relative to the finances. When the Grand Mufti dies, or is deposed, this officer takes his place. Sadreh Anadoli has the same powers in the Asiatic provinces. ', Istambol Cadisy,--a sort of mayor, but with more extensive powers. He is the judicial and municipal head of the metropolis. Mollahs of Mecca and Medina supreme judges in those places. Mollahs of Adrianople, Broussa, Cairo, and Damascus. ' Mollahs of Scutari, Galata, Eyout, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Smyrna, Larissa, and Salonica. These form the Mahommedan hierarchy and judiciary, and were it not for the exa istence of an antagonist power in the sultan and his council of state, its influence would be overwhelming. They are, moreover, appointed annually, and none can hold twice in succession the same office. Nor is their dignity wounded by passing from a higher to a lower station: for it happens, not unfrequently, that an ex-cazeskeer will be found next year to hold the appointment of sadreh, and so of the others. The author pursues the account of the state of the laws of Turkey, presenting some highly curious and useful information on the jurisprudence of that country.

There are few persons who have visited the neighbourhood of Constantinople, that have not been struck with some peculiar feature or another of the place which forms the residence of the diplomatic body from all parts of the world. Mr. Slade, whose excellent work on Turkey we some time ago noticed, presented to us a very singular account of the daily life which was spent in the little privileged town of Pera. The report given by the present author in every respect conforms strictly with that of Mr. Slade, but in some respects the former is more particular in his information. The following will be read with much interest:

Ambassadors, residents, and envoys, have the privilege of exporting and importing whatever they may please to call their own, which, according to the testimony of a traveller who, in general, is very severe upon the nation, “is a civility and generosity of the Turks not to be paralleled in Europe.” Sir John Chardin relates an anecdote of a French minister at Constantinople, which illustrates the power assumed by these foreigners. During the Venetian war against the Turks, the French were suspected of secretly assisting the former. A French officer, named Vertamont, in the Venetian service, came to Constantinople, charged with private letters and despatches to the French ambassador. Upon his arrival, he adopted the turban, and took the letters to the grand vizier, who became furious at this act of perfidy on the part of the French. Many of the letters were, however, in cipher, and there was not a man in the empire capable of deciphering them. At this juncture, a poor but clever Frenchman living at Galata, who had been treated with great neglect by the ambassador, caused it to be intimated to him that he could get any sum of money by deciphering the letters in the hands of the vizier. This was his ruin; he was immediately invited to the palace, and was put to death by the French ambassador, De la Haye.

• Not many centuries ago, a Quaker came to Constantinople to convert the sultan; he was imprisoned for several months, and was finally given over to the English ambassador to be questioned as to his sanity. Upon his refusal to take off his hat to the ambassador, the poor Quaker was bastinadoed on the spot. By a curious perversion of language, this Lord Winchelsea is spoken of as an English nobleman,

* In the palace of every foreign ambassador there is a reception-room, fitted up with a throne, and decorated with a full-length portrait of the king whom he represents; and in this room a solemn audience is granted to those who may have a petition to present to either of these miniature kings of Pera. The puerile and absurd points of etiquette which reign here, as they have been detailed to me, would hardly be credited in any country where common sense could be supposed to have any

influence. For instance, bells are offensive to the Turks, and are generally prohibited; of course, every embassy is provided with one of ample dimensions, and by a system, ingeniously enough contrived, all the neighbourhood are notified when his excellency enters or leaves his palace, when he gets up and takes his meals, and likewise of the rank and quality of his visitors, I am happy to state that our own minister has introduced an innovation which may eventually find imitators, but which is now very generally regarded as a most desperate and dangerous measure; he has actually dispensed with a bell, and Heaven only knows what disasters are predicted in Buyukdery, as likely to ensue from this undiplomatic proceeding' —

pp. 434, 5.

The reader will judge even from this brief view of the elaborate work before us, that the encomium which we ventured to pass upon the writer is amply justified. We must, however, in fairness, apprise the public, that the truth of our favourable representations will be infinitely more satisfactorily assured to them, if they will take the opportunity of perusing those sketches for themselves.

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ART. III.-1. The Oriental Annual," or Scenes in India ; com

prising twenty-five Engravings, from Original Drawings, by WILLIAM DANIELL, R. A., and a Descriptive Account, by the

Rev. HOBART CAUNTER, B. D. London: Edw. Bull. 1834. 2. The Landscape Annual, or Tourist in France. By THOMAS

Roscoe. Illustrated from Drawings, by J. HARDING. London:

Jennings & Chaplin. 1834. 3. The Landscape Album; or Great Britain illustrated: contain

ing fifty-nine Views. By W. WESTALL, Esq., A. R. A., with Descriptions of the Scenery, by THOMAS MAULE, Esq. Second

Series. London: Charles Tilt. 1834. 2 4. Friendship's Offering and Winter's Wreath; a Christmas and - New Year's Present, for 1834. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

1834. 5. The Comic Offering, or Ladies Mélange; or Literary Mirth,

for 1834. Edited by LOUISA HENRIETTA SHERIDAN. London:

Smith, Elder & Co. '1834. From the shining heap which lies with so many brilliant attractions before us, we do not hesitate to select, as by far the most worthy of preference, the oriental gem, distinguished as it is by all the reflected splendour of the genius of a Daniell, The number of engravings in this Annual consists of twenty-five, all from the drawings of Mr. Daniell. The latter gentleman, as an illustrator of Indian architecture and scenery, is by no means a stranger to the public, nor will the intelligence be new to them either, that a more faithful graphic historian of the truth never held a pencil. The frontispiece presents us with the beautiful form of a Hindoo maiden under the most interesting circumstances. She is bearing homewards a portion of the consecrated waters of the Ganges, which fill the large vessel usually employed and carried on the head, and which consists of three globular receptacles, placed upon each other, each being smaller than that on which it stands, and the whole forming the figure of a cone with two horizontal indentations, and the apex flattened. The scene, with all the associations to which it gives rise, is highly interesting. “Madras," with the waters in its neighbourhood, under the influence of a monsoon-a variety of temples and mausoleums, exhibiting all the characteristic beauty of Hindoo ecclesiastical architecture-display, in a very striking degree, the power of the artist. In the class of architectural illustrations, we should mention also amongst the most worthy of praise, the Ghauts, or those peculiar institutions to which the Hindoos pay so much attention for the purposes of religious obla. tions. There are, in this volume, several graphic specimens of Mr. Daniell's extraordinary power in the two great kingdoms of nature.the animal and vegetable. He presents us with an assemblage of wild elephants-next, with a beautiful representation of a greedy

vol. III. (1833) NO. III.

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