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Early Typography,

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CHAPTER V.

THE WORKS OF FAUST AND SCHEFFER. LEGEND OF

THE PRINTER'S DEVIL.-MONUMENTS IN GERMANY TO GUTENBERG, FAUST AND SCHEFFER.-SEPARABLE LETTERS FIRST INVENTED IN CHINA. — CHARACTERISTICS OF ANCIENT PRINTED Books. — THE “COMPOSINGSTICK” AND “SETTING-RULE.”—EARLY BINDINGS.

The first book published by Faust and Scheffer, after their separation from Gutenberg, was a beautiful folio edition of the Psalter, finished on the 14th August, 1457. This is the celebrated work, so often alluded to, the first to which the name of the printer was affixed, as well as that of the place where, and the date when, it was printed. It is from this circumstance that the origin of the Art of Typography has been by certain early writers attributed to Faust rather than to Gutenberg. The fine large Gothic type with which the book is printed, (22 lines to a foot,) is exactly double the size of that cut for the Mazarin' Bible. The initial capital letters, of which there are in all 288, are from four to six lines in depth, printed in red and blue, with ornamental flower - work and figures cut in the body of the letter, and bordered with scroll - work running into the margins. In the case of the commencing initial, the letter B, this scroll - work extends from the top to the bottom of the page.

The capitals commencing each sentence in the body of the work, are also in red ink, as well as whole lines interspersed here and there. The music is on

a staff of four lines instead of five, the notes square-headed and diamondshaped, the words beneath being in roman characters. These portions of the work are engraved on solid blocks. At the end of the Psalter is inserted the Faust and Scheffer badge, which thenceforth appeared in all

their works.* This consisted of two shields (on which were their coats of arms) suspended from the branch of a tree. Beneath this was the following imprint or colophon :

"Presens spalmorum codex venustate capitalium decoratus Rubricationibus que sufficienter distinctus, Adinventione artificiosa imprimendi et caracterizandi absque calami ulla exaratione sic effigiatus. Et ad eusebiam Dei industrie est consummatus † Per Johannem Fust Civem moguntinum Et

• "The early printers generally marked their publications by some monogram or cipher peculiar to themselves, and containing their initials, their arms, or some curious device. These are all well known to the initiated bibliopole, and their presence on a title-page is received as evidence of the genuineness of a scarce copy. The oldest of them is that of Faust and Schäffer, annexed to their first Psalter, and consisting of two shields tied together and hanging from a branch. Raphelengius, of Leyden, adopted the anchor; Sporinus of Basle, chose the arion; Jansen of Amsterdam, the sphere; the Elzevirs exhibited the olive tree, and the celebrated Aldus had for a device, the anchor and dolphin."(“ History of Printing," published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge). Gotfridus de Os, of Gouda, had for his device an elephant and castle, combined with the arms of the city.

+ In the colophon to the second edition of this Psalter, printed in 1459, the word 'spalmorum' is corrected to 'psalmorum,' and instead of the words "ad eusebiam Dei Petrum Schöffer de Gernszheim. Anno domini Millesimo CCCCLVII. In vigilia Assumpcionis.”

The declaration contained in this colophon seems incompatible with the truth, as well as with the admissions of Schäffer himself, on other occasions, unless it be understood as applying to the exquisite initial letters, these being printed wholly in colours, instead of being sketched in by the hand of the rubricator or coloured by illuminators. These very letters however, it is believed by some, including Mr. Humphreys, (see p. 86 of his work,) were the work of Gutenberg; and M. Fischer in his interesting essay* has shewn, that in several small workst which issued

industrie est consummatus" etc., the following occur:-—"ad laudem Dei ac honorem sancti Jacobi est consummatus per Johannem Fust, civem moguntinem et Petrum Schoiffer de Gernszheim clericum. Anno Domini millesimo CCCCLIX, xxix die mensis Augusti."

* “Essai sur les Monumens Typographiques de Jean Gutenberg, à Mayence, l'an X." [1801.]

† Among the works referred to was a Donatus. Mr. HUMPHREYS, remarking upon these letters, says:-“If these from Gutenberg's press before the forfeiture of his plant to Faust, the identical

, letters (the smaller initials) used in the Psalter, as well as some of those printed in two colours, and of which he has given facsimiles, appear. But if, as there is abundant reason to believe was the case, Schäffer was engaged as an assistant at the Zum Jungen at, or soon after the year 1450, when Gutenberg first obtained advances from Faust, these capitals, the beauty of which is undisputed, may have been, and most probably were, designed by him for the projected

initials, of which M. Fischer gives admirable fac-similes, were really executed under the direction of Gutenberg, they must of necessity greatly enhance the wonder and admiration felt for the author of the marvellously perfect workmanship of the first Bible; and also detract, to an equal extent, froin the repute long held by Schoiffher as the Printer of the famous Psalter, with its fine coloured initials vaunted as the work of the press alone, and not produced by the illuminator's pencil; for if M. Fischer be correct in attributing the work in question to Gutenberg, then the credit of the initials printed in colours in the Psalter must also be given to Gutenberg, as all the lesser initials in that noble specimen

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