« AnteriorContinuar »
He has traced them down to the effects cannot be realised in this cold brackish water whither they go ge- climate: with two crops of wheat nerally, though not universally, to per annum the farmer might laugh deposit their spawn, and he has fol- at the repeal of the
Corn Laws. lowed the young in their extraordi- March of the Press in its innary spring journeys up the great fancy.---Paris was the tenth town rivers and into the brooks and ri- in Europe in which a printing press vulets in which they seek out for was established ; it was set up by themselves appropriate haunts. In Ulrich Gering, a native of the can. numbers they are immeasurable- ton of Lucerne, in the house of the the shoals advance up the stream Sorbonne, and in the year 1469. forming a black line along the This Gering had been taught the shore; nor are these journeys con- art by Elias Helie von Lauffen, fined to the water--they cross fields, who introduced it into Switzerland, and climb posts and pales, in order and commenced the operations of to reach the place of their desti- the Lucerne press by publishing nation.
Marchesinis Biblical Lexicon Mamo. Extraordinary species of wheat. trectus sive Primicerius, in the year -Sir R. K. Porter, the British 1470. The first work which issued Consul at Caraccas, has forwarded from Gering's press, at the Sorrecently to this country a' small bonne, was the "Epistolæ Gaspaquantity of the Victoria Wheat, so rini Pergamensis ;" it was also pubmuch praised by that eminent natu- lished in the year 1470.
Gering ralist, Humboldt, for its produc. continued his labours until 1508, tiveness, and wonderful rapidity of and died on the 23rd of August, growth. According to Humboldt, 1510, bequeathing very considerthe produce of this wheat at La able property for the benefit of Victoria, in South America (whence young scholars and the poor of it takes its name,) is from 2160lbs Paris. Strasburgh was the next to-2560lbs. per English acre, which, town which had the advantage of a reckoning the Winchester bushel to
press, and soon afterwards Lyonsweigh 60lbs. would be from four the one in 1741, the other in 1743. quarters and a half to rather more In 1830 there were 233 towns in than five quarters per acre.
France, which had altogether 620" extraordinary as this produce ap- printing-houses; and 259 towns in peared to Humboldt, who compared which 1142 booksellers were estait with the produce of an acre of blished. At that time Paris alone wheat in France, i. e. 800 to 960lbs. had 80 presses—above one-eighth (or two English quarters per acre), of the whole number; and nearly the rapidity of its growth is the one-half of the booksellers, namely, most astonishing point to an Eng- 506, dwelt within its walls. Though lish agriculturist. Supposing it to Lyons claims to rank next, it had retain in this country its South but 12 presses and 24 booksellers. American qualities, an acre of Vic- The average result is, that there is toria wheat, sown on the 15th of one press in France to every 51,327 February, would be ripe on the 1st inhabitants, and one bookseller to of May. Thus, if the produce were every 27,768. The proportions are threshed and sown for a second crop far more indicative of intellectual on the 15th of May, a second crop advancement in three or four conmight be reaped on the 1st August. temporary states, namely, Prussia, We only fear that these wonderful Saxony, Weimar, and Switzerland.
In the first there are 280 printing tures, the bees, finding fresh room, houses, and 693 presses, the majo- . increase their labours. To these rity being in Berlin, Halle, Co- hives are ingeniously adapted ventilogne, and Breslau; and here the lators, for the purpose of securing a proportion is one printing establish- free ventilation and uniform tempement to every 46,213 souls, taking rature to the hive, the necessity of the population of 1830, which was which is indicated by a thermome12,939,877, as the basis of the cal- ter. These ventilators are connectculation. As to Saxony, the pro- ed with a point, which eluded the portion must be infinitely more attention of all other inquirers into striking ; for Leipsic alone employs the natural history of the bee, “ the 120 presses. Weimar, including temperature of the working hive.” the whole territory of the grand Under ordinary circumstances this duchy, possesses 12 printing-houses, point is 80 deg.; the rise of the therwith a population of 230,000 souls ; mometer to 90 deg. indicates the nethe proportion is consequently one cessity of recourse to ventilation. printing-house to every 19,166 in- When the thermometer suddenly habitants. And, lastly, Switzerland, rises to 120 deg. or 130 deg., this the population of which amounts to implies that the hive is full, and in2,000,000, possesses between 145 and dicates the necessity of providing a 150 presses attached to 46 printing fresh receptacle, and which is done establishments, which work scarcely by placing another box on the opmore than two-thirds of the year posite side of the parent hive. In round; here the proportion is one
order to remove the bees back to printing press to every 4,913 souls. their present stock, further recourse
Curfew Toll.--At Chertsey, in must be had to the action of the Surrey, the Curfew bellis . tolled ventilator, by which the internal heat every evening at eight o'clock from of the hive may be reduced to the Michaelmas-day to Lady-day. The external temperature, when the bees clerk first rings up or raises the
recoiling from this cooling point, bell, he then rings it for a few mi
the connection between the two may nutes, when he stops, and after a be closed, and the box removed withshort pause
tolls the number of the out endangering the existence of a days of the month.
single labourer. Management of Bees.-Mr. Nutt, Extinguishing Fires by Steam.who has paid great attention to bees, Experiments, calculated to shew the has laid down a system, the princi- utility of steam in extinguishing fires, pal feature of which is to leave the have been lately exhibited at Glasparent stock untouched. When the gow. In a house 15 feet by 15 and hive is filled with its pure and 10 high, combustible materials were treasured sweets, the contents of put in the four corners and centre, which are to be preserved sacred and set on fire, and allowed to burn for the use of the stock, to obviate till the flames reached a height of the necessity of swarming, which is about 9 or 10 feet; steam was then occasioned by want of space
for admitted into the house, which extinuing the labours of the bees, Mr. tinguished the flames in less than Nutt places fresh receptacles, or col- two minutes, and, on opening the lateral boxes, against the sides of door in a few minutes after, the burnthe hive; and a communication be- : ing was found to be completely exing established by connecting aper- tinguished.
Art. I. - The Duchess of Berri in La Vendée; comprising a Narra
tive of her Adventures, with her Private Papers and Secret Correspondence. By GENERAL DERMONCOURT, who arrested her Royal Highness at Nantes. 1 vol. 8vo. London: Bull and
Churton, 1833. If the relation between the portrait in the front of this volume and the original be considered a fair specimen of the good faith of General Dermoncourt, then we despair of being able to put any confidence in this narrative. The contour, the expression, the symme. trical arrangement of lips, eyes, and curls in this portrait are highly creditable to the general's taste and skill in design; but, even for a Frenchman, it is about the boldest of all the impudent enterprizes which have lately come to our knowledge to attempt to pass this representation of a creature of youthful loveliness and grace upon us for the Duchess of Berri! Her royal highness is, in truth, destitute not merely of the higher qualifications which constitute beauty, but even of the results of that common attention to personal neatness, which is, we may say, universal amongst those in a far more humble class of the community. When much younger than she now is, we remember her, with all the evidences upon her of one who was never destined by nature to shine as a specimen of her art. In short, no person who has ever seen the duchess, can believe that the pretended portrait of her, given in this volume, has any other object than that of ridiculing her by the unfavourable contrast which the reality presents as compared with the imitation. But there may be many reasons to explain the superfluous flattery of this portrait, independently of any motive which might involve the morality of General Dermoncourt, and acting on this impression, we shall proceed, without further inquiry, into the narrative which forms the principal portion of the contents of the present volume.
The history of the Bourbon family is intimately associated with La Vendée. It was, in the worst of times, the rallying point of this family, and its enthusiastic and disinterested devotion, however unworthily appreciated, is, perhaps, on that account, the most de
VOL. III. (1833) NO. III.
serving of admiration. Perhaps a better proof of the truth of this assertion cannot be quoted than the conduct of General Lafayette, at the era of the French revolution of 1830. This experienced politician was not satisfied that the Bourbon influence was eradicated from France, until he inquired into the state of the people's minds in LaVendée; and with the view of tranquillizing that important district of France, the general, then a powerful politician, not only sent agents to La Vendée, but proposed to station amongst its suspected inhabitants a national guard. The circumstances, in which this district was placed at the time, rendered such a project very easy of execution, for it must have found in the heart of La Vendée a powerful body of men, who not only would have supported that scheme, but were ready to lend themselves, in any efficient way, as partizans favourable to the new state of things. The community to which we allude, consisted of a class of recent origin, called the owners of national property, and who formed an intermediate link between the two previous orders into which the Vendean state was divided, namely—the nobles and the farmers. It is to the influence of this rising community, that the French people owe the valuable services which they derive from the patriotic character of the Vendean members, who represent that province in the character of deputies. The liberality of these owners of national property, is referable, -as in almost all cases of what is called, love of country can be traced-to considerations of personal interest: their tenure in fact, consists only with the maintenance of a liberal policy on the part of the state, and it is unnecessary to re ark, that, under such circum. stances, the Vendean landholders are not very backward in declaring against the Bourbons. When, therefore, Lafayette proposed his national guard for La Vendée, he did so under the assurances that the scheme would receive no inconsiderable share of assistance in its execution from these owners. A gentleman named Dumas, who was despatched to the place in question to ascertain the practicability of the intended project, returned, after due investigation, a report to the effect, that not only was a national guard wanted in La Vendée, but that a great deal of the good to be accomplished by it depended on the speed with which it would force a march to its place of destination. Unfortunately, when the report of M. Dumas reached Lafayette, that eminent man was reduced in political influence, and M. Guizot, by the chances of the revolutionary dice-box, became the official person who was authorised to judge upon the propriety of sending a national guard to La Vendée. Guizot is one of the political economists who think that insurrections, whether metropolitan or provincial, can be prevented by the rule of three, or some other of Cocker's arithmetical formulæ; Dumas, a man of the world, knowing the value of such speculative methods in their application to practical life, went at once to the new king, and submitted the matter to the royal judgment. Philippe candidly declared that he looked on the whole affair as a poet, instead of a king,
and that of course he was more disposed, in reference to it, to indulge in a lyric, if necessary, than in the warlike disposition which had been now suggested to him. “Sire,” said the petitioner, with an economy of words truly deserving the praise of being laconic, “Sire, the Latins termed their poets Vates.” By this, Dumas not only admitted the poetical pretensions of his majesty, but likewise sarcastically imputed to the king the office of soothsayer, who unconsciously predicted a misfortune to himself in the threatened revolt and continued disaffection of La Vendée.
Notwithstanding this apparent indifference on the part of the government, yet the spirit which agitated La Vendée would not allow it to be inactive. Measures were taken to suppress political disorders, adverse in their character to the new order of things, and amongst the military agents, appointed, on account of their avowed principles, to proceed to the disturbed district, the present author, General Dermoncourt was by no means the least distinguished. It is only a matter of courtesy, which is due to an entertaining companion, to listen to him during a moment or two whilst he indulges the very pardonable instinct of being garrulous about himself. He tells us, that his appointment to the command of a military sub-division at Nantes, in 1830, took place only after he had served nearly half a century in the French army in the four quarters of the globe. He was a determined Bonapartist, and folded his arms in dignified reserve during the whole interval of the restoration, with the exception of a short period when he joined the conspiracy of Belfort, an enterprise which, he assures us, rendered the continuance of his head on his shoulders, for some time, a matter of very considerable uncertainty. But it proved, when the revolution broke out, that the virtuous general, by acting on this spirit of opposition to the Bourbon dynasty, was only laying up treasures for himself in the paradise, into which Louis Philippe was about to convert the blessed kingdom of the French. At least the government, newly invested with power, readily accepted the proffered services of the general, who was forth with placed in that situation in which it was expected that he would justify the fullest confidence of his employers. A very full and highly instructive account follows of the geographical peculiarities of La Vendée, from which it would appear that the nature of the country was altogether the cause which has modified the singular warfare of the inhabitants. In the first place, the agricultural arrangements of the district are particularly adapted to a system of ambuscade and every other form of sudden and concealed attack. The cross-roads are bordered on each side by wide and deep ditches, clusters of trees, and bushes; every man's farm is surrounded by a thick hedge, except at a certain point where an opening is made, which is temporarily closed by a wicket, and through it a communication is kept up constantly with the neighbouring estates. These confidential openings are intimately known to the inhabitants of the country, who, in case of being pursued at any