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Besides, the gospels of Matthew and opinions, it is impossible that disJohn are probably spurious. What crepancies should not occur in their Jesus of Nazareth really taught can evidence, as to the existing state of now no more be known with cer- the country, and as to the causes tainty; but it is unquestionable, that which have produced it; but the his originally simple doctrine has been great majority of them concur in greatly corrupted by Paul, who en- representing the agricultural disgrafted upon it the important articles tricts of this country, with a few of original sin and redemption, which favoured exceptions, to be, in he had borrowed from his own fearful state of depression. All the Jewish theology; and these came practical farmers and land agents afterwards to be regarded as Chris- examined have been acquainted with tian doctrines, although nothing can the property in their own, and the be more contrary to tħe understand- adjoining counties, for a series of ing."
years, and are enabled to speak deThese opinions were first broach- cidedly respecting the comparative ed in 1770 by Sember, and have condition of the land, the tenantry, been the subject of great controver- and the labourers during the last sies throughout Germany ever since. ten, twenty, and in some instances But the followers of the true faith thirty and forty years. The result were not slow in their movements, of their careful observation is, that and they maintained a determined during the last ten years especially, scientific resistance to the innova- the tenants have become gradually tion. It was in the field of history more and more distresscd, their live and criticism that the latter, how- and dead stocks have been reduced ever, at first failed, but at present lower and lower, their capital bas there is every reason to believe that been diminishing, and the land has even in that they will come off' victo- been so rapidly deteriorating, that rious. The present work, which is soils of inferior description have a wonderful specimen of profound been taken out of cultivation alresearch and rare learning, may be together. In the course of this intaken as a sample of what may be vestigation into the condition of the expected from the firm supporters land, and of the farmers, the Comof the true doctrines of Christianity. mittee have never lost sight of the
condition of the agricultural la. ART.XIV...Report of the Select Com- bourers, on which subjects the witmittee appointed on the 2d May, evidence exhibits a curious anomaly
were unanimous, and their 1833, to Inquire into the present State of Agriculture in the United between the condition of the em. Kingdom. Printed by Order of ployed and their employers. It apthe House of Commons, 1833.
pears that in all parts of the country
- in the most distressed as well as Tuus Report, with the Minutes of in the more prosperous—the condiEvidence, is a large folio volume of tion of the labourers is, in no infive hundred and fifty pages, and it stance, worse than it was five or ten gives some of the most important years ago, and that, in most cases, information bitherto collected on their condition is greatly improved. the present state of agricultural in- The wages of the labourers, the terest.
witnesses state, have not been reAmong witnesses coming from all duced in proportion to the reducparts of the kingdom, biassed by tion in price of the necessaries of different feelings and preconceived life, and in many parts of the coun
try no reduction whatever in their latter country has exported of late money wages has taken place since about 600,000 quarters annually to the war.
This state of things is the England. Neither Mr. Jacobs nor more extraordinary, as the super- Mr. Hodgson gave a positive opi. abundance of labourers is represent- nion on the question whether the ed to be greater than ever, and the average produce of this country is numbers out of employ, who are diminished, though they infer, from provided for from the poors' rates, the amount of imports, that there are very considerably increased. has not been any material falling off
There are two points respecting the in the quantity of wheat grown in condition of the agricultural tenantry, England. Mr. Adam Murray, how. on which nearly all the practical ever, a practical farmer, states most witnesses are agreed—that their positively, from actual observation, capital is greatly diminished, and that within the last twenty years, their stocks reduced—and these produce has been very considerably facts, deduced from individual ex- reduced-he estimates the reduction amination of the state of the farmers
at one-third ; that the quality of in each county separately, are strik- the land has been greatly deterioingly confirmed by the statements rated; and that the farmers on cold of Mr. Jacobs and Mr. Hodgson, clay lands are enabled to pay their drawn from the aggregate producerents only by hard cropping and by of the kingdom. The former gentle- drawing from their capitals. man states that his official and pri- With respect to Scotland, the vate inquiries have enabled him to evidence is very defective, only one ascertain, that, since the
year 1827, or two witnesses having been exthe stock of corn in hand at the amined who were acquainted with time of harvest has not exceeded a the state of agriculture in that counmonth's consumption, instead of try. The little evidence that is four, five, and six months' consump- afforded is, however, on the whole, tion, as formerly; and he mentions of a favourable character, both as the alarming fact that if we were regards the condition of the land now to have so bad a harvest as that and of the tenantry. There were of 1816, the deficiency could not be five witnesses examined with a view supplied from all the world. The to ascertain the state of agriculture evidence of Mr. Hodgson, one of in Ireland, and we are happy to obthe partners in the firm of Messrs. serve that the substance of their Cropper, Benson, and Co., corn- evidence was satisfactory. The merchants of Liverpool, is still more condition of the labourers and of the decisive respecting the diminution cottiers is represented as not corof the stocks in hand, as his conclu- responding with the improving state sions are drawn from actual exami- of the country, and whilst in Engnation throughout most of the agri- land the agricultural labourer, who cultural districts in England. It can obtain employment, has inappears from the evidence of Mr. creased his comforts in an inverse Hodgson and of Mr. Jacobs that ratio to the distress of his employer, the average annual consumption of the condition of the Irish labourer wheat in England is about 12,000,000 seems to have retrograded with the quarters, of which quantity about progress of cultivation. It must be nine-tenths are the produce of home admitted, however, that the evicultivation, and that the remainder dence respecting Ireland as well as is supplied by importation from Scotland is contradictory, and abroad and from Ireland, which sufficient to enable us to draw any
od is not
just conclusion as to the real con- respectable ; and we should think dition of agriculture in that country, has enabled the bard by this time
to defy the malignity of critics. Art. XV.
Sharpe's Peerage of the British Empire, exhibiting its Art. XVII.-L'Echo de Paris: A present State, and deducing the Selection of Familiar Phrases, existing Descents from the Ancient which a Pupil would daily hear Nobility of England, Scotland, said around him if he were living and Ireland. In 2 Vols. London: among I'rench People. By M. A. Sharpe. 1833.
P. LEPAGE. London: Wilson. This is an admirably correct peerage,
1833. and is particularly clear in the ac- The author has here, as he professes count of the genealogies. Its pecu- in the title-page, congregated togeliar excellencies, above others, con- ther such French phrases as are emsist of the neatness of the volumes; ployed in practical life, and such the quality of the paper and print- therefore as it may be most useful ing; but, above all, the ingenious for a foreigner to be acquainted with. arrangement of different sizes of He gives the whole in French, leavletters, whereby the reader is saved ing it to the master to make the a great deal of time when he has to translation, and to impress it in such make a reference to his
a manner on his pupil as that the some particular fact. The heraldic latter may be able to repeat it. The engravings are beautifully and care- sentences are all very short and colfully wrought. In the accounts of loquial, and any one who is able to the older families, several historical remember the translation of them anecdotes are found which have the must be regarded as an excellent recommendation of being selected French scholar. There is no gramwith the greatest possible care and matical instructions in this work: it judgment.
is purely a collection of the most
common French phrases of business Art. XVI.— The Last of the Lays
and conversation. of the Last of the Three Dibdins : containing New Songs, Poems, Art. XVIII.-The Nature of the &c., and One Hundred and Fifty Proof of the Christian Religion : Selections from his published and with a Statement of the particular unpublished Productions. By T. Evidence for it, designed for the DIBDIN, Dramatic Author. 1 Vol. Use of the more educated Classes London. Harding and King. of Inquirers into Religious Truth. 1833.
By D. B. BAKER, A.M. of St.
John's, Cambridge. London : This is a merry assemblage of lyrical effusions which will repay amply
Rivingtons. 1832. the trouble of a perusal by those This work may be regarded as a with whom a wish to please and a summary of the fine and invincible good-humoured spirit are likely to reasonings adduced by Butler in his prevail
. Dibdin the younger, though masterly “ Analogy," which is so not the heir of the full blown genius well known. They will be found of his predecessors, yet preserves so to be excellently well digested, and striking a resemblance to them, as to receive no small degree of value, to deserve encouragement. His list not only from the labour of the of subscribers is both numerous and author, but also from the peculiar circumstances under which he com- the same apprehensions which once posed the work, for, he states, that so much disturbed himself; and he at a time when, from various cir- thinks that he perceives even an incumstances, after a considerable por-creasing degree of such misconception of his life spent in other and tions amongst the thoughtful and very engrossing pursuits, he became studious of the present day. He desirous to ascertain, for himself, every day meets with men, not only the merits of that religious profes- willing, but anxious to be convinced sion which he had been taught in on these, if true, confessedly imchildhood to believe, implicitly-he portant subjects, yet unable to throw candidly avows, that he found the off the incubus which oppresses them, subject involved in so much seeming in the apparent insufficiency of the embarrassment, that he several times proof usually adduced as the proper altogether abandoned it. The books grounds for their assent to Revelarecommended to convince him, fail. tion. ed to produce any satisfactory con- For the aid of such really sincere viction on his mind; and for this inquirers, he has arranged the folapparent reason, because, though lowing considerations; which will, there did seem to him to exist a con- if he mistakes not, (perused with siderable body of historic evidence, that attention which the peculiarity and other proof, there yet appeared of the case requires), as abundantly to lie so many objections to, and so remove from their minds, as they many imperfections in, that proof, did from his, their remaining diffithat he thought, until the question culties, and free them from that could be cleared of these, it was a most displeasing of all situations, hopeless case for him to be called which makes us to differ, and that to believe.”
not lightly, but conscientiously and Since, however, he has, notwith- unavoidably, from many around us, standing all such then apparently in- with whom we heartily wish we could surmountable difficulties, now ar- agree, as well as from the conclurived at a permanent and increasing sions of such multitudes of the wisest conviction, that Christianity is a mat- and the best in every age. ter which he may safely credit and We strongly recommend this as a act on, he is daily pained at witness- work of considerable value. ing, in nunerous others, precisely
Promise Faithfully Kept.-The attained three-score years and ten, Jast Earl of Huntingdon but one, the livings fell to him, and as he was made a promise in early life to a a widower, Betsy Warner, such was young domestic in his uncle's house the name of the person to whom he that he would marry her when he was pledged, suddenly appeared in obtained the family livings of Great a chaise and four at the parsonageand Little Blake, he being then a gate, and demanded the fulfilment clergyman. It happened that he of the pledge. The Earl readily adhad the opportunity meantime of mitted it ; and they were married. marrying twice: at length, when he Stillon Cheese. This delicious cheese may be made by the follow- count of the place. He was a meming simple process :- To the new ber of Cambridge (Clare Hall) and milk of the cheese-making morning Oxford Universities, and of the add the cream from that of the
Inner Temple. His residence in ceding evening, together with the London was at the sign of the Red rennet, watching the full separation Rose, in Palace-yard, Westminster, of the curd, which must be removed on the site where Henry VIl.'s chapel from the whey without breaking,
now stands. and placed into a sieve, until of such Indian Rubber. - This article, consistence as to bear being lifted which, within the
many up and placed in a hoop that will persons, was scarcely used for any receive it without much pressure.
than to remove pencil The cheese, as it dries, will shrink marks from paper, is now applied to up, and must, therefore, be placed so many other objects that its confrom time to time in a tighter hoop, sumption is greatly on the increase. and curned daily, until it acquires By the official returns it appears the proper degree of consistence for that in the year ending the 5th of use or keeping.
April, 1832, the quantity imported Residence of Chaucer:--Chaucer was 29,958 lbs., while for the same resided at Blenheim, where he com- period in the present year it had piled his “Treatise on the Astro- increased to 178,576 lbs. labe,” for the use of his younger
Capt. Back's Expedition. The son, Lewis, then only ten years of latest accounts of Capt. Back and age. He afterwards lived at Don- his party are from Fort Alexander, nington Castle, of which nothing at at the eastern extremity of Lake present is to be seen but a battered Ouinipique, where he was seen, all gateway with two towers and some well, July 17 (query?), by Mr. Geo. part of the shattered walls. The Simpson, the governor of the Hudson grounds about it and the ruins are Bay Company's territories. Capt. choked with bramble and overrun Back was furnished with the neceswith ivy. It lies half a mile to the sary recommendations to procure right of Spinbamland, the ancient him every aid from the company's Spina of Antoninus, a mile beyond settlements, and, indeed, as was Newberry, Berks, on the same side. stated at the London meetings, they As you go from London, you pass
bad been forewarned to prepare for over the river Kennett to the village his visit : so that there is little fear of Donnington, from wbich there is of his reaching the coast, by the line a pretty steep but pleasant ascent of the Great Slave Lake, &c., and through a lane, to a bill under the being able to return to inland winter castle, where stands a seat formerly quarters before the closing of the belonging to the Countess of Sand- navigation. wich : from hence arises the Castle Generation of the Eel. This hill, very steep, and not unlike that vexata quæstio, which has occupied whereon the observatory stands at the attention of naturalists from Greenwich ; from this hill there is Aristotle downwards, has been at a very
fine prospect of several coun- last set at rest by Mr. Yarrel, who ties. The castle itself stands in a has proved, by examinations and displeasant park, in which there was a sections carried on through eighteen famous oak, called Chaucer's Oak, months, upon specimens of eels prounder which, tradition says, he wrote cured from different parts of the several poems. He lived here two
country, that it is oviparous-hayor three years. Evelyn gives an ac- ing melt and roe like other fishes. :